QSAR Inquiries, LLCImmediate assessment method, The student centered classroom,eLearning mechanisms- Dr. Robert D.Craig, Ph.DThe use of cooperative learning and technology in scienceeducationTraditionally, education in science course like chemistry, physics and biology(computer science) Maintains a student-centered and task-based approaches tolearning.
In the early 1900’s, The teachers primary activity was assigning andlistening to these recitations; students studied at home. A test might begiven at the end of a unit, and the process, which was called"assignment-study-recitation-test", was repeated. In addition to itsoveremphasis on verbal answers, reliance on rote memorization(memorization with no effort at understanding the meaning), anddisconnected, unrelated assignments, it was also an extremelyinefficient use of students and teachers time. It also insisted that allstudents be taught the same materials at the same point; students thatdid not learn quickly enough failed, rather than being allowed tosucceed at their natural speedsthis background section of the company begins with what traditional scienceeducation was. It touches on four (4) cases of typical students in haveencountered in science course I have instructed in the past 4 yearsThe background will also mention what this company plans to do with the use ofcooperative science and technology in education as opposed to student-centeredand task-based approaches to learning.The traditional teacher-centered methods focused on rote learning andmemorization must be abandoned in favor of student-centered and task-basedapproaches to learning. However, many parents and conservative citizens areconcerned with the maintenance of objective educationalstandards based on testing, which favors a more traditionalapproach. What exactly does a test measure? And , it thismeasurement an accurate picture of a student’s performanceor mastery in a particular subject area . Fact-based science: Science class is an With Inquiry-based Science a student might beScience opportunity to transmit concrete knowledge and asked to devise an experiment to demonstrate specific vocabulary from the teacher (or that the earth orbits the sun. The emphasis
textbook) to the students. Students focus on changes from memorizing information that memorizing what they are told. "Experiments" was learned through a scientific method to follow cookbook-style procedures to produce the actually using the scientific method of expected results. discovery.Traditional education, also known as back-to-basics, conventional education or customary education,refers to long-established customs found in schools that society has traditionally deemed appropriate. Topic Traditional approach Alternate approaches Teacher-centred instruction: Student-centred instruction:Person • Educational essentialism • Educational progressivism • Educational perennialism Students matched by age, and possibly Students dynamically grouped by interest or ability also by ability. All students in a for each project or subject, with the possibility ofClassroom classroom are taught the same different groups each hour of the day. Multi-age material. classrooms or open classrooms. Traditional education emphasizes: Progressive education emphasizes:Teaching • Direct instruction and lectures • Hands-on activitiesmethods • Seatwork • Student-led discovery • Students learn through • Group activities listening and observation Instruction based on textbooks, Project-based instruction using any availableMaterials lectures, and individual written resource including Internet, library and outside assignments experts
In a study of “shared knowledge and team performance” these questions wereaddressed: 1. How effectively did they communicate? 2. How effectively did they resolve conflicts? 3. How effectively did they solve problemsWhat is knowledge of procedure?It is procedural knowledge, or knowledge how to do something. Theclaims to know how to juggle and how to drive are claims to haveprocedural knowledgeTo access knowledge of procedure, individuals where asked to writedown any procedures that they used to complete the taskOf course, It is possible to know all of the theory behind driving a car(i.e. to have all of the relevant propositional knowledge) without actuallyknowing how to drive a car (i.e. without having the proceduralknowledge).What is cooperative learning?The acronym PIES may be used to denote the key elements of positiveinterdependence, individual accountability, equal participation, andsimultaneous interaction. Kagan (2003) hasWhy Use Cooperative Learning?
Here are some of the most recent views into cooperative learning in science educationResearch has shown that students who work in cooperative groups dobetter on tests, especially with regard to reasoning and critical thinkingskills than those that do not (Johnson and Johnson, 1989).Next , I would like to provide an example of what students I haveencountered, recently
What is college population in Bronx like?I would like to describe 4 students. They have been given letters so asnot to use names • Student A • Student B • Student C • Student DStudent a Student a is lively, bubbly, and a pleasure to have in your class. Often, she struggles with advanced chemistry classes. She comes from a nice family, and like most 23 year olds, works part time “capital one” and has many friends. When I tried to get Student b, a scholarship, her grades were not high enough. At a result • She did not belong to any science clubs. She also had inadequate grades to enter, or obtain any science awards. • She also never presented any poster presentations, or done any biology or chemistry research projects outside of her classwork • She was denied basic scholarships because of this
Student b • Student b is a bilingual student who is very bright. I had the pleasure of seeing her obtain her Asscociate degree and move on to a four year school. She has a high grade point index. She has Many friends, and she also works part-time at a pharmacy. She often wishes she did not have to work. She has aspirations to become a social worker. But has no mechanism to do so.Student c Has disability services as do the over 30 percent of studentsat Hostos community college have Needs additional time to take tests.However,, is very popular on campus and Belongs to many clubs Healso belongs to Services for Students with Disabilities (SSWD) . This is anoffice created under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and New YorkState and New York City statutes. The college has created an office,Services for Students with Disabilities (SSWD), that provides services tohelp each student with a disability maximize his or her potential forsuccess. Based on an intake interview and documentation provided bya student, and student such as student c, may be found eligible for avariety of accommodations may be provided to help qualified studentsattain their academic objectives.
There are other services also provided to students with disabilities(ie: autism, and job placement services)high cases of asthmaStudents with disability services: at a college like Hostos. 30% of thepopulation are designated for disability services. Also, historically,much to the bronx and Harlem area is plaqued with high cases ofasthma (get grant write up)Asthma in Bronx County is nearly a epidemic. The Bronx County hassome of the highest rates of asthma in the United States. Rates ofdeath from asthma in the Bronx are about three times higher than thenational average. Hospitalization rates are about five times higher. Insome neighborhoods in the Bronx it is estimated that 20% of thechildren have asthma.3 Within New York City the disparity in asthmahospitalization rates is very pronounced. According to a study,hospitalization rates for asthma in Bronx County and East Harlem are21 times higher than those of affluent parts of the city.It is rather diificult to focus academically when suffering from asthmaticsymtomps
Student D is approximately 30 years old and about to obtain anassociates degree. She works full time. She also suffers fromasthma. She misses school because of this:Students with asthma are also advised to: • Carry an Asthma Attack Card with you at all times. • Register with the college health centre, let them know you have asthma and ask who can be contacted in case of an emergency. • Ensure you take your preventer routinely and carry your reliever inhaler at all times. • If living on campus, ensure your roommates are aware of your condition and ensure that the accommodation is non-smoking. • .Normally, a college and it students, have populations which arerepresentative of the neighborhood in which it resides. What does thishave to do with programming and assessment? At the college of statenIsland, CUNY, there is vast over crowding, and not enough instructorshired to teach at these colleges. When there is over crouding occurs: • • (1)There is a drop in the attention given by students to a particular classroom lecturer. • (2) There are also not enough classes offered –appropriate one’s which delay the graduation of many students
• (3)There are report “huge gaps” is many student programs due to the lack of appropriate classes offered.• Students like student A and Student B, cannot fully enjoy a college experience. There are a great many distractions in a urban setting. The use of clubs, like the chemistry club, or bio club is beneficial. Earth day events are also great for providing a college environment for students who work part time
• Enhanced teaching methods:• 1. If the instructor and students have an immediate assessment method, an immediate response to a given topic and its understanding may be addressed. College of Staten Island, and Hostos community collges are commuter colleges. Meaning, unlike Adelphi university and private 4 years schools, students do not dorm on campus• 2. The student centered classroom as opposed to traditional methods. Mechanisms needed to target students who need additional help• 3. eLearning mechanisms in the lecture portions and labs of science curriculum. A greater focus of procedure of problem solving, were appropriate• 4. Classroom clickers or "student response systems" have become high-demand classroom tools in schools, universities, and training programs across the country
• 5. Working with student counselors and faculty development development office to assist and scaffold learning in difficult course areas.