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  1. 1. www.sti-innsbruck.at© Copyright 2008 STI INNSBRUCK www.sti-innsbruck.at How to Domesticate the Multi-Channel Communication Monster* Carmen Brenner, Anna Fensel, Dieter Fensel, Andreea Gagiu, Iker Larizgoitia, Birgit Leiter, Ioannis Stavrakantonakis, and Andreas Thalhammer STI Innsbruck, University of Innsbruck *short
  2. 2. www.sti-innsbruck.at The Crazy Hotelier 2 HOTEL RECEPTION The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels:
  3. 3. www.sti-innsbruck.at The Crazy Hotelier 3 HOTEL RECEPTION - walk-in customerThe Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels:
  4. 4. www.sti-innsbruck.at The Crazy Hotelier 4 HOTEL RECEPTION - walk-in customer - telephone The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels:
  5. 5. www.sti-innsbruck.at The Crazy Hotelier 5 HOTEL RECEPTION - walk-in customer - telephone - email The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels:
  6. 6. www.sti-innsbruck.at The Crazy Hotelier 6 HOTEL RECEPTION - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels:
  7. 7. www.sti-innsbruck.at The Crazy Hotelier 7 HOTEL RECEPTION - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels:
  8. 8. www.sti-innsbruck.at The Crazy Hotelier 8 HOTEL RECEPTION - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website - review sites The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels:
  9. 9. www.sti-innsbruck.at The Crazy Hotelier 9 HOTEL RECEPTION - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website - review sites - booking sites The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels:
  10. 10. www.sti-innsbruck.at The Crazy Hotelier 10 HOTEL RECEPTION - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website - review sites - booking sites - social network sites The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels:
  11. 11. www.sti-innsbruck.at The Crazy Hotelier 11 HOTEL RECEPTION - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website - review sites - booking sites - social network sites - blogs The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels:
  12. 12. www.sti-innsbruck.at The Crazy Hotelier 12 HOTEL RECEPTION - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website - review sites - booking sites - social network sites - blogs - fora & destination sites The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels:
  13. 13. www.sti-innsbruck.at The Crazy Hotelier 13 HOTEL RECEPTION - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website - review sites - booking sites - social network sites - blogs - fora & destination sites - chat The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels:
  14. 14. www.sti-innsbruck.at The Crazy Hotelier 14 HOTEL RECEPTION - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website - review sites - booking sites - social network sites - blogs - fora & destination sites - chat - video & photo sharing The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels:
  15. 15. www.sti-innsbruck.at The Crazy Hotelier 15 HOTEL RECEPTION The Hotelier doesn’t only have to deal with an overwhelming number of communication channels, but also has to pay up to 15% sales commissions to the booking sites!
  16. 16. www.sti-innsbruck.at The Crazy Hotelier 16 HOTEL RECEPTION -> 40 million overnight stays -> 3 billion € transaction volume -> 70 million € sales commission
  17. 17. www.sti-innsbruck.at (Mulpuru, Harteveldt, & Roberge, 2011) Call this “the growth of the multichannel monster” 17
  18. 18. www.sti-innsbruck.at Content 1. Multi-channel Dissemination 2. Social Media Monitoring 3. Semantic Communication Engine Innsbruck 4. Seekda Social Agent 5. Summary 18
  19. 19. www.sti-innsbruck.at MULTI-CHANNEL DISSEMINATION 19
  20. 20. www.sti-innsbruck.at Dissemination Dissemination refers to the process of broadcasting a message to the public. Classification of channels: – Static Broadcasting – Dynamic Broadcasting – Sharing – Collaboration – Social Networks – Internet Forum and Discussion Boards – On-line Group Communication –Semantic-based Communication Image taken from: http://www.softicons.com/free-icons/application-icons/or-applications-icons-by-iconleak/file-cabinet-icon 20
  21. 21. www.sti-innsbruck.at Static Broadcasting • Prehistoric methods of dissemination: cave drawings, stories of triumphs on columns and arches, history on pyramids, stones with messages • More modern means: printed press, newspapers, journals • Online static dissemination: homepage …. And various web sites 21
  22. 22. www.sti-innsbruck.at Static Broadcasting 22 Homepage Example Static Website Example The same hotel mentioned on Wikitravel’s entry for Innsbruck
  23. 23. www.sti-innsbruck.at Static Broadcasting 23 Static Website Example Entry in Wikipedia for Hotel Goldener Adler
  24. 24. www.sti-innsbruck.at Dynamic Communication Small piece of content that is dependent on constraints such as time or location. Examples of tools (organized considering first the length of message and second – the level of interactivity) • News Feeds (f.e., RSS) • Newsletters • Email / Email lists • Microblogs (twitter, tumblr, …) • Blogs • Social networks • Chat and instant messaging applications (skype, messenger, …) 24
  25. 25. www.sti-innsbruck.at Sharing • There are a large number of Web 2.0 websites that support the sharing of information items such as: bookmarks, images, slides, and videos, etc. • Can use specialized applications (see below) of features of other platforms and services (e.g. share photos through Facebook) • Examples: – Flickr, Pinterest – means of exchanging photos, visible to all users (no account necessary), allows users to post comments; – Slideshare – channel for storing and exchanging presentations; – YouTube and VideoLectures – sharing videos, all users can see the posted videos and leave comments on the websites – Social Bookmark sites: e.g. delicious, digg, StumbleUpon – Social News websites: e.g. reddit 25
  26. 26. www.sti-innsbruck.at Dissemination through Collaboration Wiki • “Wiki” = Hawaiian word for “fast” of “quick”. • Described by the developer of the first wiki software, Ward Cunningham, as the “simplest online database that could possibly work”*. • Websites whose users can add, modify or delete content via a web browser using simplified markup language or a rich-text editor. • Most of the content is created collaboratively. • Promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making link creation intuitively easy and showing whether an intended page exists or not. • Often used for internal collaboration, however, when public also an indirect means for dissemination. *http://www.wiki.org/wiki.cgi?WhatIsWiki 26
  27. 27. www.sti-innsbruck.at Social Networks • Provide a community aspect, i.e. forms a community that shares information in a multi-directional way • Common features (regardless of platform): – construct a public/semi-public profile; – articulate list of other users that they share a connection with; – view the list of connections within the system • Some sites allow users to upload pictures, add multimedia content or modify the look and feel of the profile • Social networks typically offer more than one channel of dissemination (thus they will be considered platforms with many available dissemination channels): – Facebook: Pages, Groups, Share options – LinkedIn and Xing are focused on professional use and fit the purpose of organizations 27
  28. 28. www.sti-innsbruck.at Internet Forums and Discussion Boards • Web applications managing user-generated content • Early forums can be described as a web version of an email list or newsgroup • Internet forums are prevalent in several countries: Japan, China • Are governed by a set of rules • Users have a specific designated role, e.g. moderator, administrator • Common features – Tripcodes and capcodes - a secret password is added to the user's name following a separator character – Private message – Attachment – BBCode and HTML – Emoticon or smiley to convey emotion – RSS and ATOM feeds 28
  29. 29. www.sti-innsbruck.at Group Communication • Many-to-many • Threaded conversations • Usually created on a particular topic • Have different access levels • Better for disseminating within a group that shares common interests as the purpose of the services is to enable collaboration, information sharing and discussions • Exampled: Google Groups, Facebook Groups, Yahoo! Groups, LinkedIn Groups, Xing Groups. • Similar in many ways to Discussion boards and Internet Forums 29
  30. 30. www.sti-innsbruck.at Semantic Based Dissemination Rich Snippets • Snippets—the few lines of text that appear under every search result—are designed to give users a sense for what’s on the page and why it’s relevant to their query. • If Google understands the content on your pages, it can create rich snippets— detailed information intended to help users with specific queries. 30
  31. 31. www.sti-innsbruck.at The three dimensions 31 Format e.g. RDFa Implementation e.g. OWLIM Vocabulary e.g. foaf HTML Meta Element s 1999 RDFs 1998 RDF 2004 RDFa 2005 Microformats 2007 OWL 2008 SPARQL 2009 OWL 2 2010 RIF 2011 Microdata ... and a lot more
  32. 32. www.sti-innsbruck.at Overview of Channels 32
  33. 33. www.sti-innsbruck.at SOCIAL MEDIA MONITORING 33
  34. 34. www.sti-innsbruck.at What is Social Media Monitoring? Definition* Social Media Monitoring is the continuous systematic observation and analysis of social media networks and social communities. It supports a quick overview and insight into topics and opinions on the social web. *http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Media#Monitoring 34
  35. 35. www.sti-innsbruck.at Social Media Monitoring • Social Media Monitoring tools facilitate the listening of what people say about various topics in the social media sphere (blogs, twitter, Facebook, etc.) Listening: is active, focused, concentrated attention for the purpose of understanding the meanings expressed by a speaker. 35
  36. 36. www.sti-innsbruck.at Social Media Monitoring Channels to analyze The Conversation SOCIAL NETWORKS WIKIS PHOTO SHARING BLOGS MAINSTREAM MEDIA MICROBLOGS FORUMS/NEWSGROUPS VIDEO SHARING SOCIAL MEDIA NEWS AGGREGATORS 36
  37. 37. www.sti-innsbruck.at Channels to analyze Social networks, e.g.: • Facebook (Q1 2012): – 526 million daily active users – 3.2 billion Likes and Comments per day – 500K comments per minute – 700K status updates per minute – 80K wall posts per minute 37 • Twitter: – 200 million Tweets per day (2011) – 200K Tweets per minute • LinkedIn: 147 million users • Google+: 170 million users
  38. 38. www.sti-innsbruck.at Channels to analyze Sharing networks, e.g.: • YouTube: – 4 billion videos are viewed a day – 100 million people take a social action on YouTube every week (likes, shares, comments, etc) • Flickr: >6.500 new photos per minute • Pinterest: – 13 million users – American users spend an average of 97.8 minutes 38
  39. 39. www.sti-innsbruck.at Channels to analyze News feeds • Total Feeds*: 694,311 • Atom Feeds*: 86,496 • RSS feeds*: 438,102 (63% of the total) *source: http://www.syndic8.com 39 Blogs: • >95 million blogs available online • 22K posts per minute • Tumblr (Q2 2012): – 55.9 Million blogs – 23.3 Billion posts – 20K posts per minute • WordPress (Q2 2012) – 73.724.911 WordPress sites
  40. 40. www.sti-innsbruck.at Channels to analyze Traditional mediums: • TV: – 365 TV channels licensed in Germany • Radio: – 822 Radio stations in Germany • Print mediums (newspapers, magazines) – 382 Daily newspapers in Germany – 4180 Weekly magazines in Germany 40
  41. 41. www.sti-innsbruck.at Social Media Monitoring 41
  42. 42. www.sti-innsbruck.at SEMANTIC COMMUNICATION ENGINE INNSBRUCK (SCEI *SKY) 42
  43. 43. www.sti-innsbruck.at Reference architecture • SCEI is a reference architecture. • A reference software architecture is a software architecture where the structures and respective elements and relations provide templates for concrete architectures in a particular domain. • A reference architecture consists of a list of functions and some indication of their interfaces (or APIs) and interactions with each other and with functions located outside of the scope of the reference architecture. • SCEI provides a semantic engagement engine applicable to various domains and tasks. • Core of its efficiently and flexibility is its separation of concern. • And the proper separation and alignment of form and substance. • In total, SCEI is based on three different types of functionalities. 43
  44. 44. www.sti-innsbruck.at SCEI *sky • Infrastructure – The infrastructure layer provides basic functionalities needed by the other functionalities. – The infrastructure layer is responsible for separating and multiple alignments of communication content and communication channels. • Communication – The communication layer used the basic functionality of the infrastructure layer to implement the on-line communication of an agent. – It combines these elements into useful patterns of on-line interactions. – It supports exchange of meaning. • Engagement – turns communication into cooperation. – Workflow – Crow sourcing – Value generation through on-line cooperation. 44
  45. 45. www.sti-innsbruck.at Customization of the Architecture • To derive concrete products and services from the reference architecture it must be instantiated for Application types (Tasks) and Domains. • Task customization: – Advertisement – Customer Relationship Management – Revenue management – Brand management – Reputation management – Quality management • Domain Customization: E.g., eTourisms. 45
  46. 46. www.sti-innsbruck.at Infrastructure • Content can be down-/and uploaded from GUIs, Repositories, CMSs, and others • Channels are the millions of on-line communication possibilities Infrastructure Content Channels 46
  47. 47. www.sti-innsbruck.at Four roles of Semantic Technologies Semantic Analysis Infrastructure Content Channels 47
  48. 48. www.sti-innsbruck.at Semantic Analysis • Discovering facts in texts and other sources (audio, video, etc.) • Deriving additional facts from them • Typical tasks: – Topic detection – Named entity recognition – Co-reference and Disambiguation – Relation Extraction – Sentiment detection and Opinion mining – Social annotation – Text summarization • Obviously all of them are needed in Social Media Analysis 48
  49. 49. www.sti-innsbruck.at Four roles of Semantic Technologies Semantic Channels Infrastructure Content Channels 49
  50. 50. www.sti-innsbruck.at Semantic as a channel 50 • Not to be interpreted by humans, but machines that can make something out of it: • Publishing Linked Data can take various formats and vocabularies
  51. 51. www.sti-innsbruck.at The three dimensions 51 Format e.g. RDFa Implementation e.g. OWLIM Vocabulary e.g. foaf HTML Meta Element s 1999 RDFs 1998 RDF 2004 RDFa 2005 Microformats 2007 OWL 2008 SPARQL 2009 OWL 2 2010 RIF 2011 Microdata ... and a lot more
  52. 52. www.sti-innsbruck.at Infrastructure Content Channels Content Manager - Import Content - Export Content Channel Manager - Integrates - Personalizes - Interacts - Describes Channels Weaver Infrastructure 52
  53. 53. www.sti-innsbruck.at Four roles of Semantic Technologies Content Channels Content Manager - Import Content - Export Content Channel Manager - Integrates - Personalizes - Interacts - Describes Channels Weaver Infrastructure 53 Semantic Content Model
  54. 54. www.sti-innsbruck.at Semantic Content Modelling 54 Separate content and channel. Same Event
  55. 55. www.sti-innsbruck.at Separating Content and Rendering • Analogy: – Content may be presented differently in different contexts. – Therefore, it should be modeled independent from a specific representation – Stylesheets connect content with a specific presentation • Content: 55 <html><head> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/tryit.css" /></head> <body> <div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Person"> <img src="http://www.fensel.com/dieter.jpg" itemprop="image" /> <span id="property">Title: <span itemprop="jobTitle">Prof. Dr.</span></span> <span id="property">Name: <span itemprop="name">Dieter Fensel</span></span> <span id="property">Nationality: <span itemprop="nationality">German</span></span> <span id="property">Birthdate: <span itemprop="birthdate">October 1960</span></span> <span id="property">Address: <span itemprop="address" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/PostalAddress"> <span itemprop="streetAddress">Technikerstr. 21a</span>, <span itemprop="postalCode">6020</span> <span itemprop="addressLocality">Innsbruck</span>, <span itemprop="addressRegion">Tirol</span> </span></span> <span id="property">Tel.: <span itemprop="telephone">+43 512 507 6485</span></span> <span id="property">E-Mail: <a href="mailto:dieter.fensel@sti2.at" itemprop="email">dieter.fensel@sti2.at</a></span> <span id="property">WWW: <a href="http://www.fensel.com/" itemprop="url">http://www.fensel.com/</a></span> </div></body><html>
  56. 56. www.sti-innsbruck.at Separating Content and Rendering 56 • Style Sheet 1: body { background-color: rgb(220,220,255); font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-size:20px; } img { float: right; } span[id="property"] { display: block; font-style: italic; } span[itemprop] { font-weight: bold; font-style: normal; } a:link { color: green; font-style: normal; font-weight: bold; }
  57. 57. www.sti-innsbruck.at Separating Content and Rendering 57 • Style Sheet 2: body { font-family:"Calibri"; font-size:25px; } img { float: left; width: 120px; margin-right: 50px; } span[id="property"] { margin-right: 40px; float: left; } span[itemprop] { font-style: italic; } a:link { font-style: italic; font-weight: bold; }
  58. 58. www.sti-innsbruck.at Use an Ontology to model the content 58
  59. 59. www.sti-innsbruck.at Infrastructure – Weaver • Separating content from channels also requires the explicit alignment of both. • This is achieved through a weaver. • A weaver is – an uni-set of tuples describing bi-directional content-channel mappings, – an execution engine for these tuples, – a GUI to define these tuples, and – a management and monitoring component for these tuple sets. 59
  60. 60. www.sti-innsbruck.at Use a weaver to align content and channels Weaver Branch specific Ontology Collect feedback + statistics Web 3.0/Mobile/OtherWeb/Blog Distribute content Social Web 60
  61. 61. www.sti-innsbruck.at Semantic Channel Modelling Matcher Branch specific Ontology Collect feedback + statistics Web 3.0/Mobile/Other Web/Blog Distribute content Social Web 61
  62. 62. www.sti-innsbruck.at Semantic Channel Modelling • The number of digital publishing channels has increased exponentially in the past decade. • Using semantics (i.e., an Ontology) to describe these channels. • Automatic review and adjustment of content and dissemination to channels based on semantic match-making. • Content-Channel mapping becomes an instance of Ontology alignment. 62
  63. 63. www.sti-innsbruck.at Communication & Engagement • Meaningful communication requires often more than just a single and isolated act of exchanging information. – It can be active or reactive (Dissemination, Social Media Monitoring, and its integration) – It has a trace, a history – It needs multi-channel switch – It is bi-directional and multi-agent – It is based on patterns of successful interaction styles (campaigning versus individual interaction, etc.) • For effective engagement (cooperation) is needed: – Workflow management – Crowd sourcing – Value chain generation 63
  64. 64. www.sti-innsbruck.at SEEKDA SOCIAL AGENT 64
  65. 65. www.sti-innsbruck.at Multi-channel booking problem • Hotels are facing the multi-channel booking problem • More than 100 different booking channels available • Daily maintenance of right balance of rooms availability across more than 100 channels does not scale • Average time for hoteliers required to maintain a profile of a medium size hotel at one portal takes between 5 to 15 minutes a day • An effort of maintaining hotel’s profile on 100 portals would require then at least 20 hours of work 65
  66. 66. www.sti-innsbruck.at Multi-channel booking solution • The multi-channel solution for hotel-industry internet distribution seekda! connect seekda! IBE 66
  67. 67. www.sti-innsbruck.at Direct bookability for hotels • Booking quickly and directly via hotel Web sites • Seekda producs for direct bookability: – Dynamic Shop – Dynamic Shop Mobile • Benfits: – Hotels do not give part of their profit to booking chanells – Guests spend less time in booking using the instant booking engine solution of seekda 67
  68. 68. www.sti-innsbruck.at Direct bookability for hotels - challenges • Does the customer find the hotel web site? • Does the customer trust the web site? • Are his/her requests properly answered? • Is his/her feedback taken serious and form a positive review of the hotel? 68
  69. 69. www.sti-innsbruck.at Multi Channel Communication and Yield Management • Multi-channel communication tools can improve revenues and benefits within the hospitality industry by: – Increasing the on-line visible presence of hotels – Make hotels offers visible to a broader audience via multiple channels – Attract potential guests to hotel websites and thus increase direct bookability – effective and targeted on-line marketing 69
  70. 70. www.sti-innsbruck.at Multi Channel Communication and Yield Management SCEI *sky+ = holistic multi channel communication and revenue management for the hotelier 70
  71. 71. www.sti-innsbruck.at Touristic Portal • Multi-channel communication (SCEI *sky) • seekda booking engine • Linked Open Data (LOD) • On the fly service integration as you pay • Everything integrated into a comprehensive map 71
  72. 72. www.sti-innsbruck.at Linked Open Data (LOD) • Use LOD to integrate and lookup data about – places and routes – time-tables for public transport – hiking trails – ski slopes – points-of-interest 72
  73. 73. www.sti-innsbruck.at On the fly service intergation as you pay • Data and services from destination sites integrated for recommendation and booking of – Hotels – Restaurants – Cultural and entertainment events – Sightseeing – Shops • Two integration approaches: – ad-hoc service integration: via Web scrapping as a quick integration solution – via APIs and backend integration for a long term, durable solution 73
  74. 74. www.sti-innsbruck.at Everything integrated: Tourist Map Austria 74 • Based on Open Street Map
  75. 75. www.sti-innsbruck.at Everything integrated: Tourist Map Austria 75 • Based on Open Street Map • Increase on-line visibility for hotel and destination via multi- channel communication - SCEI SCEI
  76. 76. www.sti-innsbruck.at Everything integrated: Tourist Map Austria 76 • Based on Open Street Map • Increase on-line visibility for hotel and destination via multi- channel communication - SCEI • Hotels, ski passes, etc. directly bookable – seekda engine SCEI
  77. 77. www.sti-innsbruck.at Everything integrated: Tourist Map Austria 77 • Based on Open Street Map • Increase on-line visibility for hotel and destination via multi- channel communication - SCEI • Hotels, ski passes, etc. directly bookable – seekda engine • LOD to integrate and lookup data about hiking trails, ski slopes, etc. LODSCEI
  78. 78. www.sti-innsbruck.at Everything integrated: Tourist Map Austria 78 • Based on Open Street Map • Increase on-line visibility for hotel and destination via multi- channel communication - SCEI • Hotels, ski passes, etc. directly bookable – seekda engine • LOD to integrate and lookup data about hiking trails, ski slopes, etc. • On the fly service integration as you pay LODSCEI
  79. 79. www.sti-innsbruck.at SUMMARY 79
  80. 80. www.sti-innsbruck.at Summary • The multi-channel monster can be seen as a threat of: – Failing to be properly present (active and passive) in a multitude of opportunities – Spending a non-justify effort on achieving the former – Going out of business in both cases (even if for different reasons) • We propose a scalable solution for this based on using semantics. • Core is the separation of content and channel and its explicit interweavement. • For our approach, semantics is a corner stone but requires many additional services and layers to actually provide its potential. • Together with Seekda we are currently focusing on the eTourisms domain, however, other verticals may follow. • In general, we target domains (verticals) with many SMEs that need to intensively interact with their customers on-line. 80

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