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BBSS--EEnnvviirroonnmmeennttaall SScciieenncceess 
55tthh SSeemmeesstteerr 
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Nuclear Disaster 
 By International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), The 
Nuclear disaster is "an event that has led to signi...
Background 
Chernobyl disaster April 26, 1986
CONTD 
The Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear reactor 
accident in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 
the Ukraine, which...
CONTD In Northern 
Ukraine 
10 miles away 
from Belarus 
80 miles North 
of Kiev
CONTD
CONTD 
Located 11 miles north of the city of Chernobyl 
Plant consisted of 4 reactors 
Produced 10% of Ukraine’s electr...
Cause of Chernobyl
Flawed operating explanation 
Having a mistake or weakness 
Ignorant of safety requirement 
Lack of experience and trai...
Second factor is the operators were not 
informed about problems with the 
reactor. 
The designers knew that the reactor...
Poor Design of Plant 
Partial containment was bypassed 
and went out on the top of reactor 
core. 
Hot fuel and graphite...
Sequence of events 
Excessive insertion of control rods 
Excessive removal of control rods even more 
than the operating...
CONTD 
SCRAM started 
Displacement of coolant due to control rods 
Excessive temperature 
Fracture of fuel rods 
Cont...
CONTD 
Sudden increase in steam pressure 
Bursting of cooling water pipes 
Reactor Lid blown off 
Explosion of either ...
Day of disaster 
25 April 1986 
01:00 The preparation for the test 
13:47 Lowering of the reactor power halted at 1,600 ...
26 April 1986 
24:00 Operation shift change 
24:28 Power level is now 500 MWt and kept 
decreasing to 30 MWt 
24:40 The...
26 April 1986 (cont.) 
01:19 Increased feed water flow to the steam 
drums and removed more control rods -violation 
of N...
26 April 1986 (cont.) 
01:23:30 Power kept increasing 
01:23:40 Emergency button pushed 
01:23:44 Power is at 300000 MW...
(a) International Spread of Radioactivity 
The explosion at Chernobyl acted like a 
volcano, blowing radioactive particle...
(b) Health of People 
According to Ukrainian health ministry 
officials, 125,000 people have died as a 
result of the acc...
(c) Delayed Health Effects 
One of the most delayed effects of the 
radiation is the induction of cancer. 
For example: ...
The Children of Belarus 
Children were much more affected by Chernobyl and 
the radiation, due to their weaker immune sys...
Children Contd 
It is estimated that 1 out of every 4 infants in Belarus 
will develop thyroid abnormalities. 
The norma...
Children Contd 
Normally, this is a rare disease, with 
only 1 case per year being reported in 
Belarus before the Cherno...
The topic of the children of Chernobyl is most shocking and awful. 
The increase in leukemia is even worse where there are...
Flora and fauna 
(i)Flora 
After the disaster, four square kilometres of pine forest in 
the immediate vicinity of the re...
Flora and 
fauna 
(ii) Fauna 
Radiation has affected animals living near the site 
of Ukraine's Chernobyl nuclear disaste...
Economically 
In the 1986 to 1989 industrial and agricultural losses and 
insurance payments total about US$36 Billion sp...
CONTD 
Between 300,000 and 600,000 people were 
brought in to clean-up. 
Belarus lost 1/5 of its farming lands(700 
millio...
Some Picture of the Disaster
Chernobyl disaster
Chernobyl disaster
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Chernobyl disaster

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Chernobyle disaster
Saad Farooqi

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Chernobyl disaster

  1. 1. SSaaaadd FFaarrooooqqii BBSS--EEnnvviirroonnmmeennttaall SScciieenncceess 55tthh SSeemmeesstteerr DDeepptttt ooff EEnnvviirroonnmmeennttaall AAnndd CCoonnsseerrvvaattiioonn SScciieenncceess UUnniivveerrssiittyy ooff SSwwaatt
  2. 2. Nuclear Disaster  By International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), The Nuclear disaster is "an event that has led to significant consequences to people, the environment or the facility”. The major Nuclear disaster is one in which the reactor core is damaged and amount of radioactivity are released such as Chernobyl Disaster.
  3. 3. Background Chernobyl disaster April 26, 1986
  4. 4. CONTD The Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear reactor accident in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukraine, which used to be a part of the Soviet Union. It is considered to be the worst nuclear power plant disaster in history and the only level 7 instance on the International Nuclear Event Scale.
  5. 5. CONTD In Northern Ukraine 10 miles away from Belarus 80 miles North of Kiev
  6. 6. CONTD
  7. 7. CONTD Located 11 miles north of the city of Chernobyl Plant consisted of 4 reactors Produced 10% of Ukraine’s electricity Construction began in the 1970’s Reactor #4 was completed in 1983 At the time of the accident, reactors #5 and #6 were in progress.
  8. 8. Cause of Chernobyl
  9. 9. Flawed operating explanation Having a mistake or weakness Ignorant of safety requirement Lack of experience and training Insufficient communication Overconfident : only normal electrical test Choosing cheapness over safety
  10. 10. Second factor is the operators were not informed about problems with the reactor. The designers knew that the reactor was dangerous in some conditions but intentionally concealed this information. The Chernobyl accident in 1986 was the result of a flawed reactor design that was operated with inadequately trained personnel and without proper regard for safety Apart from that the two official explanations, the causes of the accident is say to be cause by the poor design of the plant.
  11. 11. Poor Design of Plant Partial containment was bypassed and went out on the top of reactor core. Hot fuel and graphite were exposed to air Cesium and radioactive Iodine
  12. 12. Sequence of events Excessive insertion of control rods Excessive removal of control rods even more than the operating levels Commencement of the test at low levels of power generation Excessive water flow rate used Experiment started Rise in temperature
  13. 13. CONTD SCRAM started Displacement of coolant due to control rods Excessive temperature Fracture of fuel rods Control rods stuck Reactor thermal output 30 GW (10 times normal)
  14. 14. CONTD Sudden increase in steam pressure Bursting of cooling water pipes Reactor Lid blown off Explosion of either hydrogen or the graphite
  15. 15. Day of disaster 25 April 1986 01:00 The preparation for the test 13:47 Lowering of the reactor power halted at 1,600 MWt 14:00 The ECCS was isolated 23:10 The power reduction resumed
  16. 16. 26 April 1986 24:00 Operation shift change 24:28 Power level is now 500 MWt and kept decreasing to 30 MWt 24:40 The operator withdrew some control rods 01:00 Power had risen to 200 MWt 01:03 Connecting the fourth main cooling pump to the left loop of the system 200 MWt 01:07 Connecting the fourth main cooling pump to the right of the loop system - this was a violation of NOP
  17. 17. 26 April 1986 (cont.) 01:19 Increased feed water flow to the steam drums and removed more control rods -violation of NOP 01:23 The test was started 01:23:10 Automatic rods withdrawn from the core 01:23:21 Two groups of automated control rods were back to the core.
  18. 18. 26 April 1986 (cont.) 01:23:30 Power kept increasing 01:23:40 Emergency button pushed 01:23:44 Power is at 300000 MWth 01:23:48 1st thermal explosion 01:23:55 2nd explosion
  19. 19. (a) International Spread of Radioactivity The explosion at Chernobyl acted like a volcano, blowing radioactive particles far into the sky. Wind moved the plume, or cloud of radioactive particles, all around the world. Even worse, when the plume passed by several countries, it began to rain, and nuclear fallout hit the ground. Large areas of Belarus, Ukraine, Russia and beyond were contaminated in varying degrees.
  20. 20. (b) Health of People According to Ukrainian health ministry officials, 125,000 people have died as a result of the accident, and more deaths are expected. Two people died in the initial steam explosion, but most deaths from the accident were attributed to radiation. Over 300,000 people were moved because of the accident. An increase of thyroid cancer has been diagnosed among children in areas of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. Some believe the stress of the accident has been worse on people than the radiation.
  21. 21. (c) Delayed Health Effects One of the most delayed effects of the radiation is the induction of cancer. For example: Solid cancers among Russian liquidators whom exposed to more than 150 mSv. The people in the area of contamination have suffered a paralyzing fatalism. Man and young boy operated for thyroid cancer after Chernobyl nuclear accident.
  22. 22. The Children of Belarus Children were much more affected by Chernobyl and the radiation, due to their weaker immune systems. 1991-1992--sickness rate among children almost tripled Threat to gene pool—fewer children being born. The following problems have increased in Belarusian children: heart and circulatory diseases, malignant tumors, and disorders of the nervous system, sensory organs, of the bone, muscle and connective tissue system.
  23. 23. Children Contd It is estimated that 1 out of every 4 infants in Belarus will develop thyroid abnormalities. The normal rate of thyroid cancer would be only one in 1 million. Normally, this is a rare disease, with only 1 case per year being reported in Belarus before the Chernobyl accident. Thyroid cancer can take 10-30 years to show it’s effects.
  24. 24. Children Contd Normally, this is a rare disease, with only 1 case per year being reported in Belarus before the Chernobyl accident. Thyroid cancer can take 10-30 years to show it’s effects. There has been a 2,400% increase in the rates of thyroid cancer in Belarus since 1986.
  25. 25. The topic of the children of Chernobyl is most shocking and awful. The increase in leukemia is even worse where there are dozens of cases of leukemia among the children. An increase of thyroid cancer has been diagnosed among children in areas of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. These children have to take painful procedures every day to postpone the fatal moment. By year 2000, about 4000 cases of thyroid cancer had been diagnosed in exposed children. Mutation in newly born children
  26. 26. Flora and fauna (i)Flora After the disaster, four square kilometres of pine forest in the immediate vicinity of the reactor turned ginger brown and died, earning the name of the “Red Forest” Local pine trees grow huge pine cones, pine needles of the needle-like leaves 10 times heavier than normal.  Some fruits and vegetables also affect which causes the oddly shaped of potato, tomato and so on.
  27. 27. Flora and fauna (ii) Fauna Radiation has affected animals living near the site of Ukraine's Chernobyl nuclear disaster. A major effect on the livestock was mutation. The livestock was culled and buried. Figure above: These animals suffering from a serious effect of mutation Figure above: A cow that experiencing mutations. This co having a cleft lip.
  28. 28. Economically In the 1986 to 1989 industrial and agricultural losses and insurance payments total about US$36 Billion spent during this period The total costs including cleanup, resettlement, and compensation to victims has been estimated to be roughly US$200 Billion. The accident, about US$400 Million was spent on improvements to the remaining reactors at Chernobyl, considerably enhancing their safety.
  29. 29. CONTD Between 300,000 and 600,000 people were brought in to clean-up. Belarus lost 1/5 of its farming lands(700 million dollars a year loss.) 350 industries were lost due to the disaster.
  30. 30. Some Picture of the Disaster
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Chernobyle disaster Saad Farooqi

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