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Environmental Impact Assessment

BY Saad Farooqi and Izhar Aziz

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Environmental Impact Assessment

  1. 1. Aspects and Impacts, Impact Assessment, Social Assessment, Mitigation, Institutional Setup, Preparation of EIA, Presented by, Saad Farooqi, FA18-R07-004 Izhar Aziz, FA18-R07-006 MS-Environmental Science Department of Environmental Science COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 1
  2. 2. Contents • Aspects and Impacts • Impact Assessment • Techniques • Kinds • Prediction • Social Assessment • Mitigation • Institutional Setup • Preparation of EIA report 2
  3. 3. Aspects and Impacts Aspects: • The elements of project’s activities, products or services which interact with the environment. Impacts: • Any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from a project’s activities, products or services. 3
  4. 4. Kinds and Prediction of Impact • Direct Impact: - Directly relating to the project. • Indirect Impact: - Less obvious. - Not directly relate. • Cumulative Impact: - combinedly effect more then individual. • Prediction of Impacts: - Qualitative (experts, reasoning). - Quantitative (simulation, modeling, statistics). 4
  5. 5. Determination of Significance of Potential Impact Some Key Factor: • Public health and safety, risk (high or unknown). • Aesthetics and recreation, other unique characteristics. • Resources availability, farmland, forests, wildlife. Some Key Elements: • Public concern/controversy/precedent-setting. • Disturbance of protected/valued habitats. • Disruption of local customs Inherently a Value Judgement: • Needs and sustainability. • Law, policy and regulation. 5
  6. 6. Impact Assessment Techniques • Professional Expert Opinion • Questionnaires/ Case studies • Checklists -Advantages (simple to understand and use, good for site selection) -Disadvantages (it doesn’t distinguish, do not link action and impact) • Matrices -Advantages (link action to impact, good method for displaying EIA result) -Disadvantages (difficult to distinguish) • Networks - Advantages (link action to impacts, handles direct and indirect impacts) -Disadvantages (can become very complex if used beyond simplified version) 6
  7. 7. Contd… • Overlays -Advantages (easy to understand, good display method, good sitting tools) -Disadvantages (address only direct impact, do not address impact duration) • GIS -Advantages (excellent for impact analysis and identification, good for experimet) -Disadvantages (heavy reliance on knowledge and data, often complex) • Carrying Capacity • Modeling 7
  8. 8. Social Assessment (SA) • Approach to ensure that the social dimension of development or fully address through out the project life cycle. • Tools for SA. - desk review - household interview - group discussion - case study - stakeholder workshop - social mapping 8
  9. 9. Contd… Level of public involvement • Informing: One way flow from proponent in public. • Consulting: Two way flow of information opportunities for public to express views. • Participating: proponent and public share analysis and agenda setting, public involvement in decision maker through consensus. 9
  10. 10. Mitigation • Finding better ways of doing things. • Minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts. • Enhancing the project benefits. • How to mitigate? • For example: alternative ways of meeting the needs. • Changes in planning and designing. • Improving monitoring and management. • Through monitory compensation. 10
  11. 11. Institutional Setup • PEPC (Pakistan Environmental Protection Council) • Ministry of Environment • Federal EPA. • Provincial EPA. • Environmental Tribunal - Three judges in each headquarters. - Environmental magistrate - Environmental inspectors 11
  12. 12. Preparation And Review EIA Report • Format (organization of content). • Preparation and description of EIA draft. • Circulation (agencies, experts, private groups, stakeholders). • Review of EIA report • Preparation of final EIS discuss and incorporate the comments, file the EIA with EPA. • Follow format as recommended by EPA. 12
  13. 13. Sample of Checklist 13 As pects of EIA Checklist Q uestions Will the proje ct: Ye s No Additiona l Da ta ne eds Sourc es of Impacts 1. Re qui re the a cqu isi ti on o r co nve rsi on of si gni ficant areas of la nd for reservoi r/treatmen t works etc. (e .g . > 50 ha rural , > 5 ha urba n)? 2. Re sul t i n sig nifi ca nt qu anti ti es of e ro ded materi al , efflu ent or sol i d wastes? 3. Re qui re si gni ficant accommod atio n or servi ce a meni ties to suppo rt th e workforce d urin g con structi on (eg > 10 0 man ual worke rs)? Re ceptors of Impacts 4. Fl oo d or o th erwise affe ct areas whi ch su ppo rt co nservati on worthy terre stria l or aqu ati c e cosyste ms, flo ra o r faun a (eg p ro te cted area s, wil de rn ess areas, forest re se rves, cri ti ca l ha bi ta ts, en dan gered speci es); o r that con ta in sites of h isto ri cal or cu ltural i mpo rtan ce? 5. Fl oo d or o th erwise affe ct areas whi ch wi ll affe ct the l ivel ih ood s of l ocal peop le (eg req ui re p opu la ti on resettl emen t; affe ct l ocal i nd ustry, agri cul ture, l i vestock or fi sh stocks; re duce th e avai lab il i ty of na tu ra l resource go ods a nd servi ces)? 6. Invo lve si tin g san itati on tre atment fa ci li tie s cl ose to hu man se ttl emen ts (pa rti cu la rl y whe re l ocatio ns a re suscepti bl e to fl ood in g)? 7. Affect sou rces o f wa ter extracti on ? Env ironmental Impa cts 8. Ca use a n oticeab le p ermane nt or se aso nal re ducti on i n the vo lu me of g ro und or su rface water sup pl y? 9. Present a si gni fican t pol l utio n ri sk th ro ugh l i qui d or sol i d wa stes to hu ma ns, source s of water e xtra ctio n, co nservati on worthy aq uati c ecosystems and specie s, or co mmerci al fi sh sto cks? 10 . Ch ange the l ocal h ydrol og y of surface water-b odi es (eg streams, ri vers, l ake s) such that con serva ti on -worth y or co mmerci al ly si gni ficant fi sh stocks a re affecte d? 11 . Increa se the risk o f di se ases i n areas of hi gh p opu la ti on de nsi ty (eg oncho cerci asi s, fi la ri asi s, ma la ri a, hep atiti s, ga stro in te sti nal di sea se s)? 12 . Indu ce seco nda ry d eve lo pmen t, eg al ong a ccess ro ads, or in the form o f en trep re neu ri al services for constru ctio n an d ope ra ti ona l activiti es? Mitiga tion Mea sures 13 . Be l ikel y to re qui re miti gati on measures tha t may resul t i n the proj ect be in g fi nan ci al l y or socia ll y un acceptab le ? Comme nts I recommend tha t the programme be a ssigned to Ca tegory Si gna tu re : De le gati on.........................................De sk...................................
  14. 14. Sample of Matrix 14
  15. 15. 15

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BY Saad Farooqi and Izhar Aziz

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