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Hypothesis

Hypothesis
By Saad Farooqi

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Hypothesis

  1. 1. PREPARED BY, SAAD FAROQI, C.NO: 01 BS 6TH SEMESTER, DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL & CONSERVATION SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF SWAT 05/27/15 1 HYPOTHESIS
  2. 2. Contents 2  Introduction  Definition  Nature of hypothesis  Importance of hypothesis  Characteristics of a good hypothesis  Sources of hypothesis  Types of hypothesis  Problem in formulation of hypothesis  Errors in testing of hypothesis  References
  3. 3. Meaning of Hypothesis 3  The word hypothesis is derived from the Greek word – ‘hypotithenai’ meaning ‘to put under’ or ‘to suppose’.  The word hypothesis consists of two words ‘Hypo’ and ‘thesis’. ‘Hypo’ means tentative or subject to the verification and ‘Thesis’ means statement about solution of a problem.  So the word “Hypothesis” means tentative statement about solution of a problem or Hypothesis means the guesses to solve the research problem.
  4. 4. Definition of Hypothesis 4  “It is a tentative supposition or provisional guess which seems to explain the situation under observation.” – James E. Greighton  A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relation between two or more variables. (Kerlinger, 1956)  Hypothesis is a formal statement that presents the expected relationship between an independent and dependent variable. (Creswell, 1994)
  5. 5. Nature of Hypothesis 5 1. It is conceptual in nature. 2. It is a verbal statement in a declarative form. 3. It has the empirical referent. 4. It has a forward or future reference. 5. It is the pivot of a scientific research.
  6. 6. Importance of a hypothesis 6  To the point enquiry  Development of Research technique  Separating Relevant from Irrelevant observation  Selecting required facts  Direction of research  Act as a guide  Prevent blind research
  7. 7. Cont. 7  Accuracy and precision  Link between Theory and Investigation  Link between Assumption and Observation  Provide answer for a question  Save Time, Money and Energy  Proper data collection  Proper conclusion
  8. 8. Characteristics of a good hypothesis 8 A good hypothesis must possess the following main characteristics. A good hypothesis is in agreement with the observed facts. A good hypothesis does not conflict with any law of nature which is known to be true. A good hypothesis is stated in the simplest possible term. A good hypothesis permits of the application of deductive reasoning. A good hypothesis shows very clear verbalization. It is different from what is generally called hunch.
  9. 9. Cont. 9  A good hypothesis ensures that the methods of verification are under control of the investigator.  A good hypothesis guarantees that available tools and techniques will be effectively used for the purpose of verification.  A good hypothesis takes into account the different types controls which are to be exercised for the purpose of verification.
  10. 10. Cont.  A good hypothesis ensures that the sample is readily approachable.  A good hypothesis indicates clearly the role of different variables involved in the study.  A good hypothesis maintains a very apparent distinction with what is called theory law, facts, assumption and postulate. 10
  11. 11. Sources of Hypothesis 11 According to Webster, “Hypothesis is a guess made by the researcher which either solve the problem or guide him in further investigation.” Reading Material- Published books, Journals, Magazines, Seminar Reports, Principle of Theories – Rule of Law, Basic Structure etc., Personal Experience, and Other Studies.
  12. 12. Types of Hypothesis 12 Hypotheses are classified in several ways on different basis. On the other basis of the degree of generality hypothesis can be divided into two categories. Universal and Existential.
  13. 13. Cont. Universal hypothesis Universal hypothesis is one which states the relationship that holds good for all the levels or values of variables which are specified for all time at all places. Existential hypothesis Existential hypothesis is one which states the relationship which holds good for at least one place. 13
  14. 14. Cont. 14  Descriptive Hypothesis: A Hypothesis is about the law which is an instance, is called descriptive Hypothesis.  Explanatory Hypothesis: A Hypothesis may be about cause of phenomenon; this type of Hypothesis is known as exploratory. This strongly states the existence of cause and effect relationship.
  15. 15. Cont.  Directional Hypothesis: It connotes an expected direction in the relationship or difference between variables.  Non- Directional Hypothesis It shows absence of relationship in the variables. 15
  16. 16. Cont.  Working Hypothesis: A casual relation between various facts/ which are foremen on probability. It is set upon the basis of pier observation or on logical grounds.  Statistical Hypothesis: It is testable within the framework of probability theory. N.C.Nemor the null hypothesis as the statistical Hypothesis. 16
  17. 17. Cont. 17  Null Hypothesis Null Hypothesis is a statistical Hypothesis which used in analyzing the data. It assumed that observed difference is attributable by sampling error and too difference is zero.
  18. 18. Problem in formulation of hypothesis 18 According to Goode and Hatt these are three major possible difficulties in formulation of good hypothesis. First: Absence of knowledge of theoretical framework. Second: Lack of ability to utilize the theoretical framework logically. Third: Investigator’s unawareness about available research techniques.
  19. 19. Errors in testing of hypothesis 19  There are two types of errors in hypothesis. (i) Type I error (ii) Type II error (i) Type I error : Rejection of a true null hypothesis is called the type I error. (ii) Type II error : Retention of false null hypothesis is called the type II error.
  20. 20. Cont. 20
  21. 21. References 21 Donald. A, Jacobs. C. L and Razavieh. A, (2010) “Introduction to Research in Education” 8th Edition, Cengage Learning products, USA; Wadsworth Belmont. Creswell (2009) “Research design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approach” 3rd Edition, California: SAGE Publications. Guy (2006) “Educational Research; competencies for analysis and application” 8th edition, New Jersey; Pearson Education, Inc.
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Hypothesis By Saad Farooqi

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