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Soil conservation

Agronomic Measures

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Soil conservation

  1. 1. In the name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful.
  2. 2. SOIL CONSERVATION Saad Farooqi CIIT/FA18-R07-004/ATD MS-ES Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus
  3. 3. Introduction  Management of soil  Prevent the destruction of soil  Soil can be conserved through  Soil conservation strategies  Agronomic measures of soil conservation 3
  4. 4. Agronomic Measures  Crop rotation  Land Preparation  Contour Cultivation  Choice of crops  Strip cropping  Cropping system  Cover crops  Mulching 4  Manure and Fertilizer  Bench Terracing  Vegetation Barriers  Ridges and Furrows  Wind Breaks  Maintaining of Soil pH  Salinity Management  Soil organism
  5. 5. Cont.. Crop rotation  Different crops are planted after the other.  Prevent the accumulation of pathogens. 5
  6. 6. Cont.. Land preparation  Tillage influence intake of water.  Deep ploughing or chiseling.  Rough cloddy surface. 6
  7. 7. Cont.. Contour cultivation  A line joining the points of equal elevation.  Ploughing, sowing, inter-cultivation in slope. 7
  8. 8. Cont.. Choice of crops  Row or tall growing crops is not a protective for conservation.  i.e. Sorgham, Maize and Pearl Millet called permitting crops  Growing crops Cowpea, ground nut, Green grams and Black Grams  Protect soil are called erosion resisting crops.  Minimizing the impact of rain drop. 8
  9. 9. Cont.. Strip cropping  Ordinary crops are planted in form of relatively narrow strips across the land slope.  In area where terraces are not practically feasible  Check the surface runoff and infiltrate into the soil.  Used in those areas where length of slope is not too longer. 9
  10. 10. Cont.. Cropping system  Mono-cropping permitting crop lead to soil & water loss.  Intercropping of permitting crops, resisting crops & rotation.  Legumes like Alfalfa reduces soil loss even in 13% slope. 10
  11. 11. Cont.. Cover crops  Good ground cover give protection to the land.  Hold soluble nutrients which are lost by leaching.  Addition of organic matter.  Legumes, Horse grams, green gram, black gram provide better cover. 11
  12. 12. Cont.. Mulching  Mulching of soil with available plant residues reduce soil loss considerably by protecting.  Reduce the direct impact of raindrop on the soil.  Reduce soil sediments carried with runoff.  Plant residue cover of 30% is necessary to keep soil loss  Reduce soil loss particularly in vertisols by increasing infiltration. 12
  13. 13. Cont.. Manure and Fertilizer  Organic manures improve soil physical conditions. Reduce soil loss.  Fertilizers improve vegetative canopy, which aid in erosion control.  Soils with stable aggregates resist breakdown and thus resist erosion. 13
  14. 14. Cont.. Bench Terracing  Terraces are made across the slope to reduce the slope length and erosion.  Excavating soil from upper part and filling in the lower part. 14
  15. 15. Cont.. Vegetative barriers  Row of closely planted grass or shrub.  Velocity of runoff and retain the sediments  Acting as barrier to runoff.  Kobus Khus (Vetiveria Zyzynoides) recommended for this. 15
  16. 16. Cont.. Ridges and Furrows  The field must be formed into ridges and furrows  Furrows of 30-45 cm width and 15-20 cm height are formed across the slope.  Runoff water safely when rainfall intensity is high and avoid water stagnation. 16
  17. 17. Cont.. Wind Breaks  Trees act as wind barriers and prevent soil.  Dense rows or stand of trees.  Evergreen species are preferred. 17
  18. 18. Cont.. Maintaining the soil pH  The measurement of soil’s acidity or alkalinity by soil pH level.  Due to addition of basic or acidic pollutants. Salinity management  Excessive salts in soil has harmful effects on plant.  Lead to death of vegetation, causes soil erosion.  Salinity management is important. 18
  19. 19. Cont.. Soil Organism  Using beneficial soil organism like earth worm.  Helps in aeration of soil and make macro nutrients.  Thus soil become more fertile and porous.  Microorganism play vital role.  Nitrogen fixing bacteria such as Rhizobia produce ammonia in the exchange for carbohydrates. 19
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  • jyotirmayapanda7

    May. 1, 2021

Agronomic Measures

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