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Automated Parking Enforcement Systems

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RF Systems Final Project

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Automated Parking Enforcement Systems

  1. 1. AUTOMATED PARKING ENFORCEMENT SYSTEM GROUP 15 Balachandran Jayachandran(Radar TX ) Sachin Kumar Asokan (Radar RX) Arun Nagar Nadarajan(Satellite TX) Nithin Venkatraman (Satellite RX)
  2. 2. Problem Other Issues • In modern times, parking vehicles is not only a costly affair but also a tedious task, not only for the vehicle owners but also for the Parking Enforcement. • Car owners have difficulties in locating empty slots in parking spaces even when there is a presence of vacant spots. • They also spend considerable amount of their valuable time buying parking tokens. Wastage of fuel & cost (analyzing on a broad spectrum)  797 out of a 1000 people in USA use cars.  Cost of 1 gallon of gas = $3.596  Everyday a driver wanders about 500m in search of a parking spot.  So, in a month, 500x30 = 15km or (1 liter of gas)  This corresponds to $1 per person per month (huh?)  This means $250 million per month !!!!!  And this is just USA, so imagine if we do this math for the entire world. (Hint : That is a LOT !!)
  3. 3. Solution • The proposed system allows only authorized users with a valid RFID smart-pass to enter the parking area , thereby eliminating problems like congestion and parking violations. • The collected vehicle information along with the time and duration of parking are transmitted through a satellite link from the local control unit to the remote central hub where the database is managed and the customers are charged accordingly making the system more solid in the security point of view. • RADAR equipment moving on rails are employed to detect the availability of empty parking slots and the availability information is displayed to the user entering the parking area.
  4. 4. Top Level System Local control Unit Remote Central Hub Display LEO Satellite RFID detection Radar signals ParkingLot A movable scanning radar that checks for vacancy in the slots Occupied Vacant
  5. 5. Top Level Specifications PARAMETERS SPECIFICATIONS Type of Radar Adjustable field Radar Antenna Gain Horn Antenna Center Frequency 24 Ghz Bandwidth 200 Mhz Antenna Gain 20 dB Transmit Power 30 dBm Receiver Sensitivity -50 dBm Radar Range 20m Beamwidth 20o PARAMETERS SPECIFICATIONS Modulation BPSK Antenna Type Parabolic Center Frequency 8 GHz Power Transmitted 30 dBm Bandwidth 200 MHZ Transmitting Antenna Gain 25 dB Receiver Antenna Gain 30 dB Receiver Sensitivity -90dBm Range 1500 Km(LEO) RADAR SATELLITE
  6. 6. AMPLIFIER LPF LPF BPF HORN ANTENNA BPF RADAR TRANSCEIVER MODULE LO MIXER MIXER LO CIRCULATOR LNA SIGNAL PROCESSIN G WAVEFORM GENERATOR POWER AMPLIFIER LIMITER
  7. 7. RADAR TRANSMITTER VSS
  8. 8. Gmax = 33dB Gmin = 25 dB Pmax = 38dBm Pmin = 30dBm
  9. 9. RADAR Hand Calculation Pt=33.89 dBm , Gt=28.89 dB, f=24Ghz λ = 3 x 108 / 24 x 109 = 0.0125m RCS = 3m2 R = 20m Pr = Pmin = -30.52dBm Receiver Power Calculation Range Calculation Pt=33.89dBm , Gt=20 dBi, f=24Ghz λ = 3 x 108 / 24 x 109 = 0.0125m RCS = 3m2 Rmax = 27.58m Power Added Efficiency = [(2499.06 – 3.16)/14240 ]x 100 PAE = 12.68%
  10. 10. Waveform Generator PARAMETER SPECIFICATION Manufacturer Mini Circuits Model Number ROS- 4415-119+ Frequency Range 4.214- 4.415 GHz Output Power 5dBm Supply Voltage(Vdd) 5V Supply Current 40 mA Operating Temperature Range -55o C to +85o C
  11. 11. Low Pass Filter Parameter Specification Manufacturer Mini-Circuits Model Number LFCN-5000+ Loss 0.6 dB Corner Frequency (fco) 5.58GHz Max. RF Input Power 9 W
  12. 12. Parameter Specification Manufacturer Hittite Microwave Model Number HMC - 560 Frequency Range 24 - 40 GHz Conversion Loss 8 dB LO to RF 35 dB LO to IF 32 dB RF to IF 22 dB Output 1dB Compression Point 5 dBm Mixer
  13. 13. Parameter Specification Manufacturer MITEQ Model Number PLDRO-005-FREQ-3-15P Frequency Range 13.4 – 26.8 Ghz Output Power 13dBm Supply Voltage(Vdd) 15V Supply Current 600 mA Operating Temperature Range -20 to +70°C Local Oscillator
  14. 14. Band Pass Filter Parameter Specification Manufacturer MARKI microwave Model Number FB-2480 Loss 3 dB Frequency Range 21.1-28.5GHz
  15. 15. Power Amplifier Parameter Specification Manufacturer TriQuint Semiconductors Model Number TGA4531 Gain 23dB Output 1dB Compression Point 31 dBm Frequency Range 17 to 24 Ghz DC Voltage 7 V Current 720 mA
  16. 16. RADAR Antenna Parameter Specification Manufacturer Advanced Technical Materials Inc. Model Number 34-442-6 Type Horn Antenna Frequency 22-33 Ghz Nominal Gain 20 dB Meets frequency, gain and beamwidth requirements
  17. 17. LPF BPF DATA IN LPF BPF ANTENNA ANTENNA DATA OUT TRANSMITTER MODULE RECEIVER MODULE SATELLITE UPLINK MODULE MIXER MIXER LO LO POWER AMPLIFIER LNA AMPLIFIER MODULATOR DEMODULATOR
  18. 18. Satellite receiver VSS
  19. 19. Gmax = 37dB Gmin = 27 dB
  20. 20. IP3max = 22.12 dBm IP3min = 15.59 dBm NFmax = 4dB NFmin = 2.7dB
  21. 21. Satellite Hand Calculation Pt= 33.89 dBm , Gt=25dB, Gr= 30.7db λ = 3 x 108 / 8 x 109 = 0.0375m Range = 1500 km Pr = -87.11 dB Receiver Power Calculation Range Calculation Pt=31.21dBm , Gt=25 dB, Gr=30.7dB λ = 3 x 108 / 8 x 109 = 0.0375m Pr= -90dBm Rmax = 2102.58 km Power Added Efficiency = [(78.163)/915 ]x 100 PAE = 8.54%
  22. 22. Parameter Specification Manufacturer Avago Technologies Model Number VMMK-3803 Gain 20 dB Noise Figure 1.5 dB P1DB 7dBm Frequency Range 3-11 GHz DC bias 3-5 V Low Noise Amplifier Ultrathin (0.25 mm) Low Noise Figure
  23. 23. Band Pass Filter Parameter Specification Manufacturer Mini-Circuits Model Number BFCN-8000 Insertion Loss 2.5 dB Frequency Range 7.9 – 8.1 Ghz Low insertion loss Sharp rejection peaks close to stop band Parameter Specification Manufacturer SANGSHIN Model Number BPF100MS16A Insertion Loss 2.5 dB Frequency Range 92-108 MHz
  24. 24. Mixer Parameter Specification Manufacturer Marki Microwave Model Number M1-0408 Conversion Loss 5.5 dB LO to RF Isolation 35 dBm LO to IF Isolation 25 dBm RF to IF Isolation 25 dBm P1dB(output) -3.5 dBm Frequency Range 4 -8 GHz
  25. 25. Local Oscillator Parameter Specification Manufacturer MITEQ Model Number PLDRO-13400 Frequency Range 6.7 – 13.4Ghz Output Power 13dBm Supply Voltage(Vdd) 5V Supply Current 370 mA Operating Temperature Range -20o C to +70o C
  26. 26. Parameter Specification Manufacturer Giga-tronics Model Number GT- 1020A Gain 34 dB Noise Figure 4.4 dB P1dB 37 dBm Frequency Range 0.05 to 1 GHz Power Amplifier Meets Gain and operating frequency requirements
  27. 27. Satellite Antenna Parameter Specification Manufacturer Radio waves Model no. SP2-8 Type Standard Parabolic Frequency Range 7.75 – 8.50 Ghz Gain 30.7 dBi Dimension 2 ft
  28. 28. PARAMETER DESIRED VALUES NOMINAL ANALYSIS COMPLIANT OPERATING FREQUENCY (GHz) 24 24 Y OUTPUT POWER (dBm) 30 dBm 33.89 dBM Y ANTENNA GAIN (dBi) 20dBm 20dBm Y RANGE (meters) 20 22.05 Y ANTENNA BEAMWIDTH 20 17 Y RECEIVER SENSITIVITY -50 dBm -48.2dbm Y Radar Spec Compliance
  29. 29. Satellite Spec Compliance PARAMETER1 DESIRED VALUES NOMINAL ANALYSIS COMPLIANT OPERATING FREQUENCY (GHz) 8 8 Y OUTPUT POWER (dBm) 30 31.21 Y TX ANTENNA GAIN (dB) 25 31.03 Y RX ANTENNA GAIN (dB) 30 30.7 Y RANGE (km) 1500 2102 Y RECEIVER NOISE FIGURE 6 3.27 Y RECEIVER SENSITIVITY -90 dBm -87.11 Y TOI TBD 18.91 Y
  30. 30. Performance Issues • The power used for operating the RADAR transceivers depends on the parking capacity or size of the lot. • As we are using the ISM band for RFID’s, there are chances of interference with the surrounding Wi-Fi signals which operates in the same band . • An active RFID tag cannot function without battery power. This limits its lifetime, or requires maintenance. • Additional mechanical provisions must be provided for the radar guns to move along each parallel strip of the parking lot, which enables the system to collect information about the vacant parking slots. • As the radar transceivers require line of sight to exactly determine the vacant parking slots, the radar guns has to be stationary at each slot while collecting this information which in turn will cause some delay in gathering the information from the entire lot.
  31. 31. Power Density Calculation Power Density, The safe power density for frequencies above 15Ghz as prescribed by the FCC is 10mW/cm2 . Pt = 30dBm,Gt = 20.86 R= 31cm= 0.31m A barrier is constructed around the moving-radar rails so that people don’t accidently rub off against the equipment , which may cause physical injury. Health and Environmental Issues • The power transmitted by RADAR does not exceed the maximum permissible exposure as defined by Federal Communications Commission. • The transmitted power is below the range specified by EPA. • With the given radar specifications, the power density exposed does not exceed the maximum permissible exposure as defined by the US ANSI/IEEE.
  32. 32. Consumer Acceptance • Since the system performs all the transactions through an automated system it requires less man power. • Radar transceiver modules can be mounted in such a way that it occupies less space and is not a hindrance to the incoming vehicles, which make the system spatially effective. • As the entire charging system for parking lot is centralized and automated, makes things easier and flawless. Cost Analysis COMPONENTS ESTIMATED COST RADAR UNIT $500 SATELLITE UPLINK UNIT $800 SATELLITE DOWNLINK UNIT $600 RFID TAGS $40 Development Cost $1000 Total Cost $2940
  33. 33. Information Gathering – Phase 1 May 2015 Proposal Phase – Phase 2 June 2015 Software Phase – Phase 3 August 2015 Hardware implementation – Phase 4 September 2015 Integration and testing – Phase 5 December 2015 Evaluation Phase – Phase 6 January 2016 Production Rollout Phase – Phase 7 February 2016 Production Schedule

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