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Respiratory disease ppt


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Respiratory disease ppt

  1. 1. Applied Anatomy & Physiology • Presented By:- • Sanjeev Kumar 012015 • Swapnil Rathore 012025 • Mayur Gupta 012018 • Philomen Prem 012010 • Jayesh Raut 012023 • Rahul Pawar 012003 • Pawan Sharma 012035 of Respiratory System
  2. 2. Listed Disease related to RT •Bronchitis •Asbestosis •Asthma •Bronchiectasis •Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia •COPD •Cystic Fibrosis •Emphysema •Pneumonia •Laryngitis •Pharyngitis •Influenza •Lung Cancer •Tuberculosis •Pulmonary Fibrosis •Pulmonary Vascular Disease
  3. 3. Pharyngitis It is an inflammation of the throat. In most cases it is quite painful, and is the most common cause of a sore throat. Symptoms Fever Headache Joint pain and muscle aches Skin rashes Swollen lymph nodes in the neck
  4. 4. Laryngitis - Swelling and irritation of the larynx Causes Colds or flu. Acid reflux( gastroesophageal reflux disease). Overuse of your voice, such as cheering at a sports event. Irritation, such as from allergies or smoke.
  5. 5. Tonsillitis - Inflammation of the tonsils Sing & Symptoms a high temperature white pus-filled spots on the tonsils no cough swollen and tender lymph nodes (glands)
  6. 6. Bronchitis - An infection in your bronchial tubules caused by viruses, bacteria. Symptoms-Coughing, Production of clear, white, yellow, grey, or green mucus (sputum), Shortness of breath, Wheezing, Fatigue, Fever and chills, Chest pain or discomfort, Blocked or runny nose.
  7. 7. Treatment Antibiotic therapy Anti-allergic Mucolytic agents Cough Suppressants NSAIDS Diagnosis  CBC  Chest X-Ray  Sputum Culture  Pulmonary Function test Management Drink warm water with Lemon & Honey Drink warm fluids Salted warm water gargles Breathe warm, moist air Avoid smoking & lung irritants
  8. 8. Pneumonia - An infection deep in your lungs affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli. It is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria.
  9. 9. Types of Pneumonia 1 Mycoplasma pneumoniae 2 Streptococcus pneumoniae Symptoms- cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. Moderate Treatment Antibiotics - given by mouth as tablets or liquid Pain relieving medications Paracetamol to reduce fever SEVERE TREATMENT Antibiotics given intravenously (via a drip into a vein) Oxygen therapy - to ensure the body gets the oxygen it needs Intravenous fluids - to correct dehydration or if the person is too unwell to eat or drink Physiotherapy - to help clear the sputum from the lungs.
  10. 10. Bronchiectasis - Widening and destruction of the airways, often caused by recurrent infection or inflammation
  11. 11. Causes Immune deficiency Inhalation of a foreign object into the lungs (if left untreated) Inhalation of harmful chemicals eg: ammonia Diagnosis  Patient History  CT scan  Chest X-Ray  Antigen test  Bronchoscopy Treatment Exercise Antibiotic therapy Neubulisation Corticosteroids Surgery Anti-allergic
  12. 12. Asthma - A chronic disease in which your airway walls become sore and swollen, narrowing so that your lungs get less air
  13. 13. Symptoms- wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, shortness of breath and sputum. Asthma is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Associated Disorder- Gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD), rhino-sinusitis, and obstructive sleep apnea. Psychological disorders are also more common, with anxiety disorder and mood disorders.
  14. 14. MANAGEMENT • While there is no cure for asthma, symptoms can typically be improved.A specific, customized plan for proactively monitoring and managing symptoms should be created. This plan should include the reduction of exposure to allergens, testing to assess the severity of symptoms, and the usage of medications. The treatment plan should be written down and advise adjustments to treatment according to changes in symptoms. • Bronchodilators are recommended for short-term relief of symptoms. In those with occasional attacks, no other medication is needed. If mild persistent disease is present (more than two attacks a week), low- dose inhaled corticosteroids is recommended. For those who have daily attacks, a higher dose of inhaled corticosteroids is used. In a moderate or severe exacerbation, oral corticosteroids are added to these treatments.
  15. 15. Medication • Medications used to treat asthma are divided into two general classes: quick-relief medications used to treat acute symptoms; and long-term control medications used to prevent further exacerbation • Fast-acting:- 1-short-acting beta – adrenoceptor agonist(SABA): such as salbutamol 2-Anticholinergic medication- such as ipratropium bromide • Long-term control:- 1-Long-acting beta-adrenoceptor agonist(LABA)-such as salmeterol and formoterol 2-Leukotriene Antagonists - such as montelucast and zafirlukast 3-Mast cell stabilizers- such as cromolyn sodium
  16. 16. Swine influenza(H1N1)- also called pig influenza, swine flu, hog flu and pig flu, is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruses.
  17. 17. MANAGEMENT Annual vaccination Stay at home Get plenty of rest Drink a lot of liquids Do not smoke or drink alcohol Treatment Antivirals e.g. Zanamivir and oseltamivir Amantadine and Rimantadine. Diagnosis Blood Test Chest X-Ray Nose or throat swab
  18. 18. Influenza (the flu) - A virus that enters your body through your nose and mouth and causes fever, headaches, muscle aches and sore throat
  19. 19. MANAGEMENT :- Stay home Avoid close contact with people who are sick. Wear a face mask Treatment :- Cough suppressants Antipyretics and analgesics (e.g. Acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) for fever. Antiviral agents may also be considered for treatment or prophylaxis.
  20. 20. Tuberculosis (TB) - A bacterial infection that attacks the lungs and other parts of the body and can be deadly if not treated correctly
  21. 21. Caused by various strains of mycobacterium, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis typically attacks the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who have an active TB infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit respiratory fluids through the air. Symptoms- chronic cough, fever, chills, night sweats, loss of appetite, weight loss, and fatigue and significant finger clubbing. Affected Parts-Bones, Brain, Spinal Cord, Urinary Tract, Sexual Organs, Lymph nodes, Intestine and even in skin. Prevention- BCG Vaccination. Treatment- DOTS (Directly observed treatment Short-courses)
  22. 22. Management Treatment of TB uses antibiotics to kill the bacteria. antibiotics most commonly used are isoniazid and rifampicin. New onset • six months of a combination of antibiotics containing rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for the first two months. • And only rifampicin and isoniazid for the last four months. • Where resistance to isoniazid is high, ethambutol may be added for the last four months as an alternative. Treatment : • Isoniazid • Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane) • Ethambutol (Myambutol) • Pyrazinamide • DOTS (Directly observed treatment Short-courses)
  23. 23. Emphysema - A type of COPD, usually caused by cigarette smoke, which makes it hard to catch your breath Pulmonary embolism (PE) - A blood clot that blocks a lung artery because of surgery or long periods of inactivity
  24. 24. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - Damage of the airways and air sacs from cigarette smoke and other pollutants that prevents airflow in and out of your lungs
  25. 25. Diagnosis Chest X-ray film:. Computed tomography of the chest Complete blood count MRI Ultrasound Symptoms Shortness of breath Chronic cough Wheezing Decreased ability to exercise weight loss Ankle, feet, and leg swelling Fatigue Treatment Bronchodilator Medications Steroids and anticholinergics Antibiotics Vaccines Oxygen Therapy Surgery or Lung Transplant
  26. 26. Lung cancer - One of the most common cancers in the world, usually caused by cigarette smoke
  27. 27. Treatment options for non-small cell lung cancers Stage Common options I Surgery, sometimes chemotherapy II Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation III Combined chemotherapy and radiation, chemotherapy alone, sometimes surgery based on results of other treatments IV Chemotherapy, targeted drug therapy, clinical trials, supportive care Treatment options for small cell lung cancers Stage Common options I Surgery when possible, but usually combined chemotherapy and radiation II Combined chemotherapy and radiation III Combined chemotherapy and radiation, clinical trials, supportive care IV Chemotherapy, clinical trials, supportive care