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Types of Ethics


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Types of Ethics, Personal Ethics, Social Ethics, Religious Ethics, Business Ethics

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Types of Ethics

  1. 1. Professional Practices Lecture 2 Understanding of Different Ethics
  2. 2. Topics To Be Discussed •Personal Ethics •Social Ethics •Religious Ethics •Professional Ethics •Business Ethics
  3. 3. Personal Ethics • Personal ethics is any system that has been chosen in some way as a moral guide in the particular life style.
  4. 4. Social Ethics • Standards that govern how members of a society are to deal with each other on issues such as fairness, justice, poverty and the rights of the individual. OR • The rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community (e.g., the usual way things are done around here)
  5. 5. Religious Ethics: • Most religions have an ethical component, often derived from purported supernatural revelation or guidance. • According to Simon Blackburn, "For many people, ethics is not only tied up with religion, but is completely settled by it. Such people do not need to think too much about ethics, because there is an authoritative code of instructions, a handbook of how to live.“
  6. 6. Religious Ethics: • Ethics, which is a major branch of philosophy, encompasses right conduct and good life. It is significantly broader than the common conception of analyzing right and wrong. A central aspect of ethics is "the good life", the life worth living or life that is simply satisfying, which is held by many philosophers to be more important than traditional moral conduct. • Some assert that religion is necessary to live ethically. Blackburn states that, there are those who "would say that we can only flourish under the umbrella of a strong social order, cemented by common adherence to a particular religious tradition”.
  7. 7. Business Ethics • Business ethics is the study of good and evil, right and wrong, and just and unjust actions in business. • Although all managers face difficult ethical conflicts, applying clear guidelines resolves the vast majority of them. • Ethical traditions that apply to business support truth telling, honesty, protection of life, respect for rights, fairness, and obedience to law. • Eliminating unethical behavior may be difficult, but knowing the rightness or wrongness of actions is usually easy.
  8. 8. SEVEN ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF A PERSONAL CODE OF COMPUTER ETHICS • 1. Honesty • 2. Respect • 3. Confidentiality (safeguard entrusted information) • 4. Professionalism • 5. Responsibility • 6. Communication • 7. Obeying the law
  9. 9. Why People Act Unethically • The person’s ethical standards are different from those of society as a whole: • The person chooses to act selfishly. • In many instances, both reasons exist.
  10. 10. An Example A woman was traveling through a developing country when she witnessed a car in front of her run off the road and roll over several times. She asked the hired driver to pull over to assist, but, to her surprise, the driver accelerated nervously past the scene. A few miles down the road the driver explained that in his country if someone assists an accident victim, then the police often hold the assisting person responsible for the accident itself. If the victim dies, then the assisting person could be held responsible for the death. The driver continued explaining that road accident victims are therefore usually left unattended and often die from exposure to the country's harsh desert conditions. What should she do? What is the most ethical decision?
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  12. 12. Computer Ethics for Computer Professionals • The field of computer ethics specifies ethical codes for computing professionals. • The core of a computer professional’s code of ethics is to preserve and protect human life from harm. CODES OF CONDUCT AND GOOD PRACTICE FOR CERTIFIED COMPUTING PROFESSIONALS The essential elements relating to conduct that identify a professional activity are: · A high standard of skill and knowledge · A confidential relationship with people served · Public reliance upon the standards of conduct in established practice · The observance of an ethical code Excerpt from the Code of Ethics of the Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc Slide 12
  13. 13. The ACM Code of Conduct ASSOSIATION OF COMPUTING MACHINERY • A computing professional: • Contributes to society and human well-being • Avoids harm to others • Is honest and trustworthy • Is fair and takes action not to discriminate on the basis of race, sex, religion, age, disability, or national origin • Honors property rights, including copyrights and patents • Gives proper credit when using the intellectual property of others • Respects other individuals’ rights to privacy • Honors confidentiality © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc Slide 13
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  15. 15. How Does This Apply to Me? Kaizen 2006 - 2007
  16. 16. Netiquette • Netiquette refers to the guidelines that involve showing respect for others and yourself while you are online. © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc Slide 16
  17. 17. Mailing List Netiquette • Read the discussions for the past few days before posting questions. • Read the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) list before posting questions. • Don’t belittle people for grammatical errors. • Don’t post inflammatory messages. • Learn how to unsubscribe from the list. © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc Slide 17
  18. 18. E-Mail Netiquette • Promptly respond to messages. • Delete messages after you read them. • Speak of others professionally and courteously. • Run your computer’s anti- virus program on any e-mail received or sent. © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc Slide 18
  19. 19. E-Mail Netiquette (continued) • Keep the message short and to the point. • Don’t type in all capital letters. • Spell check your message before sending it. • Be careful with sarcasm and humor in your message. • Be mindful of the recipient’s reaction when you request a return receipt. This feature can be annoying and intrusive. © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc Slide 19
  20. 20. Internet Relay Chat Netiquette • Listen to the discussion for a while before joining it. • Learn the commonly used abbreviations. • Don’t flood the channel with text. • Don’t harass others with unwanted invitations. • Be careful if you are asked to type in a command. It may have unexpected results. • Use the ignore command when being bothered. © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc Slide 20
  21. 21. Sources and Other Information • Bynum, Terrell, "Computer Ethics: Basic Concepts and Historical Overview", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2001 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = < ries/ethics-computer> • Ethics in Computing: • Computer Ethics Institute Kaizen 2006 - 2007
  22. 22. Sources and Other Information (cont’d) • Netiquette: • The Net: User Guidelines and Netiquette – Index • Netiquette Home Page • Online Netiquette Home Page Kaizen 2006 - 2007