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Materials for developing writing skills


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Teaching English as Second language

Published in: Education
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Materials for developing writing skills

  1. 1. Materials for Developing Writing Skills Sarah O. Cruz
  2. 2. Materials for Developing Writing Skills • Together with teaching methodologies, materials represent the interface between teaching and learning, the point at which the needs, objectives and the syllabi are made tangible for both teacher and students
  3. 3. Roles of Materials in writing Instruction 1.Model • presents good examples of the target genre and illustrate its distinctive features(lexical, grammatical and rhetorical) • Must be relevant and authentic
  4. 4. Roles of Materials in writing Instruction 2. Language Scaffolding • Provides opportunities for discussion, guided writing, analysis, and manipulation of target structures and vocabulary, • Grammar should be taught inductively(top- down) • Grammar as resource for producing text
  5. 5. Roles of Materials in writing Instruction 3. Reference Provides explanations and examples of relevant forms
  6. 6. Roles of Materials in writing Instruction 4. Stimulus • Encourages learners to think about and use language
  7. 7. Selecting Writing Materials A. Ask • 1. What is the proficiency of my students? • 2. Why are they learning English? • 3. What texts will they need to write in their social, academic, and workplace contexts?
  8. 8. Selecting Writing Materials B. Determine the text types to which the students need to be familiar • Emails • Reports • Narratives • Persuasives
  9. 9. Textbook as Writing Material "Teaching writing is primarily a local and complex endeavor which defies being packaged into a single textbook." • Consider the textbook's local relevance (i.e., suitability to the needs of the students, teachers, curricula) • Remember the five methods of adapting materials: adding, deleting, modifying, simplifying, reordering.
  10. 10. The Internet • Some of the many advantages: offers access to an abundance of authentic materials • encourages collaborative research and writing projects • provides access to dictionaries, corpora, and reference aids • provides opportunities for student written communication and dissemination of their work to a wider audience
  11. 11. Representative Resources for Teachers and Students • Dave's Internet Cafe ( • BBC English ( • Writing Centers' Online Discussion Community ( • WPA-L: Writing Program Administration ( • Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue ( • Using English ( • ESL Gold ( • Blackboard, Moodle, etc.
  12. 12. Creating Writing Materials Recommendation • participating in materials-writing teams • leaning heavily on existing materials
  13. 13. Model for Materials Design (Hutchison and Waters 1987) • Four key components: A. Input (text that provides stimulus for thought, context and purpose for writing, opportunities to use and build on prior knowledge, etc.) B. Content Focus (topics, situations, and information for meaningful communication)
  14. 14. Model for Materials Design (Hutchison and Waters 1987) C. Language Focus (opportunities for text analysis and integration of new knowledge) D. Task (culminating communicative activity and writing assignment)
  15. 15. Using the Input Text • model to highlight genre features and context • foundation for building content schemata and initiating writing through extensive reading and discussion (focus on comprehension, reflection, engagement)
  16. 16. References • Masood, A • Tomlinson, B Procedures%20of%20Materials%20Developm ent%20Paper.pdf • developing-writing-skills-ken-hyland/