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  1. 1. A STUDY ON “EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP PERFORMANCE IN THE ORGANISATION” AT MANGALA MARINE EXIM, EDAKOCHI PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TO MAHATHMA GANDHI UNIVERSITY KOTTAYAM In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Award of the Degree of BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Submitted by: Sarath Sasi Reg.No:11154152 UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Mrs Mini Blaze, MBA SIENA COLLEGE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES EDAKOCHI, KOCHI-682006 2011-2014
  2. 2. SIENA COLLEGE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES EDAKOCHI, KOCHI – 682006 This is to certify that the project work entitled “EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP PERFORMANCE IN THE ORGANISATION” submitted to mahatma Gandhi University in partial fulfilment of the requirement of the award of Bachelor of Business Administration is a record of original work done by MR SARATH SASI under our guidance and supervision and this project work has not formed the basis for any degree as similar title to any candidate of any university. Mrs MINI BLAZE Mr ALDRIN JOSEPH (M.B.A) (M.Com (FIN), M.Com (Edn.Mgt.), MBA, SET, DCA) Project guide. Head of the department Prof: Philip Neri K.I., M.Sc. (Phy.), MIETE, M.Phils, MIE (EC), C.Eng, MCSE, MCA, MCP+1
  3. 3. DECLARATION: I, Sarath Sasi hereby declares that the project report entitled “Effect of Leadership Performance in the Organisation” done by me under the guidance of my institution and the supportfrom HR Department of Mangala Marine Exim India Private ltd is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of degree of Bachelor of Business Administration of Mahatma Gandhi University Kottayam. I also declares that this project report has not been submitted in full or part there of any University/Institution for the award of Degree or Diploma. Date: Place: Signature of the candidate
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Project work is never the accomplishment of an individual rather it is an amalgamation of the efforts, ideas and co-operation of a number of entities. I would like the honour to appreciate my sincere gratitude to “Mangala marine Exim India pvt.ltd” for giving me a wonderful opportunity to work on a valuable project. My articulate thanks to Mrs Deepa Johnson for giving me permission to conductthis project and all other employees of Mangala Marine Exim for their valuable supportand sparing their valuable time with me for the accomplishment of my work. I also wish to thank our Principal Prof. Philip Neri K.I. and to all the members of Siena College of Professional Studies, EDAKOCHI. I also express my heartfelt thanks to Mr Aldrin Joseph (M.Com (FIN), M.Com (Edn.Mgt.), MBA, SET, DCA) H.O.D of B.B.A and to Mrs Vrunda S (M.B.A), her inspiration and motivation was the key success ofmy work. I extend my sincere thanks to my guide Mrs Mini Blaze,(M.B.A) for continuous support throughout the development of the project. My humble words are not enough to demonstrate the supportand love of my Family and Friends and to my beloved belle .Above all I thank the almighty God; without him I would’ve been nothing
  5. 5. Thank you all for guiding & grooming my budding talent. Table of contents SL.NO TITLE NAME PAGE NO: Topic CERTIFICATECOLLEGE CERTIFICATECOMPANY DECLARATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 1. INTRODUCTION (i)synopsis (ii)statement of the problem (iii)review of literature (Iv)objectives 2. Research Methodology 3. Industrial profile 4. Company profile 5. Data Analysis And Interpretation 6. findings and suggestions
  6. 6. 7. limitations 8. bibliography 9. Annexure INTRODUCTION
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION As the twenty-first century approaches, the world is undergoing enormous changes, a process of great upheaval and great possibility. In just a few short years, we have witnessed the dawn of post-industrial society, the advent of information age, the rush to computerization, birth of biotechnology, and not the least of these changes, the human-relations revolution. The Business environment has grown dramatically more intense. Competition has become more global and more energized. And technology races on. No longer can business safely ignore their customers’ wants and needs. No longer can managers simply issue orders and expect them to be mindlessly obeyed. No longer can personal relationships be taken for granted. No longer can companies be less than obsessed with constant quality improvement. No longer can so much human creativity go so scandalously untapped.
  8. 8. To survive in this years to come, successfulorganizations-in business, in government, in the non-profit world-will have to undergo a profound cultural change. Their people will have to think quicker, work smarter, dream wilder, and relate to each other in very different ways. Most important of all, this cultural change will require a whole new breed of leader, a leader quite unlike the bosses mostofus have worked for and some of us have perhaps become. The day has long since passed when a company could be run with a bullwhip and a chair. The leaders of tomorrow will have to establish a real vision and a sense of values for the organizations they wish to lead. These leaders will have to communicate and motivate far more effectively than did leaders of the past. They will have to keep their wits about them through conditions of rear-constant change. And these new leaders will have to mine every ounce of talent and creativity that their organizations possess ------from the shop floor to the executive suite. That’s where you find “THE LEADER IN YOU”. Synopsis: The project ‘A Study on “EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP PERFORMANCE IN THE ORGANIZATION” at MANGALA MARINE EXIM INDIA PVT. LTD’. The main objective in doing this project is to study how leadership effects the organisational climate. For this, the researcher used questionnaire method and the sample size was 50. The statistical tools used are column diagram, pie diagram and bar diagram used for analysing the data. After analysing the facts, suggestions were made.
  9. 9. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The central theme for conducting this study is to find out how Leadership plays a vital role in the organisationeffect of leadership in the organisation and to figure out the impact and outcome of it. This study also determines the leadership skills and also helps to improvise the leader in you. Another purpose of this study is that, we often think of a manager or leader is expected to exhibit a right behaviour towards employees or subordinates. Yet it is realised that in most organisations, work schedule are task-focused and routine, with no flexibility, and yet decisions and policies are imposed on subordinates. In such organisations where the
  10. 10. leadership perceives employees as mere hands to get job done, employees would pretend to do well due to the standards and measure being assigned to them. For employees to accomplish their work, managers must encourage individuals who reports to them, co-workers, and supervisors or customers. Because of this for effective and efficient organisations leadership, the human factor must be critically looked out from the employee performance. Mangala Marine Exim India Private Limited has a set of leadership standards expected to be lived by its managers or leaders with the view to improving performance. The problem for this study was to establish the effect of leadership behaviours that are exhibited at Mangala Marine Exim, and to know how it was affecting the performance of the Organisation. Review of Literature: This chapter deals with the review of studies and literature of various researches pertaining to the topic. A review of the leadership literature reveals an evolving series of 'schools of thought' from the “great man” notion of heroic leaders, through trait theories, behaviourist theories, situational leadership, and contingency theory and on to transactional and transformational leadership. Each of these offers some insights into the qualities of successfulleaders, but there has been a shift in from the characteristics and behaviours of the individual to recognition of the importance of responding to different situations and contexts and the leaders‟ role in relation to the followers. The review continues with leadership models and competency frameworks. These present a range of leadership and management frameworks currently being used in organizations.
  11. 11. They define the qualities required of people in leadership positions and help to inform the leadership development process. Every leader in every organization performs certain roles/tasks for the smooth running of the organization and improvement of organisational performance. The manner the leader performs these roles and directs the affairs of the organisation is referred to as his/her leadership style. Leadership style therefore is the way a leader leads. Some leaders are more interested in the work to be done than in the people they work with while others pay more attention to their relationship with subordinates than the job. Leaders express leadership in many roles. These, among others, are formulating aims and objectives, establishing structures, The leadership style leaders chooseto perform the above mentioned roles will determine whether they will accomplish the task at hand and long-term organisational goals or not, and whether they will be able to achieve and maintain positive relationships with staff. The purposeof reviewing literature on leadership is to have a better understanding of leadership style as a concept, to examine different leadership styles to see their effectiveness and how each style affects the relationship among the employees in the organization. The interpretation of various leadership models suggests that no single leadership style is adequate to run an organization effectively. Rather, the combination of styles is effective if used appropriately as situations demand. More importantly, high performance should be the aim of any organization in any country globally. Even though there are other factors which influence leadership, the manager’s behaviour is to some extent instrumental in enhancing the goal and objectives of the organization. In order to assess the effect of leadership styles and employee performance, which is the focus of this study, it is logical to examine various leadership styles. 2.2 What Is Leadership? Leadership remains one of the most relevant aspects oforganizational context. For more than five decades ago, the term leadership has been a researchable topic. Mostly, the research work focuses on issues of quality of leadership, ability of a leader, or leadership effectiveness, or leadership styles. It’s the art or process ofinfluencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of group goals.
  12. 12. The traditional perspectives of leadership perceive the conceptof leadership as inducing compliance, respect and cooperation. In other words, the leader exercises power over the followers to obtain their cooperation(Anderson et, al., 1998). In addition to that, the old leadership perspectives are based on leader’s role as formulating goals, and ensuring their efficient accomplishment. Both the old and new concepts of leadership appear to agree on some characteristics of leadership. For example, both agree that leadership does not take place in isolation. Rather, it takes place in the process oftwo or more people interacting and the leader seeks to influence the behaviour of other people. However, to a large extent, the old conceptof leadership is based on exercising power over followers to maintain the status quo, while the new perspective is based on continuous improvement and power sharing with the followers. The old conceptofleadership is based on downward exercise of power and authority while the new seeks to develop respect and concern for the followers and see them as a powerful sourceof knowledge, creativity and energy for improving the organization. The issue of change and empowerment is the main focus of the new perspective on leadership. The leader is expected to continually generate new ideas for increasing effectiveness and productivity within the organization. She is required to provide needed strategies for executing the ideas/vision and motivate the employees to accomplish the vision by using their own initiatives to improve their inter-group relations in and outside of the organization. 2.3 Concept of Leadership: Leadership is a conceptthat originally developed in folk psychology to explain social influence on groups (Calder, 1977). Many people believe that leadership is simply being the first, biggest or most powerful. Leadership in organizations has different and more meaningful definitions. Very simply put, a leader is interpreted as someone who sets direction in an effort and influences people to follow that direction. Leadership is the process bywhich a person exerts influence over people and inspires, motivates, and directs their activities to help achieve groups or organizational goals (Jones and George, 2004). Therefore leadership is the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of goals. The sourceof this influence may be formal as a result of one possessinga managerial rank in an organization or informal suchas non-sanctioned leadership, which is the ability to influence that arises outside the formal structure of the organization. The informal structure
  13. 13. of leadership is as important if leadership is the result of the interaction among leaders, the followers and the leadership situation. The leadership process contains all these elements. Leadership generally is regarded as essential to group and organizational effectiveness. Thus, leadership contributes significantly in the success and failure of organization. It tends to be based on position, authority and seniority; for example, commitment is highly associated with loyalty to the top boss in China (Chen and Francesco, 2000). Effective leadership in organization, therefore, creates vision of the future that considers the legitimate long term interest of the parties involved in the organization to develop a strategy for moving forward towards that vision enlists the support of employees to producethe movement and motivates employees to implement the strategy. 2.4 Leadership theories: Various leadership paradigms have been used to describe leadership and leadership effectiveness. Leadership paradigm has changed over the last decades;it has transited from the traditional leadership to the new perspectives. 2.4.1 GreatManand Trait Theories: The great man theory is based on the idea that leaders are bornwith innate, unexplainable leadership skills, which cause other people to see them as heroes. It is based on the opinion that leaders are right and leadership is rooted in the authority of their righteousness. Leaders are elevated by their followers on the ground of their unique qualities that others do not have. As a result, followers do not doubt their leaders‟ judgments. Trait theories are based on great man theories. Trait approachto the understanding of leadership perceives leadership as the core of organization effectiveness and performance. Like the great man theories, trait perspective assumes that great leaders are born with distinguished traits/characteristics that make them different from other people. According to Sashkin and Sashkin (2003), researchers like Ralph stodgily, in his quest for the secret of great leaders, review many research reports on leadership, based on the assumption that great leaders are born. Sashkin and Sashkin (2003) indicate that Ralph Stodgily found that leaders were a bit more intelligent, outgoing, creative, assertive, responsible, taller and heavier than average people.
  14. 14. However, these differences in traits could not provide a solution to the search, as the list was found to be statistically insignificant. Thus, Ralph Stodgily (in Sashkin and Sashkin 2003) concluded that a person does not become a leader because of a combination of traits since the impact of traits differs according to situation. Therefore, the characteristics of the situation should be considered before ascribing greatness to an individual as a leader. Ralph Stogdill and other researchers concluded that possessionof some traits might contribute to leadership effectiveness. This is different from the original trait assumption that leaders are born and not made. Even though there is no list of traits that guarantees leadership effectiveness, a number of traits have been recently identified to contribute to leadership success as it recognizes the influence of both traits and situation. Hoy and Miskel (2001) also identify
  15. 15. some traits that are currently associated with effective leadership as self-confidence, stress tolerance, emotional maturity and integrity‟. 2.4.2 BehaviouralTheories: The results of the trait studies were inconclusive. Traits, amongst other things, were hard to measure. How, for example, do we measure traits such as honesty, integrity, loyalty, or diligence? Another approachin the study of leadership had to be found. After the publication of the late Douglas McGregor's classic book„The Human Side of Enterprise‟ in 1960, attention shifted to „behavioural theories‟. McGregor was a teacher, researcher, and consultant whose work was considered to be "on the cutting edge" of managing people. He influenced all the behavioural theories, which emphasize focusing on human relationships, along with output and performance. Behavioural leadership perspective assumes, like trait leadership perspectives, that leadership is central to organizational performance. However, the focus is on leader’s behaviour rather than leader’s personal traits/characteristics Employee-centred or highly considerate leader is sensitive to subordinates‟ feelings and strives to make things pleasant for them. In contrast, production- centred leader or a leader high in initiating structure emphasizes completion of the task. The behavioural types of leadership that will be examined are McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Managers and Blake and Mouton's leadership grid. 2.4.2.1McGregor’s TheoryX and Theory Y Managers: McGregor (1960) proposed that leadership strategies are influenced by a leader's assumptions about human nature. As a result of his experience as a consultant, McGregor summarized two contrasting sets of assumptions made by managers in industry. He developed two attitude profiles, or assumptions, about the basic nature of people. These attitudes were termed „Theory X and Theory Y. McGregor maintained that many leaders in essence subscribeto either Theory X or Theory Y and behave accordingly. It can therefore be seen that a leader holding Theory X assumptions would prefer an autocratic style, whereas one holding Theory Y assumptions would prefer a more participative style. The real value of McGregor’s work was to the idea that a leader’s attitude towards human nature has a large influence on how that person behaves as leader. Thus the relationship between a leader’s expectation and the resulting performance of a subordinate has received much attention. Generally, it has been found that if a manager’s expectations are high, productivity is likely to be poor. This theory suggests that a manager’s assumptions and beliefs about nature of the individual determined his leadership behaviour.
  16. 16. Some elements of Mangala culture provide a fertile ground for the practice by a Theory X leadership behaviour. These elements include overriding respectfor elders, authoritarian political culture and high predisposition towards respect for authority. Moreover, certain negative Attitudes prevalent among Ghanaian workers demand Theory X behaviour if the manager expects to achieve results. Examples of such negative attitudes as identified by Wood include the abuse of office for private gain, fence sitting, laziness and lethargy; lack of commitment to work and poortime culture. However, a Theory X leadership behaviour may not be applicable to all Ghanaian workers. Some highly skilled and well educated employees and predisposed to a theory Y leadership behaviour resist managers who adopt coercion and close supervision. Managers who subscribeto the Theory Y assumption tend to adopta participative style of management with emphasis on consultation, worker participation in the decision making process;high consideration for
  17. 17. employee welfare, confidence in and recognition of individual ability. In firms where Theory Y behaviour of leadership is prevalent, leadership lays emphasis on minimum direction goal oriented environment, joint setting of performance standards, subordinates, employee participation in the decision making process, recruiting employees with high achievement orientation and creativity, harmonization of individual and organizational goals, recognition of individual effort, and greater delegation of authority and decentralization. Theory Y behaviour of leadership can be used in the Mangala environment especially in organizations, which employ a large number of skilled and well-educated staff. Furthermore, the existence of strong trade unions and staff association who usually demand consultation before major leadership decisions are taken oblige managers to adoptTheory Y leadership behaviour. 2.4.3. Fiedler’s ContingencyTheory: Fiedler was the first to develop this leadership theory, which shows that situational variable interacts with a leader’s personality and behaviour. Fiedler (1967) believes that there is no single best way for managers to lead. Situations will create different leadership style requirements for a manager. The solution to a managerial situation is contingent on the factors that impinge on the situation. Forexample, in a highly routine (mechanistic) environment where repetitive tasks are the norm, a relatively directive leadership style may result in the best performance. However, in a dynamic environment a more flexible, participative style may be required. Fiedler looked at three situations that could define the condition of a managerial task: (i) Leader member relations: How well do the manager and the employees get along? (ii) Task structure: Is the job highly structured, fairly unstructured, or somewhere in between? (iii) Position power: How much authority does the manager possess? Managers were rated as to whether they were relationship oriented or task oriented. Task oriented managers tend to do better in situations that have good leader-member relationships, structured tasks and either weak or strong position power. They do well when the task is unstructured but position power is strong. Also, they did well at the other end of the spectrum when the leader member relations were moderate to poorand the task was unstructured. Relationship oriented managers do better in all other situations. Thus, a given situation might call for a manager with a different style or a manager who could take on a different style for a different situation.
  18. 18. These environmental variables are combined in a weighted sum that is termed "favourable" at one end and "unfavourable" at the other. Task oriented style is preferable at the clearly defined extremes of "favourable" and "unfavourable" environments, but relationship orientation excels in the middle ground. Managers could attempt to reshape the environment variables to match their style. Another aspectof the contingency model theory is that the leader-member relations, task structure, and position power dictate a leader's situational control. Leader-member relations are the amount of loyalty, dependability, and supportthat the leader receives from employees. It is a measure of how the manager perceives him or her and the group of employees is getting along together. In a favourable relationship the manager has a high task structure and is able to reward and or punish employees without any problems. In an unfavourable relationship the task is usually unstructured and the leader possesses limited authority. The spelling out in detail (favourable) of what is required of subordinates affects task structure. Positioning power measures the amount of power or authority the manager perceives the organization has given him or her for the purposeof directing, rewarding, and punishing subordinates. Positioning power of managers depends on the taking away (favourable) or increasing (unfavourable) the decision-making power of employees. The task-motivated style leader experiences pride and satisfaction in the task accomplishment for the organization, while the relationship-motivated style seeks to build interpersonal relations and extend extra help for team development in the organization. There is no good or bad leadership style. Each person has his or her own preferences for leadership. Task-motivated leaders are at their best when the group performs successfully suchas achieving a new sales record or outperforming the major competitor. Relationship-oriented leaders are at their bestwhen greater customer satisfaction is gained and a positive company image is established. Durbin (1998) holds that good relationship between Leader and follower is the most important factor that makes life easy for the leader in terms of Influencing and exercising control over his/her situation. . It appears that Fielder’s theory suggests that there are two main leadership behaviour styles: task-oriented and relationship-oriented, otherwise, there are indications that the leader who is high on task behaviour may or may not be high or low on relationship behaviour. However, any combination of those two is possible. It has been observed that leaders who are people- oriented create positive climate in their organizations. 2.4.4 Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Leadership Continuum:
  19. 19. One criticism of early work on leadership styles is that they looked at styles too much in black and white terms. The autocratic and democratic styles or task-oriented and relationship-oriented styles, which they described are extremes, whereas in practice the behaviour of many, perhaps most leaders in business will be somewhere between the two. Contingency theorists Tannenbaum and Schmidt suggested the idea that leadership behaviour varies along a continuum and that as one moves away from the autocratic extreme the amount of subordinate participation and involvement in decision taking increases. They also suggested that the kind of leadership represented by the democratic extreme of the continuum will be rarely encountered in formal organizations. Four main leadership styles can be located at points along such a continuum: ose expecting subordinates to carry them out without question (the Telling style). the scale the leader also takes all the decisions for the group without discussionor consultation but believes that people will be better motivated if they are persuaded that the decisions are good ones. He or she does a lot of explaining and 'selling' in order to overcome any possibleresistance to what he or she wants to do. The leader also puts a lot of energy into creating enthusiasm for the goals he or she has set for the group (the Selling style). ith the group members before taking decisions and, in fact, considers their advice and their feelings when framing decisions. He or she may, of course, not always acceptthe subordinates' advice but they are likely to feel that they can have some influence. Under this leadership style the decision and the full responsibility for it remain with the leader but the degree of involvement by subordinates in decision taking is very much greater than telling or selling styles (the Consulting style).
  20. 20. : Using this style the leader would characteristically lay the problem before his or her subordinates and invite discussion. The leader's role is that of conference leader, or chair, rather than that of decision taker. He or she will allow the decision to emerge out of the process ofgroup discussion, instead of imposing it on the group as its boss (the Joining style). What distinguishes this approachfrom previous discussions of leadership style is that there will be some situations in which each of the above styles is likely to be more appropriate than the others. ropriate and would normally be considered justified by the group (as long as the general climate of that group is supportive and mature). ch the group leader, and he or she alone, possesses all the information on which the decision must be based and which at the same time calls for a very high level of commitment and enthusiasm on the part of group members if the task is to be carried through successfully. priate when there is time in which to reach a considered decision and when the information on which the decision needs to be based lies among the members of the group. 2.4.5 The Path-GoalApproach to Leadership Effectiveness: According to the first of all theory, the manager’s job is viewed as guiding workers to choose the best paths to reach their goals, as well as the organizational goals. The theory argues that leaders will have to engage in different types of leadership behaviour depending on the nature and the demands of a particular situation. It is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining goals and to provide the direction and supportneeded to ensure that their goals are compatible with the organization’s goals. A leader’s behaviour is acceptable to subordinates when viewed as a sourceof satisfaction, and motivational when need satisfaction is contingent on performance, and the leader Functions of The leader Leader behaviour Characteristics 0f subordinates Motivated subordinates Effective Organisation
  21. 21. Facilitates, coaches, and rewards effective performance. The original path-goal theory identifies achievement-oriented, directive, participative, and supportive leader behaviours:  The directive path-goalclarifying leader behaviour refers to situations where the leader lets followers know what is expected of them and tells them how to perform their tasks. The theory argues that this behaviour has the most positive effect when the subordinates' role and task demands are ambiguous and intrinsically satisfying.  The achievement-oriented leader behaviour refers to situations where the leader sets challenging goals for followers, expects them to perform at their highest level, and shows confidence in their ability to meet this expectation. Occupations in which the achievement motive were most predominant were technical jobs, sales persons, scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs.  The participative leader behaviour involves leaders consulting with followers and asking for their suggestions before making a decision. This behaviour is predominant when subordinates are highly personally involved in their work.  The supportive leader behaviour is directed towards the satisfaction of subordinates needs and preferences. The leader shows concern for the followers’ psychological wellbeing. This behaviour is especially needed in situations in which tasks or relationships are psychologically or physically distressing. Path–goal theory assumes that leaders are flexible and that they can change their style, as situations require. The theory proposes two contingency variables, such as environment and follower characteristics, that moderate the leader behaviour-outcome relationship. Environment is outside the control of the follower-task structure, authority system, and work group. Environmentalfactors determine the type of leader behaviour required if the follower outcomes are to be maximized. Follower characteristics are the locus of control, experience, and perceived ability. Personal characteristics of subordinates determine how the environment and leader are interpreted. Effective leaders clarify the path to help their followers achieve goals and make the journey easier by reducing roadblocks and pitfalls. [1] [5] Research demonstrates that employee performance and satisfaction are positively influenced when the leader compensates for the shortcomings in either the employee or the work setting. According to North Ouse, the theory is useful because it reminds leaders that their central purposeas a leader is to help subordinates define and reach their goals in an efficient manner. Work Environment
  22. 22. In contrast to the Fiedler contingency model, the path–goal model states that the four leadership styles are fluid, and that leaders can adoptany of the four depending on what the situation demands. 2.4.6 Kinds of leaders‟ behaviour: (a) Directive leadershipstyle Directive leadership style is similar to the task-oriented style. The leader who uses this type of leadership style provides teachers with specific guidelines, rules and regulations with regard to planning, organizing and performing activities. This style is deemed to be appropriate when subordinates‟ ability is low and or the task to be performed is complex or ambiguous. Job satisfaction is increased when the leader gives more directives (b) Supportive leadership style Supportive leadership style is more of a relationship-oriented style. It requires the leader to be approachable and friendly. He/she displays concern for the well-being and personal needs of the subordinates. He/she creates an emotionally supportive climate. This style is effective when subordinates lack self-confidence, work on dissatisfying or stressful tasks and work does not provide job satisfaction. (c) Participative leadershipstyle The leader who employs this style consults with subordinates for ideas and takes their ideas seriously when making decisions. This style is effective when subordinates are well motivated and competent. (d) Achievement-oriented style In this style, the leader sets challenging but achievable goals for the subordinates. He/she pushes work improvement and sets high expectations for subordinates and rewards them when the expectations are met. That is, the leader provides both high directive (structure) and high supportive (consideration) behaviour. This style works well with achievement oriented subordinates 2.4.7 TransformationalLeadershipand TransactionalLeadership Transformationalleadershipis a process in which the leaders take actions to try to increase their associates' awareness of what is right and important, to raise their associates' motivational maturity and to move their associates to go beyond the associates' own self- interests for the good of the group, the organization, or society. Such leaders provide their associates with a sense of purposethat goes beyond a simple exchange of rewards for effort
  23. 23. provided. The transformational leaders are proactive in many different and unique ways. These leaders attempt to optimize development, not just performance. Development encompasses the maturation of ability, motivation, attitudes, and values. Such leaders want to elevate the maturity level of the needs of their associates (from security needs to needs for achievement and self-development). They convince their associates to strive for a higher level of achievement as well as higher levels of moral and ethical standards. Through the development of their associates, they optimize the development of their organization as well. High performing associates build high performing organizations. Hooper and Potter (1997) extend the notion of transformational leadership to identify seven key competences of “transcendent leaders”: those able to engage the emotional supportof their Followers and thus effectively transcend change. (i) Setting direction (ii) Setting an example (iii) Communication (iv) Alignment (v) Bringing out the best in people (vi) The leader as a change agent (vii) Providing decision in a crisis and on the ambiguous Were as Transactionalleadership has been the traditional model of leadership with its roots from an organisational or business perspective in the „bottom line‟. Bass and Avoid (1997) describe the transactional leadership style as based on traditional bureaucratic authority and legitimacy. Transactional leaders are able to entice subordinates to perform and thereby achieve desired outcomes by promising those rewards and benefits for the accomplishment of tasks (Bass, 1990). Bass describes the transactional leader’s relationship with the subordinates as having three phases. Firstly, he recognises what subordinates want to get from their work and ensures that they get what they want given that their performance is satisfactory. Secondly, rewards and promises of rewards are exchanged for employee’s effort. Lastly, the leader responds to his employee’s immediate self-interests if they can be met through completing the work.
  24. 24. The focal point of transactional leadership is on role elucidation. The leader assists the follower in understanding precisely what needs to be achieved in order to meet the organisation’s objectives. 2.5 Performance Management 2.5.1 ConceptofPerformance Management Performance is important to us as people and as organisations. The topic of performance is not a straightforward one the word “performance” is utilised extensively in all fields of management. Despite the frequency of the use of the word, its precise meaning is rarely explicitly defined by authors even when the main focus of the article or bookis on performance. The correctinterpretation of the word performance is important and must never be misread in the context of its use. Often performance is identified or equated with effectiveness and efficiency In fact, most of us believe that we can, and will, improve at what we do, and we expect others to improve over time as well. Performance is a relative conceptdefined in terms of some referent employing a complex set of time-based measurements of generating future results. Performance management is an integral part of effective human resource management and development strategy. Performance management is an ongoing and joint process where the employee, with the assistance of the employer, “strives to improve the employee’s individual performance and his contribution to the organisation’s wider objectives” Define performance management as “the process that begins with translating the overall strategic objectives of the organisation into clear objectives for each individual employee”. Performance management can also be seen to incorporate all of those aspects of human resource management that are designed to progress and/or develop the effectiveness and efficiency of boththe individual and the organisation 2.5.2PerformanceandLeadership The success ofan organisation is reliant on the leader’s ability to optimise human resources. A good leader understands the importance of employees in achieving the goals of the organisation, and that motivating these employees is of paramount importance in achieving these goals. To have an effective organisation the people within the organisation need to be inspired to invest themselves in the organisation’s mission: the employees need to be stimulated so that they can be effective; hence effective organisations require effective leadership.
  25. 25. Leadership is perhaps the most thoroughly investigated organisational variable that has a potential impact on employee performance. Winning leaders understand what motivates employees and how the employee’s strengths and weaknesses influence their decisions, actions, and relationships. Cummings and Schwab mention the connection between leadership traits or leadership behaviours and employee performance. However, they stress that the literature was not based on empirical evidence and therefore has becomediscredited over time (Cummings and Schwab, 1973; Fiedler and House, 1988). There is agreement in the literature (Maritz, 1995; Bass, 1997) that leadership is a critical factor in the success orfailure of an organisation; excellent organisations begin with excellent leadership, and successfulorganisations therefore reflect their leadership. Leaders are effective when the influence they exert over their subordinates works towards achieving organisational performance (Jones and George, 2000). Furthermore, leadership is often regarded as the single most critical success factorin the success orfailure of an institution (Bass, 1990). Leadership is undoubtedly the critical determinant of the success ofan organisation, and thus determines organisational performance in the competitive global market. Research into organisational behaviour in different environments found that transformational leadership has a positive influence on employee performance, and therefore organisational performance (Bass and Avolio, 1994; Ristow, 1998). However, through research by Pruijn and Boucher (1994) it was shown that transformational leadership is an extension of transactional leadership (Bass, 1997).The difference between these two models is that followers of transformational leadership exhibit performance which is beyond expectations, while transactional leadership, at best, leads to expected performance (Bass and Avolio, 1994). Ristow (1998) states that transactional leaders were effective in markets, which were continually growing, and where there was little or no competition, but this is not the case in the markets of today, where competition is fierce and resources are scarce. Research data (Brand, et al., 2000) has clearly shown that transformational leaders are more effective than transactional leaders, regardless of how “effectiveness” has been defined.
  26. 26. OBJECTIVES: “Effect of Leadership Performance in the Organization” Objectives: 1) To explore & to evaluate the leadership performance in an organization. 2) To figure out the strategies &techniques which has been applied for a successful leadership 3) To find out the challenges faced by the leaders within the organizational climate. 4) Identifying the causes and effects on stagnation of employees and finding a suitable remedy. 5) To know the level of satisfaction of employees towards the company. 6) To identify the leadership strength on a trusting employee relationship. 7) To know the quality of work life and job satisfaction of employees. 8) To Study about the morale and attitudes of employees. 9) To know how the organizational objectives can be accomplished through leadership. 10) To know how a leader balance the employees personal interest & responsibilities with professional interest & responsibilities. 11) To know how Leadership Skills could positively put into to Firm Performance. 12) To know the level of responsibilities of a leader and how it can be overwhelmed.
  27. 27. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  28. 28. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Process A research cannot be conducted abruptly. The researcher has to proceed systematically in the already planned direction with the help of a number of steps in sequence. All the research conducting steps, when combined together from the research process. Ifall the steps are taken systematically manner, the research conducted becomes quite effective. Steps involved in a Research The research process is carried out according to a designated series of steps which are taken in a chronological order. The major steps are: 1. Problem definition The first step in a research process is to define the problem chosenfor investigation. This step is very significant on, since it is said, “A problem well-defined is half solved”. 2. Statement of research objectives Research objective may be stated in qualitative and quantitative terms. 3. Planning the research design Research design is the basic frame work, which provides guidelines for the research process. It is a map or blue print according to which the research is to be conducted. Primary Data Collection Primary data is collected through questionnaire and interview method. Primary data are those which are collected for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. There are several methods of collecting primary data as follows: 1. Observationmethod Under observation method, the information needed by researcher is obtained by merely observing the consumer’s behavior without asking questions. 2. Interview method The interview method involves the collection of data through personal interviews, telephone interviews etc. In personal interview method, the interviewers ask questions in a face contact
  29. 29. to the other personor persons. Telephone interview method of collecting information consists in contacting respondents on telephone itself. 3. Questionnaire method Questionnaire is printed list of questions sent to the respondent. The success ofthis method depends on the properdrafting of questions. The different types of questions are: 1. Direct questions 2. Indirect questions 3. Open end questions 4. Closed end questions 5. Dichotomous questions. The primary data collected for this research is based on the observation method, personal interview method and questionnaire method. Secondary Data Collection Secondarydata is collected from published sourcedepending upon the gathering or disturbing source. The secondary data can be divided into two categories: 1. Internal secondarydata 2. External secondary data. External data are generated and collection from the sources outside. External data can be obtained from the following sources:  Government sources  Commercial sources  Industrial sources  Miscellaneous sources. Sampling Sampling is the duty of the researcher to decide whether information should be collected from every unit of population or only a portion of population will be used. If the information is collected from every unit of population it is called sinus method. Whereas, if information is collected only from a few minutes of the population, it is called sampling method. Methods of Sampling Sampling method can be classified into two:
  30. 30. 1. Probability sampling Probability sampling is also known as random sampling. Under this method each elements or member of the population have a chance of being selected. 2. Non-probability sampling The sampling procedurewhich does not afford any basis for estimating the probability for each item to be reduced in the sample. The sampling technique used for this research study is convenience sampling, under non-probability sampling. Population The universe is the specific group of people firms, condition activities etc. which form the pivotal point of research project. The population taken for this research is 50. Sample The group of respondents selected from the population conducting a study in detail, for the purposeof obtaining the research result constitutes sample. Sample Size Sample size is referred to as the number units to be included in the sample. Sample size of this research is 50. Tools for Analysis Various statistical tools to be used to analysis and interpret the collection data are called tools for analysis. The various tools used for analysis the data collected for this research are: 1. Tables 2. Charts 3. Column diagrams Period of Study The time taken for the completion of the research study is known as period of study. The period of study of this research problem is 5 months, Nov- March 2013- 2014
  31. 31. INDUSTRIAL PROFILE
  32. 32. Seafood Exporters Association of India HISTORY: India with a coastline of 8041 km has always occupied a significant position in the world fisheries map. For the last 8 years consecutively India has exported seafood worth more than US$ 1 billion. Indian seafood is relished world over by connoisseurs of seafood becauseof its purity, freshness and flavour. Indian Tiger Shrimp, Scampi, Cattle Fish, Squid and other fin fishes like Seer fish , Pomfret, Reef cod, Mullet, Ribbon fish etc. – offer excellent opportunities for the importers to source their requirement of seafood from India. The unpolluted Indian waters, the state of art technology adopted by Indian processors, commitment by the processorsto pack quality products and above all strong and sound trade relationship between the buyers and sellers makes India the perfect country to source fishery products. India International Seafood Show 2003, offers an ideal meeting place for the Indian seafood processors, exporters, buyers, hatchery and aquaculture farm owners and trawler operators to interact, exchange ideas and evolve strategies for mutual benefit. The first India International Seafood Show was held in the year 1973 at Mumbai. Thereafter 13 fairs have been held so far in cities like Mumbai, Chennai, Kochi, Bangalore, Delhi and Visakhapatnam - all of them have attracted a large number of Indian and Overseas players in the seafood trade. This is the first time, Goa, the finest tourist destination in India is hosting this mega event. Undoubtedly, Goa is the perfect place to mix business with pleasure. A tiny emerald land fringed by world class beaches, Goais truly a Tropical Paradise on the West Coastof India. A beachcomber's delight, Goa has a rich historical heritage with ancient churches, monuments, colonial ruins which combine to make GOA, a tourist destination of international repute. Seafood Exporters Association of India (SEAI) was incorporated with the main objective to protect and promote the interest of the companies engaged in the seafood
  33. 33. Business and to develop the international trade of seafood from India. SEAI has its corporatebase in Cochin in Kerala and eight regional offices in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, Orissa, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. The Seafood Export Industry in India is over 50 years old and was initiated when the first shipment of frozen shrimp was sent from the port of Cochin in 1953 by Mr.Madhavan Nair owner of Cochin Company. Initially, canned shrimp exports were mainly focussed and then due to non-availability of suitable cans in the country, The industry was shortly compelled to move to exports of frozen shrimp. The export of other varieties of Fish, Squid, Cuttlefish, Octopus, Crabs,Clams and Mussels started later in the late 1960's. The Indian Seafood Industry today is on a totally different footing as to what existed in the late sixties. India has taken a major stand in the Global Seafood Market and our seafood is one of the biggest foreign exchange earners. Todaywe have world class seafood factories following quality control procedures meeting the most stringent of international standards. Though shrimp continues to dominate our export basket, the Indian Seafood Industry has diversified its productrange and its markets. For many years, Japan was India’s largest export market but in the last two years United States has emerged as India’s leading export market. We export mainly basic raw material for reprocessing to Japan whereas our exports to the United States consists of value added products for Direct use in the American Food Service Industry and for retail sale in the supermarkets. Our seafood exports now include crabs, lobsters and other kinds of fish. Our seafood exports have surged each year from the late sixties right up to the late nineties when we crossed ourUS$1.3 billion per annum in exports. We reached a peak export level of US$1.3 billion per annum in 2001 and subsequently the industry has stagnated due to recession and the after effects of Tsunami. This implausible export growth of the seafood sectorwith very little assistance from government is a tribute to the enterprise and resilience of the Small Indian entrepreneur.
  34. 34. The Indian Seafood Industry is comprised mainly of small and medium size family concerns and large corporatecompanies have almost No presence here. Even those that ventured withdrew due to an inability to manage the environment and dynamics of the industry. Very recently with the consolidation and systematization of the industry, large corporatecompanies have begun to invest in the Indian Seafood Industry. The booming market of India’s seafood sustains and supportthe entire fisheries sectorof the annual 25,000 crore Indian Fisheries sectorof which 7000 crore is exported. It is the value realized from exports that gives our fishing communities a sustainable steady income. What needs to be noted is that of the 7000 crores exports, more than 50% is for shrimp aquaculture. Todaythe Ministry of Commerce and the Marine ProductDevelopment Authority work very closely with the Industry for the growth of India’s seafood exports. Over 150 processingfacilities have received European Union approval from the existing 350 processing facilities in India. The factories are located in 20 clusters along the East and West Coastof India and we need to develop these clusters into international seafood processinghubs. With internationally recognized processing Facilities, competitively priced skilled labour and raw material, India is now on the fast track to produceand supply valued seafood products in convenience packs By adopting the latest technologies and by tapping the unexploited and under exploited fishery resources.SeafoodExporters Association of India is focussed on Providing better technology, food safety assurance, logistics and marketing to create a competitive edge for the Indian market.SEAi is in the lookout of establishing Various infrastructure facilities in various coastalstates like landing centres, water treatment plants, common effluent treatment plants etc.
  35. 35. COMPANY PROFILE
  36. 36. Establishment profile Name Mangala Marine Exim India Private Limited Factory Address XXII/1388-A,Edakochi 682006,kerala,india Telephone 91-484-2328801 Fax 91-484-2328802 Administrative Office 9/1564, Bharat Memorial Building. Thoppumpaddy,kochi-682005.india Telephone 91-484-2231096,2231730 Fax 91-484-2232750 E-mail Mangalamarine@yahoo.co.in mangala@mangalagroup.com website www.Mangalagroup.com Chief Executive M.R.Ashok Bhat H.NO.V/252,Mermana House Kannamaly P.o,Kochi-682002 Kerala EU Approval No 718 MPEDA Registration No KLI/MT/026/04 DT.17-12-2004 Certifications ISO :22000:2005 & BRC :2008
  37. 37. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
  38. 38. 1. Gender of the Employees: Sl.no Particulars No.of Respondents Percentage of respondents 1 Male 28 56% 2 Female 22 44% Total 50 100% Inference: About 56% are male workers and 44% are female’s workers. 56% 44% Gender Male Female
  39. 39. 2. Qualification required for the job: Qualification Respondents Percentage Pre-university 10 15 Under graduate 25 39 Post-Graduate 15 46 Total 50 100% Inference: 15% of the employees are pre-university, 39% are under graduate and remaining 46% are post graduate. 20% 50% 30% Respondents Pre-University Under graduate Post-Graduate
  40. 40. 3. “Men should be encouraged to participate in professional development activities more than women”. Response No of respondents Percentage Agree 7 14% Strongly Agree nil Nil Neutral 3 6% Dis Agree 10 20% Strongly Disagree 30 60% Outcome:- 50 100% Inference: - It’s been revealed that about 60% of the participants strongly disagree with the fact that they don’tagree that men should be encouraged in professionalactivities more than women. About 20 % disagrees & only 14% agrees and the remaining 6% are not sure with it Agree, 7, 14% Strongly Agree, 0, 0% Nueral , 3, 6% Dis Agree, 10, 20% Strongly Dis Agree, 30, 60% Other, 30, 60% Respondents Agree Strongly Agree Nueral Dis Agree Strongly Dis Agree
  41. 41. 4. “Leaders Makes necessarily changes in the system to remain relevant to society” Response No of respondents Percentage Agree 22 44% Strongly Agree 8 16% Neutral 18 36% Dis Agree 1 2% Strongly Disagree 1 2% Outcome:- 50 100% Inference: - It’s been revealed that 16-44% Agrees as 36% neutral and about 4 of them Dis-agrees with it. Agree, 44% StronglyAgree, 16% Nuetral, 36% Dis Agee, 2% StronglyDisAgree, 2% Other, 4% Agree Strongly Agree Nuetral Dis Agee Strongly DisAgree
  42. 42. 5. “Our leaders strategically Plan for any action in the institution” Response No of Respondents Percentage Agree 11 22% Strongly Agree 11 22% Neutral 11 22% Dis Agree 11 22% Strongly Disagree 6 12% Outcome:- 50 100% Inference:-Different opinion arises on this statement creating chaos, about 22% agrees with it and another 22% strongly the remaining 22% disagree and other somewhat neutral. 11 11 11 11 6 Participants Agree Strongly Agree Nuetral Dis Agree Strongly DisAgree
  43. 43. 6. “We are ready to accept our leader’s advice even if we are not sure of the outcomes” Response No of Respondents Percentage Agree 10 20% Strongly Agree 8 16% Neutral 25 50% Dis Agree 6 12% Strongly Disagree 1 2% Outcome:- 50 100% Inference: - the subordinates are not ready to acceptall the advice taken out by the superiors, only on a scale of 16-20% agrees with it. 20% 16% 50% 12% 2% Agree Strongly Agree Nuetral Dis Agree Strongly DisAgree
  44. 44. 7. “Leaders are Concerned and willing to tap and develop talents” Response No of Respondents Percentage Agree 30 60% Strongly Agree 20 40% Neutral Nil Nil Dis Agree Nil Nil Strongly Disagree Nil Nil Outcome:- 50 100% Inference: - it’s been revealed that the employees do agree that their leaders concern and willing to tap and develop talents. 60% 40% Percentage Agrees Strongly Agrees Nuetral Dis Agrees Strongly DisAgrees
  45. 45. 8. “Leaders bench mark other organizations and adopt new ideas” Response No of Respondents Percentage Agree 31 62% Strongly Agree 15 30% Neutral 4 8% Dis Agree Nil Nil Strongly Disagree Nil Nil Outcome:- 50 100% Inference: that the employees do go for advices and suggestions during discussions and while brainstorming to their superiors. 62% 30% 8%0%0% Percentage Agree Strongly Agree Nuetral Dis agree Strongly Dis-Agree
  46. 46. 9.”New ideas generated by leaders energizes employees morale to perform” Response No of respondents Percentage Agree 22 44% Strongly Agree 8 16% Neutral 18 36% Dis Agree 1 2% Strongly Disagree 1 2% Outcome:- 50 100% Inference: - It’s been revealed that about 44% agrees and 16% strongly agrees with it, 36% is neutral and the remaining 4% doesn’tapproveit. Percentage Agree Strongly Agree Nuetral Dis-Agree Strongly Dis-Agree
  47. 47. 10. “Decisions arrived at are willingly implemented by heads of departments” Response No of Respondents Percentage Agree 10 20% Strongly Agree 40 80% Neutral nil Nil Dis Agree nil Nil Strongly Disagree nil Nil Outcome:- 50 100 Inference: - the employees are willingly doing the task assigned by the top level department. They are happy about the decisions taken out by their head and accomplishing it. 20% 80% 0%0%0% Agree Strongly Agree Nuetral Dis Agree Strongly DIS Agree
  48. 48. 11. “All workers in the organization know the strategic goals and objectives of the organization”. Response No of Respondents Percentage Agree 30 60% Strongly Agree 6 12% Neutral 11 22% Dis Agree 3 6% Strongly Disagree Nil Nil Outcome:- 50 100 Inference: - it’s been revealed that the Organizational goals and objects are been aware of the employees and been working to succeed it. Agree, 60%, 60%StronglyAgree, 12%, 12% Nuetrl, 22%, 22% Dis Agree, 6%, 6% StronglyDisAgree, 0, 0% Agree Strongly Agree Nuetrl Dis Agree Strongly DisAgree
  49. 49. 12. “Planning for any action in all sections/ departments is done efficiently” Response No of Respondents Percentage Agree 20 40% Strongly Agree 30 60% Neutral Nil Nil Dis Agree Nil Nil Strongly Disagree Nil Nil Outcome:- 50 100% Inference: - a positive feedback has been revealed from this statement that every action in the organization is done efficiently and effectively. Agree 40% Strongly Agree 60% PERCENTAGE
  50. 50. 13. “There is free access to information to all employees in the organization/institution” Response No of Respondents Percentage Agree 23 46% Strongly Agree 2 4% Neutral 16 32% Dis Agree 9 18% Strongly Disagree Nil Nil Outcome:- 50 100% Inference: -There’s a good flow of informative management in this organization. A free access of information has been passed out to the employees by different levels of department. About 13rd of the employees strongly agrees with the statement. 23 2 16 9 0 Agree Strongly Agree Nuetral Dis Agree Strongly DisAgree
  51. 51. 14. “Products are highly demanded in the market” Response No of respondents Percentage Agree 10 20% Strongly Agree 38 76% Neutral 2 4% Dis Agree nil Nil Strongly Disagree nil Nil Outcome:- 50 100% Inference: - This study states that the products ofMangala Marine Exim is of high quality and the demand in the market is of 100% need. About 80% of the employees are satisfied and strongly agrees with the statement. 20% 80% 0%0%0% Agree Strongly Agree Nuetral Dis Agree Strongly Dis Agree
  52. 52. 15. “Customers /Stakeholders appreciate the services offered” Response No of Respondents Percentage Agree 31 62% Strongly Agree 15 30% Neutral 4 8% Dis Agree Nil Nil Strongly Disagree Nil Nil Outcome:- 50 100% Inference: - The service offered by Mangala Marine Exim is somewhat satisfactory .The stake holders, Customers appreciate the service offered by the organization. Agree, 62%, StronglyAgree, 30%, Nuetral, 8%, Respondents Agree Strongly Agree Nuetral Dis Agree Strongly DisAgree
  53. 53. Findings  Most of the employees are not satisfied with the fact that men should be encouraged more in professional development activities than woman.  The Employees of Mangala Marine are satisfactory with the leadership behavior.  The subordinates are happy with task assigned by the superiors as there is mutual understanding and cooperation between them.  The service offered by are of high quality.  The time management among all workers is somewhat satisfactory.  The changes taken out in the system to be relevant in the society creates a neutral chaos among the subordinates to adopt it.  The leaders in Mangala marine has high level of responsibilities and it needs to be overwhelmed.  There’s stagnation of employees .it has to be taken care.  The leaders of Mangala Marine benchmark other organization and welcomes new ideas into the system.
  54. 54. SUGGESTIONS:  Both men & women employees should be encouraged equally in professional activities.  The Time management of employees need to be adequate.  Stagnation of employees can be over whelmed through  (*) giving a break or a vacation to rejuvenate (*) Participate in a new outside activity like a work hard paly hard policy (*) Sustain the sense of competency (*) Through reducing the fear of failure (*) make the unfamiliar comfortable
  55. 55. LIMITATIONS  Sampling errors may occur.  Most of the employees were busy in their work, so getting reliable information was difficult.  Very limited time-span of the project.  Lack of experience of researcher.
  56. 56. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Human resource management – shashi k Gupta & Rosy josh  The Leader in you – Dale Carnegie  Management –A Global and Entrepreneurial Perspective 13TH EDITION  Websites- www.google.com, www.wikipaedia.com
  57. 57. ANNEXURE: Questionnaire Form Respected Sir, I am SarathSasi, a final yearBBA student at Siena Collage Professional Studies Conductinga study on “Effect of Leadership on Performanceof the Organization".I request you to pleasefill up this questionnaireand itwillbekept confidential. Applicant Information Full Name: Last First M.I. Address: Street Address Apartment/Unit # City State ZIP Code Home Phone: ( ) Social SecurityNumber: PositionInthe Organization:
  58. 58. Racialor EthnicGroup ☐ AmericanIndian/Alaskan ☐ Asian/PacificIslander ☐ Black/African American ☐ Hispanic/Latino ☐ White/Caucasian ☐ Other Gender ☐ Female ☐ Male Qualification Required Pre University Under graduation Postgraduation Purpose 1. TO know the Way Things Are in Your Organization. 2. To identify your style of leadership 3. To examine how your leadership style relates to other styles of leadership Directions 1. Foreach of the statements below, circle the number that indicates the degree to which you agree or disagree. 2. There are no right or wrong answers. In this section, you are requestedto rate your leaders by ticking againsta scale that best represents your feelings. Use the scale 5- Agree. 4- Strongly Agree, 3- Not sure, 2- Dis agree, 1-Strongly disagree (tick it)
  59. 59. 1. Men should be encouraged to participate in professional development activities more than women. Agree. Strongly Agree Neutral Dis agree strongly disagree 2. Leaders Makes necessarily changes in the system to remain relevant to society. Agree. Strongly Agree Neutral Dis agree strongly disagree 3. Leaders strategically Plan for any action in the institution. Agree. Strongly Agree Neutral Dis agree strongly disagree 4. We are ready to accept our leader’s advice even if we are not sure of the outcomes. Agree. Strongly Agree Neutral Dis agree strongly disagree 5. Leaders are Concerned and willing to tap and develop talents. Agree. Strongly Agree Neutral Dis agree strongly disagree 6. Leaders bench mark other organizations and adopt new ideas. Agree. Strongly Agree Neutral Dis agree strongly disagree
  60. 60. 7. New ideas generated by leaders energizes employee’s morale to perform. Agree. Strongly Agree Neutral Dis agree strongly disagree 8. Decisions arrived at are willingly implemented by heads of departments Agree. Strongly Agree Neutral Dis agree strongly disagree 9. All workers in the organization know the strategic goals and objectives of the organization Agree. Strongly Agree Neutral Dis agree strongly disagree 10. Planning for any action in all sections/ departments is done efficiently Agree. Strongly Agree Neutral Dis agree strongly disagree 11. There is free access to information to all employees in the organization/institution Agree. Strongly Agree Neutral Dis agree strongly disagree 12. Products are highly demanded in the market Agree. Strongly Agree Neutral Dis agree strongly disagree
  61. 61. 13. Customers /Stakeholders appreciate the services offered Agree. Strongly Agree Neutral Dis agree strongly disagree 14. Employees are willing to take any risk for the sake of satisfying our leaders Agree. Strongly Agree Neutral Dis agree strongly disagree 15. When our leaders delegate to us, we do willingly and never question their authority. Agree. Strongly Agree Neutral Dis agree strongly disagree

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