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This is case study about bridge construction including construction of Pile, Pile cap, Pier. This case study also includes road construction.

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- 1. Construction of Flyover bridge along SP Ring Road at Bopal Junction, Ahmedabad Practical Site Training (8th semester) Presented By :- Satish Kambaliya 11bcl016 Guided By :- Prof. Hemanth Kamplimath
- 2. Contents • 1). Introduction to project • 2). Pile construction • 3). Pile cap construction • 4). Pier construction• 4). Pier construction • 5). Pier cap construction • 6). Road construction
- 3. Introduction to project • The Sardar Patel (SP) Ring Road of 76 km encircling city of Ahmedabad was planned with a long-term vision considering the road network and growth structure of Ahmedabad. • To improve connectivity and prevent traffic congestion in future, AUDA has proposed over six flyovers or underpassesfuture, AUDA has proposed over six flyovers or underpasses on the road. • Of its scopes includes the construction of the Flyover Bridge at Bopal Junction along SP rind road and of which we were a part of it. • The construction of this bridge is carried out by Vijay M. Mistry Construction Pvt. Ltd. Ahmedabad.
- 4. Key plan
- 5. Project Structure Client AUDA Structural Contractor PMC Structural consultants and Architect SAI Consultants Contractor Vijay M. Mistry Construction Subcontractor (Road) Ashish Infracon PMC Multimedia Engineers
- 6. Name of project Construction of Flyover Bridge along SP ring road at Bopal Junction, Ahmedabad. Project cost 120 cr. Earnest money deposit 1 % of total cost of project Salient features of the project Security deposit 10 % of total cost of project Total length of bridge 1415.27 m Viaduct portion 805.27 m (deck slab) RE wall towards Vaishnodevi 275 m RE wall towards Sarkhej 335 m Total No. of spans 2×31
- 7. Salient features of the project cont. PSC box girder 2×2 i.e. 2 @ Ambli junction and 2 @ Bopal junction Other spans of PSC girder 2×29 approximately 25m Total no. of other PSC girder 2×5 m×29=290Total no. of other PSC girder 2×5 m×29=290 Time period 30 months No. of pier 2×30 No. of abutments 2×2 No. of pile cap 2×32 Total width of Bridge 27.05 m
- 8. Salient features of the project cont. Clear median 0.05 m Total width of each bridge span 13.5 m Carriage way width of each span 12.5 m Length of service road 1700 m Width of Service road 2×10 mWidth of Service road 2×10 m
- 9. Special contract condition • Wastage of steel and cement has to been bear by company. • If grade of concrete changes in the mix design, money for only the amount of excess cement has to be bear by the client. • The client should provide proper facilities to labour as per code such as canteen, sanitation, labour colony etc.code such as canteen, sanitation, labour colony etc. • PSC girder which is to be used as slab should be stored 2 km around the site under the observation of AUDA. • Drilling of pile is to be done only by hydraulic rig. • Cement to be used is only of Ultratech, ACC, Sanghi. • Steel to be used is only of TATA, sail and Electrode.
- 10. Longitudinal Plan of Viaduct portion
- 11. Section of longitudinal plan
- 12. •Deck Slab •Crash Barrier •PSC Girders •Pedestal with bearing Components of Bridge •Pedestal with bearing •Pier cap •Pier •Pile cap •Pile
- 13. VMC CHAIRMAN GENERAL MANAGER PROJECT MANAGER-1 PROJECT MANAGER-2 STORE ACCOUNTS DEPARTMENT CIVIL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING PROJECT MANAGER-3 Organizational Structure of VMC STORE ACCOUNTS DEPARTMENT ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT SITE ENGINEER-1 SUPERVISOR- 1 SUPERVISOR- 2 SKILLED LABOUR UNSKILLED LABOUR SITE ENGINEER -2 SITE ENGINEER -3 SURVEYOR VMC HEAD SUPERVISOR SKILLED LABOUR UNSKILLED LABOUR ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
- 14. Detail of Infrastructure Facilities on Site • Different site offices for AUDA, site Incharge, PMC, Account section • There are separate offices for site Engineers • One meeting hall and storage room • There is availability of RMC plant on site • Workshop for repairing of machines • There is also availability of weigh bridge and laboratory facilities • Steel yard for storage of steel • There is a labour colony for approx. 120 labors, in addition to these, there is proper availability of proper sanitation facilities. • Site is well equipped with necessary medical facilities • On this there is availability of canteen which is a big hall with kitchen which provides lunch and dinner for 50 staff members.
- 15. Site layout
- 16. Equipments used on this site Sr. No. Description Quantity Capacity Company Name 1 Hydraulic rig (MAIT 1 60 m HR 180- MAIT •Foundation equipments (MAIT machine) MAIT 2 Piling Auger 3 For dia 1150 mm to 1500 mm Ruston engine 3 Bentonite mixing unit 3 - -
- 17. Sr. No. Description Quantity Capacity Company Name 1 Ready Mixed concrete Plant 1 30 cum/hr. Schwing Stetter 2 Concrete pump 1 - Schwing Stetter •Concreting equipments 2 Concrete pump 1 - Schwing Stetter 3 Concrete vibrators 6 - Killick Nixon 4 Form vibrators 6 - Killick Nixon 5 Concrete breakers sets 5 - Bosch/Ingersoll rand 6 Concrete Buckets 5 - - 7 Tremie pipe sets 3 250mm dia -
- 18. Sr. No. Description Quantity Capacity Company Name 1 Roller machine for Liner formation 1 - - 2 Welding Machines 8 - Adore 3 Grinding Machine - • Material handling equipments 3 Grinding Machine Set 4 - - 4 Generators 5 Various capacities Kirloskar 5 Dragline 1 Tata Hitachi 6 Backhoe 2 L&T Komatsu 7 Hydra Crane 2 15 MT Rhino 110C ACE 8 Trucks/Dumpers 4 - Ashok Leyland
- 19. •Dewatering equipments Sr. No. Description Quantity Capacity Company Name 1 Submersible 12 - Kirloskar pumps 2 Mud pump(electric) 5 - Kirloskar 3 Diesel pump 4 5 HP to 10 HP Kirloskar
- 20. Sr. No. Description Quantity Company Name 1 Total station 1 Sokkia 2 Auto level 1 Sokkia 3 Compression testing machine 1 - • Surveying and laboratory testing instruments testing machine 4 Cube Moulds 100 - 5 Vibrating table 1 - 6 Slump cones 8 - 7 Sieve sets 5 - 8 Density testing set 1 - 9 Moisture content testing set 1 -
- 21. Construction of bridge • Tender to the VMC was obtained in month of May. • The construction work started in month of August. • The construction proceeds initially with construction of site office, labour colony, ready mixed concrete plant etc. • Then further the work proceeds with construction of test pile and anchor pile on the site for static pile load test and dynamic pile load test. • Parallel work proceeds with construction of service road on right hand side after erection of barricades. • After site clearing the construction of pile started in month of January.
- 22. Work breakdown structure of project
- 23. Work progress during training period Pile Construction All 408 pile constructed Pile cap construction PL1-PL5, PL10-PL16, Pier construction PL10-PL16, Pier cap construction PL10 upto Shuttering Road construction Road constructiconstructed PL10-PL16, PL23-PL30, PR24-PR30 Were completed PR23, PR10,PL6 ,PL7 were in progress PL10-PL16, PL23-PL30, PR30, PR29 were completed PR28, PR27 were in progress Shuttering constructi on on LHS
- 24. PILE CONSTRUCTIONPILE CONSTRUCTIONPILE CONSTRUCTIONPILE CONSTRUCTIONPILE CONSTRUCTIONPILE CONSTRUCTIONPILE CONSTRUCTIONPILE CONSTRUCTION
- 25. Pile details • Type of pile - Bored cast in situ, friction pile • Diameter of pile - 1200 mm • Depth of pile bored - 28 m approximately • Depth of pile required 26 m from the cut off level (top of PCC). • Construction of total 408 piles in 64 groups • Construction of two type of piles 1). Regular piles - 336 piles 2). Obligatory piles at junctions - 72 piles
- 26. Piles arrangement
- 27. Steps for pile construction Pile boring Laying out of pile points Removing of guide liner Concreting Pile reinforcement
- 28. Concreting Pile reinforcement Pile boring Laying out of pile points Removing of guide liner
- 29. Laying out of pile points • Bench mark is established referring mean sea level. • Center line of bridge work is carried out. • Thus at various location on both side of centre line change point (CP) are marked referring benchmark. • Thus referring to change point (CP), width of bridge and design data the easting and northing coordinates of various pile is decided. • Thus marking of pile points is done through total station and prism, as per data available of easting and northing for individual pile.
- 30. Pile boring • On this site boring of pile is done upto 28 m from ground level. • Boring of pile is done through auger attached with multi tasking hydraulic rig machine. Concreting Pile reinforcement Pile boring Laying out of pile points • Initial boring upto 4 m is done through rock auger and further boring is done through soil auger. • Pile boring includes 1). Centering of pile points 2). Installation of liners 3). Pouring of bentonite slurry Removing of guide liner
- 31. Augers •Two types of augers are used- 1). Rock auger of (1500 mm) 2).Soil auger of (1200 mm) Rock Auger Soil Auger of (1200 mm)
- 32. Centering of pile points with auger
- 33. Installation of liners • Liners act as form work for pile. Two liners are used i.e. principle liner and guide liner. • After completion of• After completion of boring upto 4 m, liners are inserted. • They are inserted by hammering.
- 34. Principle liners 3.8 m length Sheet, 1.5 m1.5 m0.5 m0.5 m • Principal liner used is 4 m in length • Liners are prepared from 0.6 mm thick MS sheet of Fe 250. • Liner is prepared by connecting four different parts of 1.5 m, 1.5 m, 0.5 m, 0.5m and upper 0.5 m (shoe)i.e. is comparatively is thicker than other parts. 3.8 m length Sheet, rolled to form 1200 mm diameter 1.5 m1.5 m0.5 m0.5 m
- 35. Guide liner • This liner is of 5 m length of standard available size, it is placed above principle liner. • Both liner are connected Hole for Overflowing concrete • Both liner are connected through 8 mm Φ bar by welding, so after concreting this guide liner having hook is lifted through crane.
- 36. Pouring of bentonite slurry • Bentonnite slurry is use to stabilize soil by filling pores in soil, this forms layer over loose sand. • This is to be inserted after around 22 m depth when water table is available. • Approximately 13 bags of bentonnite is required to prepare slurry for a pile.slurry for a pile. • Each bag weights 50 kg. Thus approximately 650 kg of bentonnite is required in one pile. • As bentonnite is poured to 13 m of depth and pile diameter is 1200 mm, so 14.7 m3. • So we can conclude around 44 kg of bentonnite is mixed with water to prepare 1 m3 of slurry.
- 37. • Slurry is prepared by mixing bentonite clay with water in movable bentonite tank. • Tank is equipped with the pump, line transferring bentonite and it is kept near the place where boring is carried out. Pouring of bentonite slurry
- 38. Pile Reinforcement • Steel used in pile is TMT bars of Fe500 grade of Electrode Company. • Reinforcement cages are prepared in casting yard. • Cover in pile is 75 mm. • Reinforcement detailing of all piles Concreting Pile reinforcement Pile boring Laying out of pile points • Reinforcement detailing of all piles are almost same. • Total 20 numbers of main reinforcing bars of 32 mm Φ are used in regular piles and in case of obligatory piles total 24 numbers of main reinforcing bars are used. • Removing of guide liner
- 39. Pile reinforcement • Reinforcement cage are inserted in three layers. • Lengths of bars varies as per cage. • Cages are connected through the helicalthrough the helical reinforcement of 10 mm Φ bars at 150 mm c/c spacing. • As well as through providing continuous welding of 100 mm length on alternate bars.
- 40. Reinforcement detailing of pile Section X-X xx
- 41. Bar Diameter (mm) Spacing (mm) Shape No. Cutting Length (mm) Total Length(m ) Unit Weight (kg/m) Total Weight (kg) a 32 - 20 28075 561.5 6.31 3543.07 BBS of pile s1 10 150 167 3700 616.67 0.62 382.33 s3 20 1500 17 3435 57.25 2.47 141.41 Total Weight (kg) of steel for single pile 4066.81 laps and wastages 606.45 Total steel for pile 4673.26 Concrete quantity for single pile (cum) 29.4 m3 Kg/cum (excluding laps and wastages) 158.95
- 42. Concreting Concreting Pile reinforcement Pile boring Laying out of pile points •Concrete used in pile construction is of M 35 grade. •Concrete is prepared in RMC plant. •Total about 30 m3 of concrete is required Removing of guide liner •Total about 30 m3 of concrete is required in construction a pile so 5 transit mixers are required.
- 43. Concrete mix design for pile Concrete grade Cement 0PC 53 Grade Water Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate M35 400 kg 172 kg 802.5 kg 1120.7 kg Admixture used – sika 4661 NS =3.667 kg/ m3 M35 400 kg 172 kg 802.5 kg 1120.7 kg M35 1 0.43 2.01 2.8
- 44. Feeding of material in respective hopper Weighing of material as per the mix design Cleaning of pan after final completion Working of RMC design Mixing of batch in rotating pan Empty the batch prepared in transit mixer completion of RMC plant
- 45. Concreting • Concreting is done through tremie pipe. • Tremie pipe of total length 27.4 m is inserted in piled bored, through Tremie pipe in piled bored, through crane. • Tremie pipe are inserted by connecting 16 circular pipes each of 1400 mm length and last part of 5 m length.
- 46. Concreting cont. • Treamie pipe is attached with hopper and above the it screen is placed. •As concreting proceeds treamie pipe is lifted up through crane and each circular part of 1400mm of treamie pipe is opened up and cleaned for next process.
- 47. Concreting Process
- 48. •After concreting guide liner is removed. •This process is carried out to save cost of the project. Removing Guide Liner •Piles constructed is covered with mud with back hoe, so it does not interpret construction of other nearer pile.
- 49. Pile construction process
- 50. Quality checks for pile • Compressive strength test Total 12 cubes casted from one pile from alternate mixers Cubes are tested on site for 7days and 28days From the total cubes casted 10% of them are sent to private testing laboratory 1% of total cubes casted are sent to GERI1% of total cubes casted are sent to GERI • Slump test Required Slump – 135mm.
- 51. Pile 35 40 45 50 STRENGTHINMPA Compressive strength at 28 days compressive strength desired 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 PL10 PL11 PL12 PL13 PL14 PL15 PL16 PL23 PL24 PL25 PL26 PL27 PL30 PR1 PR2 PR3 PR4 PR5 PR6 PR7 PR10 PR11 PR12 PR13 PR14 PR15 PR16 PR23 COMPRESIVESTRENGTHIN ONE PILE FROM EACH GROUP
- 52. Dynamic Pile Load test • This test is going to be performed on 2% total pile available. • Thus this test will be performed on 8 pile. • It is performed on• It is performed on routine pile.
- 53. Static pile load test •This is most reliable method of determining the static load carrying capacity of a pile. •Permissible limit of settlement is 18mm. •Settlement observed was 3 mm
- 54. Integrity test • Pile integrity test is a rapid way of assessing the continuity and integrity of concrete piled foundations. • This test is able to find defects corresponding to cracks, reductions in section and zones of poor quality concrete. • The test is based on wave propagation theory.• The test is based on wave propagation theory. • Changes in cross sectional area - such as a reduction in diameter - or material - such as a void in concrete - produce wave reflections. • Accelerometer or geophone placed on top of the pile to be tested to measure the response to the hammer impact.
- 55. Average cycle time for a pile construction Activities Time Required Boring 1 hr and 15 min Liner installation(both) 30 minutesLiner installation(both) 30 minutes Reinforcement cage lowering in three layers 45 minutes Tremie pipe installation and concreting 2.5 hours Total 5 hours
- 56. Average manpower required in a Pile construction Category of manpower required Numbers of manpower Site engineer (contractor), PMC 2 Supervisor 1 Hydraulic rig driver (skilled)-2, Assistant for rig – 5 7 Concreting (skilled labour) 6 Reinforcement cageReinforcement cage Skilled labour 20 Unskilled labour 4 Foreman 1 Liner installation Supervisor 1 Skilled labour 7 Total 49
- 57. Material cost analysis of a pile • Total steel = 4.673 t • 1 t steel = 51000 Rs. • Steel cost = 2,38,323 Rs. •Total Concrete = 29.4 cum •1cum concrete = 4700 Rs. •Concrete cost = 1,38,180 Rs. Labour cost = 20 % total material cost = 75 ,301 Rs. Total cost = 4,51,804 Rs. Total material cost = 3,76,503 Rs.
- 58. Cost distribution for a pile Concrete Labour Cost 16.67% Total Cost For one pile Concrete cost 30.58% Steel Cost 52.75% Concrete steel Labour cost
- 59. PILE CAPPILE CAPPILE CAPPILE CAP CONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTION
- 60. Pile cap details • Construction of total - 64 pile caps i.e. 32 piles on one side. • All pile caps are rectangular in shapes having dimensions 8700 × 5100 mm. • Except obligatory pile cap which are square in shape and having dimensions 8700 × 8700 mm.having dimensions 8700 × 8700 mm. • Almost all pile caps consist of group of six piles in it. Except in case of obligatory piles in it consist of group of nine piles. • Construction of all pile caps is of 1800 mm height from top of plain cement concrete.
- 61. Pile cap arrangement
- 62. Plan of pile cap
- 63. Steps involved in Pile cap Construction Straightening of pile reinforcement PCC Chiseling Excavation Curing Concreting Shuttering Pile cap reinforcement Straightening of pile reinforcement
- 64. Excavation • Excavation of piles in group is carried out by dragline • Rectangular excavation of 11200×5700 and upto 2500mm (as per cutoff level) depth is carried out.
- 65. •Excavation - upto bottom of PCC by measuring through auto level. Excavation •After excavation through dragline it is to be leveled through labour for PCC.
- 66. Chiseling • Top layer of pile contains bentonite mixed with concrete. • Thus top concrete is loose and does not have enough strength. • So chiseling of piles to be done upto availability of loose concrete. • Chiseling of pile is done upto 50 mm above top RL of PCC of pile cap.
- 67. Plain Cement Concrete(PCC) • PCC is done to obtain plain surface for pile cap reinforcement. • PCC is done of M15 grade concrete in 1:2:4 ratio.ratio. • PCC is done in dimensions of 9000 ×5400×150 mm.
- 68. Straightening of Pile Bars • Straightening of piles bars are done by heating through gas welding. • After straightening of bars it is to be bent by 475 mm atbent by 475 mm at top after keeping 1300 mm straight reinforcement bars which is to be embedded in pile cap.
- 69. Pile cap reinforcement • Reinforcement detailing of rectangular pile caps varies depending on height of piers. • Reinforcement detailing of pile cap is divided in two parts i.e. • Group A (Pier height from 5 m to 6.85 m) for Pile cap- PL4 TO PL7,• Group A (Pier height from 5 m to 6.85 m) for Pile cap- PL4 TO PL7, PR4 TO PL7, PL10 TO PL20, PR10 TO PR20, PL23 TO PL28, PR23 TO PR27. • Group B (Pier height from 3 m to 4.9 m) for pile cap PL1 to PL3, PR1 to PL3, PL29 and PL30, PR28 to PR30
- 70. •At top of pcc there is construction of reinforcement mesh of 8 mm Φ bars at 200 mm c/c spacing. •Mesh is provided in reinforcement for preventing concrete from temperature crack at bottom surface of pile cap. Reinforcement meshmesh
- 71. Reinforcement of pile
- 72. Reinforcement Detailing of pile cap
- 73. Reinforcement detailing of Pile cap Section C-C of plan of pile cap reinforcementSection C-C of plan of pile cap reinforcement Section D-D of plan of pile cap reinforcement
- 74. Bar Diamet er (mm) Spacing (mm) Shape No. Cutting Length (mm) Total Lengt h(m) Unit Weight (kg/m) Total Weigh t (kg) b 20 125 70 6750 472.5 2.47 1167.0 8 1022.5 BBS for group A of pile cap c 20 125 40 10350 414 2.47 8 d 25 125 70 6750 472.5 3.85 1819.1 3 e 32 125 40 10350 517.5 6.31 2612.3 4 t 12 - 4 27600 110.4 0.89 98.26
- 75. Bar Diamete r (mm) Spacing (mm) Shape No. Cutting Length (mm) Total Length (m) Unit Weight( kg/m) Total Weight (kg) s5 12 100 86 28550 2455.3 0 0.89 2185.22 BBS for group A of pile cap cont. Mesh 8 200 26 2700 70.20 0.39 27.38 8 200 14 5100 71.40 0.39 27.85 Total Weight (kg) of steel for single pile cap 10254.54 Add 5% for laps and wastages 512.73 Total steel for pile cap 10767.27 Concrete quantity for single pile cap(cum) 79.87m3 Kg/cum (excluding laps and wastages) 134.81
- 76. BBS for group B of pile cap Bar Diamet er (mm) Spacing (mm) Shape No. Cutting Length (mm) Total Length (m) Unit Weight( kg/m) Total Weight (kg) b 20 125 70 6750 472.5 2.47 1167.08 c 20 100 50 10350 517.5 2.47 1278.23 d 25 125 70 6750 472.5 3.85 1819.13 e 32 100 50 10350 517.5 6.31 3265.43 t 12 - 4 27600 110.4 0.89 98.26
- 77. BBS for group B of pile cap cont. Bar Diame ter (mm) Spacing (mm) Shape No. Cutting Length (mm) Total Length (m) Unit Weight (kg/m) Total Weight (kg) s5 16 150 57 28550 1627.3 5 1.58 2571.21 Mesh 8 200 26 2700 70.20 0.39 27.38 8 200 14 5100 71.40 0.39 27.85 Total Weight (kg) of steel for single pile cap 8959.82 Add 5% for laps and wastages 447.99 Total steel for pile cap 9407.81 Concrete quantity for single pile cap (cum) 79.87m3 Kg/cum (excluding laps and wastages) 117.79
- 78. Shuttering of pile cap • After reinforcement shuttering of pile cap is done and various members used in shuttering are as follow Solder Channel Tie Jack Plates • Cover used in pile cap is 75 mm.
- 79. Shuttering of Pile cap Tie bars Shutter Solder Jack
- 80. Concreting of pile cap •Concrete of grade M35 is used in pile cap. •Total 79.87m3 of concrete is required in one pile cap and it is prepared in RMC plant. Total about 13 transit mixers are required for one pile cap. Mix design for pile cap Concrete grade Cement OPC 53 Grade Water Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate M35 365 kg 183.5 kg 777.2 kg 1186.4 kg M35 1 0.5 2.13 3.25 Admixture used - sika 4661 NS =3.6 kg/ m3
- 81. •Vibrator is used for compaction as concreting proceeds. •After concreting top layer of pile cap are to be leveled.
- 82. Curing of Pile cap •Curing of pile cap is done through pounding at top surface. • After 2 days of concreting shuttering of pile cap is opened. •After removing shuttering, soil filling around pile cap is done.
- 83. Quality checks for pile cap • Compressive strength test Total 20 cubes casted from one pile cap from alternate mixers. Cubes are tested on site for 7days and 28days. From the total cubes casted 10% of them are sent to private testing laboratory. 1% of total cubes casted are sent to GERI. • Slump test Required Slump – 135 mm.
- 84. Pile cap 35 40 45 50 STRENGTHINMPA Compressive strength at 28 days compressive strength desired 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 COMPRESIVESTRENGTHIN PILE CAP
- 85. Average cycle time for construction of pile cap Activities Time in hrs Excavation 4 Chiseling, liner cutting 8 straightening of reinforcement 4.5straightening of reinforcement 4.5 PCC 2 Reinforcement 24 Formwork 6 Concreting 4.5 Total 53 hrs= 2.308 days
- 86. Average manpower required for a pile cap construction Category of manpower Manpower Required Site engineer (contractor and PMC) 2 Forman/Supervisor 1 Excavation of Pile cap (Unskilled labour) 10 Liner cutting and chiseling (Skilled labour) 7Liner cutting and chiseling (Skilled labour) 7 Straightening of reinforcement (Skilled labour) 7 PCC of pile cap (Skilled Labour) 8 Erection of reinforcement - Skilled labour 15 Erection of reinforcement - Unskilled labour 5 Shuttering of pile cap (Skilled labour ) 8 Concreting of pile cap (Skilled labour) 8 Total Manpower required 71
- 87. Material Cost analysis of a single pile cap of group A • Total steel = 10.77 t • 1 t steel = 51000 Rs. • Steel cost = 5,49,270 Rs. Pile cap •Total Concrete = 79.87 cum •1cum concrete = 4700 Rs. •Concrete cost = 3,75,389 Rs. PCCPCC •Total Concrete = 7.29cum = 9m×5.4m×.15m •1cum concrete = 4200 Rs. •Concrete cost = 30,616 Rs. Total concrete cost = 4,06,005 Rs. Total material cost = 9, 55, 275 Rs.
- 88. Cost distribution for a pile cap of Group A Labour cost Labour cost = 20 % material cost = 1,91,055 Rs. So, Total cost = 11,46,330 Rs. Concrete cost 35.42 % Steel Cost 47.91 % Labour cost 16.67% Concrete steel Labour cost
- 89. PIERPIERPIERPIER CONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTION
- 90. Pier details • On this site there is construction of 64 piers i.e. 32 piers on one side. • Height of pier varies from 3 m to 6.85 m. Dimension of the pier at bottom remains same i.e. 3800×1800 mm.pier at bottom remains same i.e. 3800×1800 mm. • The slope of the pier is 1:11.6067. • Thus according to slope and varying height the length at top varies in every pier; but the width 1800 mm remains same through out in every pier.
- 91. Longitudinal plan of piers
- 92. Procedure for pier construction Starter Reinforcement of pier Marking of Pier Points Finishing Curing Concreting Shuttering
- 93. Curing Concreting Shuttering of pier Starter Reinforcement of pier Marking of Pier Points Marking of pier points •After placing reinforcement of pile cap, points for the reinforcement of pier are marked at bottom having dimension 1800 3800 mm through total station. •Main reinforcement bars of piers are embedded upto 1025 mm depth and bars are Finishing embedded upto 1025 mm depth and bars are tied up with stirrups. •Reinforcement bars of pile cap are bent by 500 mm in opposite direction at both top and bottom side. •There are total 35 bars in 3800 mm length and 17 bars in 1800 mm length.
- 94. Plan of pier
- 95. Marking of Pier Points Finishing Curing Concreting Shuttering of pier Starter Reinforcement of pier Marking of Pier Points •Main reinforcement bars are tied with stirrups of 10 mm Φ bars at 200 mm center to center spacing. •Cutting of stirrups is done considering Reinforcement of pier Finishing •Cutting of stirrups is done considering average height. •After stirrups, links of 8 mm Φ bars are inserted on alternate bars. •Main reinforcing bars of pier are to be kept outside at top of pier by 1025 mm which are to be inserted in pier cap for bonding.
- 96. •Reinforcement detailing of pier is divided in two groups. . • Group A for height from 5 to 6.85 m for pier PL4 to PL7, PR4 to PR7, PL10 to PL20, PR10 to PR20, PL23 to PL28, PR23 to PR27. •Group B for height from 3 to 4.90 m•Group B for height from 3 to 4.90 m for pier PL1 to PL3, PR1 to PR3, PL29 to PL30, PR28 to PR30.
- 97. Section Q-Q of plan of pier
- 98. Reinforcement of pier Section P-P of plan of pier f
- 99. Reinforcement of pier
- 100. BBS for group A of pier for PL15 Bars Shape of Bars Length of bars(mm) Spacing in mm No. of bars Total length (m) Bar diam eter Bar weight Kg/m Total Weight kg f(main vertical steel) 9900 110 104 1029.6 25 3.85 3963.96 S3 (stirrups) 12360 200 35 432.6 10 0.62 268.21 L1(links) 2020 220 horizontal 630 1272.6 8 0.39 496.31 Total steel for single pier 4728.49 kg Add 5% for laps & wastages 236.42 kg Total steel for single pier including lapse and wastages 4964.91 kg Concrete quantity for a pier 54.2 m3 kg/m3 87.25kg/m3
- 101. BBS for group B of pier for PL3 Bars Shape of Bars Length of bars(mm) Spacing in mm No. of bars Total length (m) Bar diam eter Bar weight Kg/m Total Weight Kg f(main vertical steel) 7950 110 104 826.8 20 2.47 2042.2 S3(stirrups ) 12030 160 31 372.93 10 0.62 231.22 L1(links) 2020 220 horizontal 558 1127.1 6 8 0.39 439.59 Total steel for single pier 2713.01 kg Add 5% for laps & wastages 135.65 kg Total steel for single pier including lapse and wastages 2848.66 kg Concrete quantity for a pier 37.26 m3 kg/m3 72.81kg/m3
- 102. Finishing Curing Concreting Shuttering of pier Starter Reinforcement of pier Marking of Pier Points Starter •Starter of dimensions 3800×1800×250 mm is provided. •Starter is provided at bottom for providing base to shuttering. •Main purpose of starter is to support Finishing •Main purpose of starter is to support shuttering. •After concreting of starter, key is provided over it.
- 103. Starter
- 104. Shuttering of pier • Elements of shuttering of pier are as follows:- Shutter Solder Tie bars Finishing Curing Concreting Shuttering of pier Starter Reinforcement of pier Marking of Pier Points Trestle Bracing PVC pipe Through bolts Bracing • Cover used in pier is 40 mm. Finishing
- 105. Shuttering of pier
- 106. •Grade of concrete used in pier is M40. •Quantity of concrete is varying in every pier as the height of the pier . •Average concrete quantity required considering average height is 46 m3. Finishing Curing Concreting of pier Shuttering of pier Starter Reinforcement of pier Marking of Pier Points Concreting of pier considering average height is 46 m3. •Concreting is done through fully automatically operated concrete pump having boom pressure. Finishing
- 107. Concrete grade Cement Water Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate M40 430 kg 187.7 kg 796.5 kg 1112.4 kg Mix Design for pier M40 430 kg 187.7 kg 796.5 kg 1112.4 kg M40 1 0.44 1.85 2.59 Admixture used – sika 4061 NS – 3583 gm.
- 108. Concreting through boom pressure
- 109. Curing of pier • After two days of the concreting, form work of the pier is removed. • Curing of pier is done through sack layered around the pier. By spraying water around the sack so keeping it Curing Concreting of pier Shuttering of pier Starter Reinforcement of pier Marking of Pier Points water around the sack so keeping it wet. • At top of every pier two water tanks are placed which is punctured from the bottom portion so continuous curing of pier can be done at top portion. Finishing
- 110. Water tank for continuous Curing of pierCuring of pier
- 111. Curing Concreting of pier Shuttering of pier Starter Reinforcement of pier Marking of Pier Points Finishing of pier Finishing
- 112. Average cycle time for a pier construction Activity Time in hours Reinforcement 16 Starter 4 Shuttering 18Shuttering 18 Concreting 4.5 Total 42.5
- 113. Average manpower required for a pier construction Category of manpower required Numbers of manpower Engineer – contractor and PMC 2 Supervisor 1 Reinforcement Skilled labour 10 Unskilled labour 5Unskilled labour 5 Shuttering Skilled 10 Unskilled 6 Concreting Skilled 4 Finishing (skilled labour) 2 Total 40
- 114. Material cost analysis for a pier of group A •Steel Total steel = 4.964 t 1 t steel = 51000 Rs. Steel cost = 2, 53,164 Rs. •Concrete Total Concrete = 54.2 cum 1cum concrete = 4700 Rs. Concrete cost = 2, 54, 740 Rs.Steel cost = 2, 53,164 Rs. Concrete cost = 2, 54, 740 Rs. Total material cost = 5, 07, 904 Rs. Labour cost = 20 % of material cost = 1, 01, 581 Rs. Total cost of pier = 6, 09, 485 Rs.
- 115. Labour cost 16.67% Total Material Cost For one pier COST DISTRIBUTION OF PIER FOR GROUPA Concrete cost 41.79% Steel Cost 41.54% Concrete steel Labour cost
- 116. Quality checks for pier • Compressive strength test Total 16 cubes casted from one pier from alternate mixers. • Slump test Required Slump – 165 mm. • If cubes fails testing of pier is done by rebound hammer.• If cubes fails testing of pier is done by rebound hammer. 38 40 42 44 46 PL10 PL11 PL12 PL13 PL14 PL15 PL16 PL23 PL24 PL25 PL26 PL27 PL28 PL29 PL30 PR30 PR29 CompressivestrengthinMpa Date of casting Compressive strength at 28 days strength desired strength ahieved
- 117. PIER CAPPIER CAPPIER CAPPIER CAPPIER CAPPIER CAPPIER CAPPIER CAP CONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTION
- 118. Pier cap details • Bottom length - 7600 mm • Top length - 11200 mm • Depth of pier cap - 1500 mm • Width of pier cap varies i.e. 2850 mm2850 mm 3000 mm • Grade of concrete used in pier cap is M40. • The lap length shall not be less than 76 times diameter of bars. • Welding of reinforcement is not permitted in pier cap. • Cover in pier cap is 75 mm.
- 119. Plan of pier cap Section A-A
- 120. Section of plan of pier All dimensions are in mm
- 121. Shuttering of pier cap Reinforcement of pier cap Placing of girder Construction procedure for pier cap Finishing Curing Concreting of pier cap Shuttering of pier cap
- 122. Curing Concreting of pier cap Shuttering of pier cap Reinforcement of pier cap Placing of girder Placing of girders •Construction of pier cap proceeds with placing of four ISMB-300 girder of 14 m length. •Girders are place above trestle of 6 m height. Finishing• Further work proceeds with placing of ISMB-150 girders in direction parallel to traffic of 5 m length. •These are to be placed above ISMB-300 girders. •Total 23 numbers of ISMB-150 girders are placed.
- 123. ISMB - 300 Flange width 120 mm ISMB – 150 Flange width 80 mm
- 124. Plan of Girders 4-ISMB 300 Girders 23-ISMB 150 Girders
- 125. Reinforcement of pier cap • Reinforcement of pier cap is to be rests over bottom shuttering. • Reinforcement of pier is divided in two groups. • Group A for pier cap of width 2.85 m at pier PL1 to PL7, PR1 to PR7, PL10 to Curing Concreting of pier cap Shuttering of pier cap Reinforcement of pier cap Placing of girder pier PL1 to PL7, PR1 to PR7, PL10 to PL16, PR10 to PR16, PL24 to PL30 and PR26 to PR30. • Group B for pier cap of width 3 m at pier PL17 to PL20, PR17 to PR20 and PR23 to PR25. Finishing
- 126. Plan of pier cap reinforcement
- 127. Section of pier cap reinforcement
- 128. Section of pier cap reinforcement
- 129. Section of pier cap reinforcement
- 130. BBS for group A of pier cap Bar Mark Shape of bar Length of bar in mm Spacing in mm No. of bars Total length of bar in m Bar Diame ter Total weight kg/m Total Weight Kg a –Bar at top perpendicular to traffic 11920 _ 40 476.8 32 6.31 3008.61 b - Bar at bottom perpendicular to traffic 12370 _ 26 321.62 16 1.58 508.16 to traffic L1 – Ring along perpendicular to pier cap 24330 _ 10 243.3 16 1.58 384.41 s1 – Vertical stirrups along traffic 7800 100 62 483.6 20 2.47 1194.49 s2 - Vertical stirrups along traffic 10080 100 112 1128.96 12 0.89 1004.77
- 131. BBS for group A of pier cap cont. s3 - Vertical stirrups along traffic 8530 100 50 426.5 20 2.47 1053.46 S4 - Horizontal perpendicular to traffic 9900 _ 32 316.8 10 0.62 192.42 s5-Vertical stirrups perpendicular to traffic 4990 150 24 119.76 10 0.62 74.25 to traffic s6 - Vertical stirrups along traffic 8530 100 33 281.49 20 2.47 695.28 d - spacer pin along traffic 2770 1000 12 33.24 32 6.31 209.74 Total steel for single pier cap 8229.59 Add 5% for lapse and vastage 416.48 Total steel 8746.07 Concrete quantity for single pile (cum) 42.49 Kg/cum (excluding laps and wastages) 205.838
- 132. Bar Mark Shape of bar Length of bar in mm Spacing in mm No. of bars Total length of bar in m Bar Diamete r in mm Total weight kg/m Total Weight Kg a –Bar at top perpendicular to traffic 11920 _ 40 476 32 6.31 3008.61 b - Bar at bottom perpendicular to traffic 12370 _ 26 321.62 16 1.58 508.16 BBS for group B of pier cap to traffic L1 – Ring along perpendicular to pier cap 24630 _ 10 246.3 16 1.58 389.15 s1 – Vertical stirrups along traffic 8100 100 62 502 20 2.47 1240.43 s2 - Vertical stirrups along traffic 10480 100 112 1173 12 0.89 1044.65
- 133. BBS for group B of pier cap cont. s3 - Vertical stirrups along traffic 8830 100 50 441.5 20 2.47 1090.51 s4 -Horizontal perpendicular to traffic 10300 _ 32 329.6 10 0.62 204.35 s5 - Vertical stirrups perpendicular to traffic 4990 150 24 119.76 10 0.62 74.25 traffic s6 - Vertical stirrups along traffic 8830 100 33 291.39 20 2.47 719.73 d – spacer pin along traffic 2920 1000 12 35.04 32 6.31 221 Total steel for single pier cap 8500.95 Add 5% for lapse and vastage 425.05 Total steel 8925.99 Concrete quantity for single pile (cum) 44.73 Kg/cum (excluding laps and wastages) 199.55
- 134. Shuttering of pier cap Curing Concreting of pier cap Shuttering of pier cap Reinforcement of pier cap Placing of girder •Shuttering of pier cap is divided in two part - bottom shuttering and side shuttering. •Bottom shuttering is to be shuttled above the girder placed. Finishing•Reinforcement of pier cap is to be supported on bottom shuttering. • After completely tying of reinforcing bars, side shuttering of pier cap is to be placed. • Side shuttering of pier cap is supported by jack resting on girders placed.
- 135. •Elements of pier cap shuttering Trestle Bracing Jack Shutters ISMB 300 girders ISMB 150 girders
- 136. Shuttering of pier cap
- 137. Cycle time for a pier cap construction Activities Time required in hour Placing of girders 8 Bottom shuttering 24 Reinforcement 56 Side shuttering 16 Total 104 hours
- 138. Material cost analysis of a pier cap for group A • Steel Total steel = 8.229 t 1 t steel = 51000 Rs. Steel cost = 4, 19, 679 Rs. •Concrete Total Concrete = 42.49 cum 1cum concrete = 4700 Rs. Concrete cost = 1, 99, 703 Rs. Material analysis is done considering pier cap of width 2.85 m. Steel cost = 4, 19, 679 Rs. Concrete cost = 1, 99, 703 Rs. Total material cost= 6, 19, 382 Rs. Labour cost = 20 % of material cost = 1, 23, 876 Rs. Total cost = 7, 43, 258 Rs.
- 139. Cost distribution of a pier cap for group A Concrete cost 26.87% Labour cost 16.67 % Total Material Cost For one pier Cap 26.87% Steel Cost 56.46% 16.67 % Concrete steel Labour cost
- 140. Cost construction upto pier cap Considering PL15 • Cost of a pile = 4, 51,804 Rs. • Cost of 6 piles = 27,10,824 Rs. • Cost of pile cap = 11,46,330 Rs. • Cost of pier = 6,09,485 Rs. • Cost of pier cap = 7, 43, 258 Rs. • Total cost = 52,09,897 Rs Thus we can conclude that total cost upto construction of pier cap is approximately = 52, 09, 897 Rs.
- 141. ROADROADROADROADROADROADROADROAD CONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTION
- 142. Introduction • To handle the local traffic after construction of bridge, 10 m wide service road is prepared on both side of bridge. This road is also used as service road during bridge construction. • The construction of road work is given as subcontract by VMC to Ashish Infracon at price of 30 cr.to Ashish Infracon at price of 30 cr. • Total time duration for construction of road is 30 months. • Final finishing of road after bridge construction. • Road construction is of flexible pavement.
- 143. Flexible pavement • Flexible pavements have low or negligible flexural strength and are flexible in their structural action under loads. • In case of flexible pavement deformation of lower layer affects to layer above it. • A typical flexible pavement consists of four components: Soil subgradeSoil subgrade Sub base course Base course Surface course • The flexible pavement layers transmit the compressive stress to lower layer by grain to grain transfer through the points of contact in granular structure.
- 144. Salient Features • Total length of road -1700 m • Width - 10 m • Crest - 1125 mm • Camber of 2.5%• Camber of 2.5% • Total chainage provided – 0 to 1900 m • Construction of road from chainage 100 to 1800 m • Design speed of road is 80 km/hr.
- 145. Longitudinal plan of road
- 146. Flexible pavement courses Flexible Pavement Thickness 1). Soil Subgrade 500 mm 2). Granular sub base course (GSB) 200 mm 3). Base course 250 mm3). Base course Wet mixed macadam (WMM) 250 mm 4). Surface course Dense Bituminous macadam (DBM) - 135mm Bituminous Carpet (BC) - 40mm 175 mm Total Crest 1125 mm
- 147. Cross section of road
- 148. Road construction procedure Final Reduced Level (FRL) Original Ground Level (OGL) Preliminary survey Courses of flexible pavement Cutting and Filling Site clearing Erection of Barricading
- 149. Cutting and filling •From data of OGL sheet, FRL sheet and required crest, cutting or filling required can be measured. •Cutting Depth =OGL-(FRL-Crest)=OGL-(FRL-Crest) •Cutting is done through power shovel.
- 150. Compaction of bottom strata •Available bottom soil strata is sprayed with water after cutting. •Compacted with roller to achieve density of 1.85 gm/cc. •Further level and density is checked by PMC engineer.
- 151. Construction of courses of flexible pavement Bituminous Carpet(BC) Dense Bitumen Macadam(DBM) Final Reduced Level (FRL) Original Ground Level (OGL) Preliminary survey Wet Mix Macadam(WMM) Granular Sub Base(GSB) Sub Grade Courses of flexible pavement Cutting and Filling Site clearing Erection of Barricading
- 152. Procedure for a layer construction 1).Dumping of material over compacted layer
- 153. 2). Spraying of water •Further work proceeds with spreading of material through grader. •After spreading of material, spraying of water is carried out.
- 154. 3).Compacting Layer •Further work proceeds with compacting a layer through roller machine. •After compaction density and level of layer is checked.checked. •If required results are obtained further work proceeds with construction of other layer over it.
- 155. Sub Grade • Total depth of subgrade – 500 mm. • Construction of subgrade - 3 layers( approximately 150 mm,150 mm,200 mm) • Soil which is obtain from cutting is used in subgrade.• Soil which is obtain from cutting is used in subgrade. • Density of final layer : 1.90 gm/cc.
- 156. Material Cost analysis of sub grade • Density of soil for sub grade =1.9 gm/cc = 1900 kg/ m3 • Total soil for 10 m long sub grade construction = 10 m(long)×10 m(wide)×0.5 m(Thick)×1900 kg/ m3 = 95000 kg of soil =95 t=95 t • 1 t subgrade soil = 275 Rs. • Cost for 10 m long subgrade construction = 275 Rs.×95 t = 26, 125 Rs.
- 157. Granular Sub Base(GSB) • Over the subgrade, GSB is to be spreaded. • This layer is 200 mm thick. • GSB layer mainly composed metal and coarse sand. • This layer is compacted to achieve density of 2.16 gm/cc. • Optimum moisture content (OMC) - 7.5% Coarse Sand 68% Metal 32% GSB Coarse Sand Metal
- 158. Spreading of GSB through grader
- 159. Material Cost analysis for GSB • Density of GSB = 2.16 gm/cc = 2160 kg/ m3 • Total GSB for 10 m long road construction = 10 m(long)×10 m(wide)×0.2m(Thick)×2160 kg/ m3 = 43200 kg of GSB =43.2 t=43.2 t • 1 t GSB = 350 Rs. • Cost for 10 m long GSB construction = 350 Rs.×43.2 t = 15,120 Rs.
- 160. Wet Mix Macadam(WMM) • Thickness of this layer 250 mm. • Spreaded - two layers. • Materials - metal (0-40 mm), Stone dust and water. • Density of first layer - 2.3 gm/cc. • Density of second layer – 2.39 gm/cc • Water content - approximately 5%• Water content - approximately 5% • OMC – 6.5% after spraying with water and compacting 40mm Metal 28% 20mm Metal 18% 10mm Metal 29% Stone Dust 25% WMM Metal of 40mm Metal of 20mm Metal of 10mm Stone dust
- 161. Material Cost analysis for WMM • Density of WMM = 2.39 gm/cc = 2390 kg/ m3 • Total WMM for 10 m long road construction = 10 m(long)×10 m (wide)×0.25m (Thick)×2390 kg/ m3 = 59, 750 kg of WMM =59.75 t=59.75 t • 1 t WMM = 550 Rs. • Cost for 10 m long WMM construction = 550 Rs.×59.75 t = 32863 Rs.
- 162. Application of Prime Coat •Prime coat is applied to plug in the capillary voids of the porous surface •The prime coat is sprayed uniformly through a mechanical sprayer at a rate of 7.3 to 14.6 kg per 10 m2 area.7.3 to 14.6 kg per 10 m area. •After 24 hours of application of prime coat, dense bitumen macadam is applied over it.
- 163. Dense Bitumen Macadam(DBM) • Total thickness of DBM- 135mm • It is applied in two layer • First layer - 65mm • Density – 2.42 gm/cc. • Bitumen is 4.5% of total weight of all material. 20mm Metal 30% 10mm Metal 27% 6mm Metal 18% Stone dust 25% DBM Metal of 20mm Metal of 10mm Metal of 6mm Stone dust
- 164. Scarification •When road already exits, the construction over it proceeds by scarifying road surface with back hoe. •Scarification is only possible when level of existing road iswhen level of existing road is around 150-200 mm lower than road to be constructed.
- 165. DBM • It is prepared in bitumen plant at temperature of 135°C which decreases to 105°C, which is105°C, which is required at site. • Just before application of DBM tack coat is applied at rate of 4.9 to 9.8 kg per 10 m2 area.
- 166. Paver machine for application of DBM
- 167. Material Cost analysis for DBM • Density of DBM = 2.42 gm/cc = 2420 kg/ m3 • Total DBM for 10 m long road construction = 10 m(long)×10 m (wide)×0.135m (Thick)×2420 kg/ m3 = 32, 670 kg of DBM =32.67 t=32.67 t • 1 t DBM = 3200 Rs. • Cost for 10 m long DBM construction = 3200 Rs.×32.67 t = 1, 04, 544 Rs.
- 168. Bituminous Carpet (BC) • After construction of bridge, second layer of DBM will be applied. Required density of DBM – 2.42gm/cc. • Over it bituminous carpet of 40 mm will be spreaded. • This gives smooth surface to road constructed.• This gives smooth surface to road constructed. • Bitumen carpet consists of coarse aggregate of 12.5 mm and 10 mm size, premixed with bitumen. • Required density of BC - 2.45gm/cc.
- 169. Quality checks • Density test This test is performed after application every layer. density test is performed by sand replacement method. • Moisture test This test is performed in moisture meter.This test is performed in moisture meter.
- 170. Material cost analysis for 10 m road construction •Cost of subgrade = 26, 125 Rs. •Cost of GSB = 15, 120 Rs. •Cost of WMM = 32, 863 Rs. •Cost of DBM = 1, 04, 544 Rs. •Total cost = 1, 78, 652 Rs. •Thus we can conclude material cost for construction of 10 m long, 10 m wide flexible pavement road of 1085 mm crest = 1, 78, 652 Rs.
- 171. ThankThank You

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