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Past Continuous + Reflexive Pronouns + Must & Can


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Past Continuous + Reflexive Pronouns + Must & Can

  1. 1. Past continuous: Form: was/ were + v+ ing Key words: while =as = justas all day,all week,all morning,all evening…etc. Meanings: 1- Past continuous: Two longactions happeningtogether:Theywere watchingTV while I was preparingdinner. 2- Past continuous:A long action happeningat a known time in the past: Yesterday at 7 o'clock, we were playing football. 3- Past continuous:Gradual development:the match was gettinghotterand hotter. 4- Past continuous:Describingthe place of a story: It wasraining,the church bellswere ringing,…etc.
  2. 2. Upstream Unit 5 Grammar Rules Page 2 of 4 5- Past continuous:Past long action cut by a short action: While we were having dinner,he came. While + past continuous,pastsimple. Or He came while we were having dinner. Pastsimple + While +past continuous Or Whenhe came,we were havingdinner. When+ past simple,pastcontinuous Or We were havingdinnerwhenhe came. Past continuous+when + past simple Always: (When+ past simple (shortaction)) (as/just as/while + past continuous) Past perfect: Organizer of actions: It showsuswhichactionhappened first Form: had + p.p. (3rd form of the verb) Keywords: before,after, already,just,never, by,bythe time Meanings: 1- Past perfect:whenwe have 2 actions in the past, one of them happenedbefore the other: We putthe olderaction(thathappenedfirst) inthe pastperfect,the followingone (the recentaction) inthe pastsimple: The meetinghadstarted firstat 8:00 am, before I arrived at 8:15 am.(By the time = before) 2- Past perfect: An action that happenedbefore a known time in the past: Ex: Mona had finishedcooking yesterday by7 o'clock. It means:Mona had finishedcooking yesterday before7 o'clock. (By = before) Note: When+ pastsimple +past simple =two past short actions that happened together Ex: Whenhe came,we left. (We methim) Ex: Whenhe came,we had left.(We didn'tmeethimbecause he hadleftbefore we came.)
  3. 3. Upstream Unit 5 Grammar Rules Page 3 of 4 3- Past perfect: A past action that finishedinthe past and had an effecton a later pointin the past: Ex: Theyhad trainedwell (pastperfect) sothey wonthe match (past simple) It meansthat: They had trained well andthe effectorthe resultof that wasthat they won the match. The action of training well andthe resultof winningthe match are bothinthe past,but training (pastperfect) is before winning (past simple). They had trained first(past perfect), thenthey wonthe match (past simple). We can use past continuous and past simple and past perfect to tell a story in the past Remember:
  4. 4. Upstream Unit 5 Grammar Rules Page 4 of 4 Mustn't – Can: Reflexive pronouns: It: itself I: myself You: yourself You (group): yourselves We: ourselves He: himself She: herself They: themselves Meanings: 1- When the subject and the object are the same: I cut myself. 2- To say that you do something (on your own) without help: I painted the room by myself 3- To stress the subject: I made the cake myself. (It's me who made the cake, not anyone else) Expressions: -Enjoy yourself. (Have a nice time): We enjoyed ourselves very much in Alexandria. -Help yourself. (When offering someone something to eat or drink): Help yourself to some cake. - Behave yourself. (Make your behavior good): They promised to behave themselves. - Dress/ wash/ shave yourself. (show that someone did something with a lot of effort): Although he is only four years old, he could dress himself. •You musn'tpaly with matches. •You musn'ttouch sockets.It is forbidden (not allowed) = Mustn't •You mustn'tpaly with matches, youcan starta fire. •You musn'ttouch sockets, youcanelectrocute yourself. It is possible = Can