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Marketing Strategy - May 2016

marketing strategy; 7-eleven, speedmart99, KK Super Mart, Attack or Avoid?, Reaction, capabilities, sustainable competitive advantage, firm resources

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Marketing Strategy - May 2016

  1. 1. 1. Table of Contents 1. Introduction............................................................................................2 1.1 History of Franchising...................................................................................................... 2 1.2 Current Scenario............................................................................................................... 2 1.3 7-Eleven Convenience Stores (C-Stores)......................................................................... 3 2. Competitor Analysis ...............................................................................4 2.1 KK Super Mart................................................................................................................. 4 2.1.1 Objectives.................................................................................................................. 4 2.1.2 Strategies................................................................................................................... 5 2.1.3 Strengths.................................................................................................................... 7 2.1.4 Weaknesses ............................................................................................................... 8 2.2 99Speedmart..................................................................................................................... 8 2.2.1 Objectives.................................................................................................................. 9 2.2.2 Strategies................................................................................................................... 9 2.2.3 Strengths.................................................................................................................. 10 2.2.4 Weaknesses ............................................................................................................. 11 3. Reactions from 7-Eleven.......................................................................13 4. Attack or Avoid....................................................................................14 5. Recommended Marketing Strategies....................................................14 6. Conclusion............................................................................................17 7. Presentation Slides................................................................................18 References...................................................................................................25
  2. 2. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 2 1. Introduction This assignment discusses the history of franchising business, the current outlook in Malaysia and background history of 7-Eleven Malaysia. The discussion also covers competitor analysis for 7- Eleven, KK Super Mart and 99Speedmart. Subsequently, reactions and marketing strategy recommendation will be evaluated. 1.1 History of Franchising The history of franchising business as a business model originates from the USA which was invented by Isaac Singer, the founder of I.M Singer & Company. The franchising business concept is arranged where one party, “the franchisor” grants another party, “the franchisee” the right to use its trademark or trade-name as well as certain business systems and processes, to produce and market a good or service according to certain specifications (SBA, 2013; Alon, Ni & Wang, 2010). In the 1940s, the business model arrived in Malaysia with the introduction of Singer sewing machine franchise business. The concept was then expanded to fast food business sector by A&W in the 1960s, KFC in 1973 and McDonalds in 1982. According to C. Hoe, A. Rahim, F. Isa et al. (2010), the growth and development of franchise business in Malaysia were slow as compared to other countries, until in 1992, the former Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad decided to give special encouragement to franchise business to grow in Malaysia. In 1994, the Malaysia Franchise Association (MFA) was established. 1.2 Current Scenario Today, franchising system in Malaysia has developed steadily over the years. According to MATRADE (2016), the driver of the rapid growth is in the retailing business such as c-stores and
  3. 3. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 3 hypermarkets. The market share is just below 10%, is smaller as compared to other developed countries. The franchise industry is projected to make up 9.4% of the country’s GDP by 2020 from just 2.2% in 2010 as targeted by the National Franchise Development Blueprint (NFDB), 2012- 2016. Under National Franchise Development Plan 2016-2020, the goal for the industry is to be recognized as one of the catalysts for national economic growth similar to other developed countries (MATRADE, 2016). 1.3 7-Eleven Convenience Stores (C-Stores). 7-Eleven is the world and country’s largest convenience store chain. The firm has more than 50,000 stores in 16 countries around the world, including Malaysia with 1,944 stores nationwide and serving more than 900,000 customers daily (7-Eleven AR, 2015). 7-Eleven was founded by J. C. Thompson in 1927 as The Southland Ice Company in Dallas, Texas selling ice blocks. The c- store concept started when Thompson starts offering milk, breads and eggs from the ice house to customers. He sold a lot of these items on Sundays and evenings when grocery stores were closed. Later, Thompson extended the idea to all other ice-dock locations and thus, convenience retailing was born. It began operating as a convenience store under the name of Tote’m. In 1946, it was renamed to “7-Eleven” as the new business hours from 7a.m. until 11 p.m. Today, the c-store has extended its business hours to 24hrs a day (7-Eleven. 2016). The first 7-Eleven store in Malaysia was opened in 1984, located at Jalan Bukit Bintang. Apart from selling “ice”, the iconic products of 7-Eleven are “Slurpee” and “Big Gulp” drinks. Among all merchandise, tobacco has always the highest sales among all of its merchandise (Maybank Research, 2014). There are three main players in c-store sector in Malaysia. According DBS Research (2015), 7-Eleven owning a 76 % share of the pie. As depicted in Figure 1.0, the remaining shares are dominated by homegrown brands, KK Super Mart or “KK” and 99Speedmart. Figure 1.0: Malaysia C-Stores Market Share (Source: Euromonitor DBS Bank)
  4. 4. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 4 2. Competitor Analysis The next section will introduce KK Super Mart as the nearest competitor and followed by 99Speedmart. 2.1 KK Super Mart “KK” was established in 2001 by Dato’ Dr KK Chai or also known as Dato’ KK from Sarawak. The store is the flagship business of the KK Group of Companies. Apart from c-store, the KK Group diversifies its businesses to Food and Beverages, Motorsports, hotel, home decoration and properties. The c-store opened its first store in Kuchai Entrepreneurs Park in Kuala Lumpur. As of today, “KK” has established 215 stores located at the center of Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka and Sarawak (KK Group, 2016). 2.1.1 Objectives The vision of the c-store is “To Provide Consumer Convenience Universally”. In a simple term, the objective is to provide “convenience” goods like newspapers, frozen foods and many grocery items.
  5. 5. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 5 2.1.1.1 To become a household name – brand recognition According to the corporate website, “KK” exists is in response to social responsibility demand. The founder argues that the modern families today are too busy chasing their dreams which has indirectly neglected the importance of family bonding. Their busy and hectic schedules do not end on Friday, but they continue on the weekend by spending long hours in departmental stores or hypermarket shopping for groceries. Weekends in his opinion are the best time for all family members to get together in their own houses. In this context, KK Super Mart’s objective is to change the current lifestyle and build its reputation by banking on this principle to be recognized as a household name among Malaysians. 2.1.1.2 Going Abroad Strategy As part of the c-store expansion plan, venturing business abroad will go in tandem with its domestic expansion plan. Most of the outlets are currently located at the earlier stated location, in the near future, the chain will be expanded to other states of Malaysia. As of 2016, there are seven overseas outlets, and all are located in Nepal (KK Group. 2016). The founder is optimistic about the future of c-store concept as the demand is always there. Regardless of the current economic situation or any other factor, people are still buying their daily necessities (The Star, 2009). This remark is also supported by the DBS Research (2015) where there are significant growth opportunities particularly in ASEAN countries. Countries like Philippines and Indonesia have better potential for c-store operators to grow their business. 2.1.2 Strategies The notable strategies deployed by “KK” in fulfilling their goals are discussed below. 2.1.2.1 High Traffic Residential areas In pursuit of its objective to become a household name, “KK” main strategy is to invade high traffic residential areas by opening more outlets. The strategy is also part of its objective to gain greater market share in c-store sector. As reported on its Facebook page, almost every week new outlet is launched. In some cases, there are two adjacent outlets within the same area. This strategy is to improve its visibility and its brand recognition. Subsequent strategies to support this include;
  6. 6. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 6 Product – All “KK” outlet is stocked with over 9,000 (SKUs) daily essential products including KK’s own proprietary brand such as KK Brand Mineral Water. The c-store also offer other products and services ranging from fresh fruits, vegetables, frozen foods, mobile phone reload, photocopying, ATM, Touch ‘n Go reload and bill payments (KK Group, 2016). The c-store recently added courier package drop-off to its service line. This service is adopted from “Amazon Locker” concept for online purchase (Amazon “Amazon Locker”, 2016). Promotion– “KK” is seen to maximize the usage of technology for its promotional strategy. Social media applications like Facebook, Instagram and Twitter have been the primary mode of communication to reach its customers. For example, the opening of its 215th outlet was announced on its Facebook page as shown in Figure 2.1. Figure 2.1 – KK Facebook page 2.1.2.2 Diversification Strategy The components discussed in the first strategy indirectly build “KK” brand reputation, and with its strong management team, “KK” diversifies its business to further strengthen the “KK” brand. After fifteen years, the group has a wide range of businesses as shown in Figure 2.2. Barney (1991)
  7. 7. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 7 highlighted that firm resources enable firms to execute and implement strategies successfully. In this case, “KK” has a strong management team, knowledge and capabilities as its firm resources that create sustainable competitive advantages. A strong brand name will attract more customers to the c-store and indirectly will improve the overall bottom line (MRCA, 2014). Figure 2.2 – KK Group of Companies. 2.1.3 Strengths Wide presence – Apart from operating 24hours a day, the c-store has a wide presence especially in the residential areas. Customers always feel the brand is always follow or near to them. One of the advantages is shorter queue and improved customer service at the payment counter. As reported by NACS (2015), when there are many c-stores on the same road, customers have multiple options of which c-store that he or she wants to go depending on their preference. This will improve the overall time spent at the c-store as the line is shorter and quicker. Home grown brand and strong management team– KK is a home grown brand. The c-store has a number of advantages and support from the government under local SME sector (SME, 2014). With a strong management team in managing the business, the firm now has expanded the business through diversification. This strategy improves and strengthens the “KK” brand (KK Group. 2016). Wide product lines and services – KK has wide product lines with 9,000 SKUs in each outlet. The c-store is considered a true convenience store as it offers wide product lines and services to
  8. 8. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 8 customers round the clock. It also serves as an alternative to an ordinary “mom and pop” store especially during odd-hours. 2.1.4 Weaknesses High Level of Robbery Case – KK has a history of high number of robberies with eleven cases in ten days as reported in the local newspaper (The Star, 2013). Although KK is not the only target of c-store robbery and the number of cases has reduced today, it shows the management is not doing enough to completely secure their outlets. Limited presence – Although the c-store reaches its 215th mark of total outlets recently, but the overall presence is not well represented across nationwide. The focus is too centralized in Klang Valley, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka and Sarawak, being the founder’s hometown. 2.2 99Speedmart 99Speedmart, “The King of Mini Marts” was established in 1987 by a wheelchair-bound man named Lee Thiam Wah. It started as a traditional “mom and pop” sundry mart called Pasar Raya Hiap Hoe in Tepi Sungai, Klang. In 1992, the first store with the name “99” was opened in Klang Utama known as Pasar Mini 99. Since then, the founder has expanded the store to eight other outlets in Klang based on chain store format. In 2000, the brand was renamed to “99Speedmart” with more aggressive strategies to penetrate the retail market share (99Speedmart, 2016). The number 99 in 99Speedmart means nothing is perfect in this world so the firm tries to be anything close to 99% perfect! (The Edge Market, 2014). Among other mini-marts, 99Speedmart has the largest network. As of today, the firm has 808 retail stores in major cities including Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. 99Speedmart today is worth more than RM2 billion. Through observation, at least 2 new outlets are opened in a week, it shows how aggressive the firm with its expansion strategy (99Speedmart. 2016; The Edge Market. 2014). The tagline used by the firm is
  9. 9. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 9 “NEAR’ n SAVE”. The firm’s commitment is to provide customers with an “ideal shopping environment” that incorporates the elements of time and money saving. The primary objectives in pursuing its vision are summarized as follows: 2.2.1 Objectives The objectives of the company are; 2.2.1.1 Target Low Income and Migrant Worker Groups and Low-priced Positioning The primary target market of 99Speedmart is low-income and migrant worker groups. The firm placed its outlets in high density residential areas. Every outlet is stocked up with “everyday” items and priced relatively low compared to its rivals. The average “store keeping units” (SKUs) for 99Speedmart is 3500 SKUs which is higher than the market leader who has an average of 2,200 SKUs (The Edge Market, 2014). 2.2.1.2 Strengthen Supply Chain Efficiency by Fully Integrating Distribution Centers In order to sustain the rapid expansion and to remain low-priced positioning, the firm objective is to have a good supply chain management system which equipped with fully integrated distribution centers. This is the main source of its competitive advantage which enable the low-priced positioning. 2.2.1.3 To Expand and Grow through Merger & Acquisition Based on The Edge Market (2014) article, apart from its aggressive expansion plan domestically, the firm is planning to go abroad especially in ASEAN countries. However, due to various reasons including political instability, the focus of the firm today, remain on domestic market. The firm is also expanding through merger & acquisition strategy. 2.2.2 Strategies The strategies employed by the company are;
  10. 10. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 10 2.2.2.1 Build good Relationship with Suppliers For 99Speedmart, strong relationship with suppliers is very important for business continuity. According to 99Speedmart, the turnaround of stock at their distribution centers is very fast and most of the time the stocks not even last for a week (The Edge Market, 2014). Therefore, the strategy employed by 99Speedmart is to maintain the current relationship with existing suppliers and at the same time the firm welcomes new suppliers to grow together with 99Speedmart (99Speedmart, 2016). This strategy is deemed to sustain their competitive advantage of low-priced positioning. 2.2.2.2 Build more Integrated Distribution Centers (DC) The firm already has six warehouses and distribution centers, including the latest center in Kota Kinabalu. 99Speedmart will equip all DCs with the latest technology, well integrated centers to ensure efficiency of its distribution system. The firm is planning to add more warehouse as the business grows. This has been the source of strategic advantage of 99Speedmart which makes the firm able to achieve economies of scale by selling popular goods at a fair and lower price. 2.2.2.3 Expansion and Growth In terms of growth, the firm will grab any opportunities to grow the business further. In a recent development, the firm acquired “The Burger King” franchise in Malaysia and Singapore worth RM74.6 million. The plan is to integrate the Burger King business with 99Speedmart chains and allow growth for its employees to the “quick-service restaurant (QSR) business (The Edge Market, 2015). 2.2.3 Strengths Reliable distribution system – this is one of the competitive advantage sources of 99Speedmart. The concept is similar to IKEA’s concept where they have a global distribution system which enable them to price their products, reasonably to the customer (IKEA, 2013). 99Speedmart on the other hand, adopted a similar strategy that enables them to employ low-price positioning. Baby diapers and formulated milk powder are examples of commonly sought products at the store.
  11. 11. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 11 Low price – a research conducted by Maybank Research (2014), 99Speedmart offers cheaper price over the same product as compared to its rivals. This is due to the fact that 99Speedmart takes razor-thin profit margins supported by its unique supply chain management. As depicted in Figure 2.3, 99Speedmart manages its products supply from its own warehouses and in-house logistics system to distribute the products to all 99Speedmart outlets. Home grown – Similar to KK, 99Speedmart is another home grown brand. The company enjoys similar incentives like other SMEs. Figure 2.3 Centralize Purchase and Delivery Wide network – 99Speedmart has wide presence, especially in Peninsula Malaysia with 808 outlets. Under mini-mart category, 99Speedmart has the largest number of outlets among other operators. 2.2.4 Weaknesses Lack of In-store services – 99Speedmart has limited in-house services. The current services are limited to U Mobile services while other operators offer more than that.
  12. 12. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 12 Poor Services – Through observation on its Facebook page, a lot of complaints were about poor customer services by outlet employees. Some are known to be rude, non-attentive and poor communication. However, very less negative comments or feedback on the quality of merchandise they offer. Example of a review posted on its Facebook page is depicted in Figure 2.4. Figure 2.4 – Negative customer review Inconsistent Outlet Management – Across all outlets, there is no consistent or uniformity of outlet management like employee training, stock management, cleanliness and so on. Based on the Facebook page review as depicted in Figure 2.5, cleanliness, safety, attitude and product management are the top improvement priorities. Figure 2.5 – Negative feedback about staff attitude and safety
  13. 13. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 13 3. Reactions from 7-Eleven In this scenario, although 7-Eleven is the market leader with a lot of competitive advantage for being the first-mover, they have never taken their rivals strategies lightly. There have been seen a mix reaction from 7-Eleven against “KK” and 99Speedmart. For example; Low-price strategy - as reported in Maybank Research (2014), 7-Eleven continue to price its products higher by 15.1% than its rivals “KK” and 99Speedmart. There is no reaction about pricing, although 99Speedmart has beaten 7-Eleven in FY2013 and FY2014 financial performance (The Market Edge, 2014). Through its unique business model, it enables 99Speedmart to price their products low to the customers. The research also indicates that 7-Eleven is the most expensive retailer by charging 13.3% higher than hypermarkets (Aeon, Aeon Big) and 4.8% higher than petro marts (Select-Shell, Mesra-Petronas). The primary reason for the premium cost strategy is to cover the fixed operating cost for 24hours operation. On the other hand, customers are not complaining as they are satisfied with the convenience service provided by 7-Eleven.
  14. 14. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 14 In-store services - In response to “KK” strategy for improving its in-store services, 7-Eleven replicates the strategy rather calling it retaliation by trying to broaden its in-store services. Touch N’ Go top up services is the recent in-store service on top of SYABAS, Telekom and Astro bill payment services. 7-Eleven is currently working with TNB to add electricity bill payment services at all 7-Eleven stores. An analyst reporting for Bloomberg Malaysia (2015) highlights that in-store service currently account for just about 3.5% of total sales, but profit margins for in-store services are 100% vs just 25% for merchandise. Rapid Growth in Domestic Market – 99 Super Mart and 99Speedmart are aggressively expanding by opening new outlets almost every week. It’s obviously a threat to 7-Eleven, but as reported in the annual report (2016), there is no indication or projection for growth. However, 7-Eleven is still the Malaysia Book of Record holder for number of stores with 1,944 outlets, reaching the 2000th mark by Q1 2016 (7-Eleven, 2016). 4. Attack or Avoid Rivals Rapid Growth - Being the market leader in the retail industry, 7-Eleven primary strategy is to defend its market share. Aggressive expansion strategy by “KK” and 99Speedmart definitely impacting the market share. As discussed earlier, there is no direct reaction against this situation, however, given the fact that 7-Eleven has the first-mover advantage with its wide network of stores, high level of services offered, and good customer service they defend their market share with product development and innovation strategy (Bloomberg Malaysia, 2015). 5. Recommended Marketing Strategies Being the market leader with the largest network in Malaysia, the appropriate strategies for 7- Eleven would be: Product Development and Creative Advertising and Promotion Strategy – 7-Eleven has the competitive advantage over its proprietary products such as “Slurpee” frozen beverages and “Big Gulp” fountain soft drinks. These two products have been its staple over the years. In Jan 2016, 7- Eleven Malaysia conducted a “Slurpee Tasting Test” where Slurpee lovers took the opportunity to taste all sixteen new flavors. The purpose of this event is to decide which flavor is the best for
  15. 15. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 15 2016 (7-Eleven, 2016). This exemplifies how the c-store continue improving its current product line to appreciate their loyal customers as well as strategic marketing to attract new customers. Apart from that, the c-store also introduced an innovative promotion through “Slurpee Day” according to themes such as Hari Raya, Chinese New Year and Merdeka Day. In this example, the “Slurpee” itself is an example of unique firm resources or rare resources of which is continuously improvised (taste) through product development strategy, and supported through innovative promotions which then improve customer loyalty and increase margins. Figure 2.6 - “Slurpee” and “Big Gulp” Product and Service Differentiation Strategy – this strategy seems to be an extension of the previous strategy. Given the fact that the presence of 7-Eleven in Malaysia has been quite long and it is paramount to give all outlets a facelift, new and different look. As highlighted in Maybank Research (2014; 7-Eleven AR, 2015), 600 stores or 43% of the stores opened prior to 2013 will be refurbished. The key driver for the refurbishment is to cater the younger generation, hence the name of the new concept – “Next Gen Store”. The aim of the new store concept will be to entice customers with greater selection of fresh foods and the seating area of up to 25% of store space. The store will also equip with Wi-Fi to attract the younger crowd, along with an expansion of in-
  16. 16. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 16 store services such as online gaming reloads and POS app store cards. Figure 2.7 exhibits the “before and after” refurbishment of the stores. As discussed where in-store services contribute 100% profit-margins, the c-store is committed and will aggressively expand in the areas of e-commerce and digital programs. The first milestone has been achieved where the c-store has become one of the largest channels in the country from mobile phone re-loads. The c-store has also covered most major utility and some mobile phone bill payments. On the other hand, in response to the rise of e-commerce and online shopping by Malaysian, the c-store now offer parcel lockers similar to “Amazon Locker” concept (7-Eleven AR 2015; Amazon, 2016). According to Barney (1991), any strategies employed by a firm must be unique, rare or not easily imitable or replicated by competitors, in this case however, seems to work for a short-term only. 7-Eleven in this situation has the first-mover advantage by combining c-store concept with a modern coffee shop concept where customers shop for their convenience goods and hang out with friends at the seating area chit-chatting or surfing the net. Competitors may replicate this strategy and deploy at their stores soon, but that will take few years before the rivals could neutralize the competitive actions. Three years down the road, 7-Eleven would have come up with another fresh and new strategy to defend the market share as well as to strengthen their competitive advantages. Figure 2.7 – “Before and After” Refurbishment
  17. 17. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 17 6. Conclusion In this assignment, we discussed about how “KK” create their own sustainable competitive advantages such as excellent management team for diversification strategy and stocking up to 9,000 SKUs, including proprietary KK brands have been the sources of their sustainable competitive advantage. 99Speedmart, on the other hand is banking on its solid, robust and unique chain supply system for a low-priced positioning. 7-Eleven, being the first-mover and its world’s famous “Slurpee” as its “rare” firm resources demonstrates more defensive rather than attacking their competitors. [Word counter - 3891]
  18. 18. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 18 7. Presentation Slides
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  25. 25. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 25 References 99Speedmart. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.99speedmart.com.my Amazon Inc. (2016). “Amazon Locker”. Retrieved from http://www.nst.com.my/news/2016/02/128524/one-simple-touch-greater-convenience Barney, J. (1991). Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120. doi:10.1177/014920639101700108 Bloomberg TV Malaysia (2015). “C-Stores May Need to Tweak Their Business Model To Enchance Profitability” Retrieved from http://www.bloombergtv.my/convenience-stores- may-need-tweak-business-model-enhance-profitability/ 7-Eleven Malaysia. (2015). 7-Eleven Malaysia Holdings Berhad Annual Report. 7-Eleven, Inc. (2013). 7-Eleven, Inc. MarketLine Company Profile, 1-24. Alon, I., Ni, L. and Wang, R. (2010), “Internationalization of franchising”, Book Chapter in Alon, I. (Ed.) Franchising globally, Palgrave MacMillan, New York. C.Hoe, A. Rahim, F. Isa et al. (2010). First Malaysia Franchise Profiling Survey DBS Group Research (2015). Industry Focus ASEAN Grocery Retail - DBS Bank | Singapore. Retrieved from https://www.dbs.com.sg/treasures/aics/pdfController.page?pdfpath=/content/article/pdf/AIO /150722_insights_whetting_asean_appetite.pdf Gatignon, H., Anderson, E., & Helsen, K. (1989). Competitive Reactions to Market Entry: Explaining Interfirm Differences. Journal of Marketing Research, 26(1), 44. doi:10.2307/3172668 IKEA (2013). IKEA Group Company Profile, Marketline, 9 May 2013. KK Group. (2016) Retrieved from http://www.kkgroup.my/About-Us/ MATRADE. “Franchise”. (2016) Retrieved from http://www.matrade.gov.my/en/foriegn-buyers- section/70-industry-write-up--services/539-franchise Maybank Reseach (2014). “7-Eleven – Revitalized”. Retrieved from http://www.bursamarketplace.com MRCA. (2014). Malaysia Retail Chain Association “MRCA News Vol 2 No 1. Retrieved from https://issuu.com/mrca/docs/mrca-news-vol2-no1 NST. (2016). “One Simple Touch”. Retrieved from http://www.nst.com.my/news/2016/02/128524/one-simple-touch-greater-convenience
  26. 26. BMMS5103 – Franchise Business – 7-Eleven Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 26 Peter Yannopoulos. (2011). Defensive and Offensive Strategies for Market Success. SBA. “How Franchising Began”. (2013). Retrieved from https://www.sba.gov/blogs/how- franchising-began SME Annual Report. (2014/2015). Retrieved from http://www.smecorp.gov.my/index.php/en/resources/2015-12-21-11-07-06/sme-annual- report/book/7-annual-report-2014/2-annual-report The Edge Market. (2014). “99Speedmart business soars”. Retrieved from https://www.google.com.my/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&ua ct=8&ved=0ahUKEwjb8oO8uLPNAhUKrY8KHTXxAPYQFgg3MAQ&url=http%3A%2F %2Fwww.equatoassist1.com%2FCMS_99SMart2%2Fnews_info.aspx%3Fid%3D839bfa4c -049d-4fa9-9dff- a0b5f9cf1d9a&usg=AFQjCNFgTw9WLPmKnzcydjc4VuFlzQhVJg&sig2=v_25sqNyu38b mfxYPH11uQ The Edge Market. (2015). “99Speedmart buys Burger King”. Retrieved from http://www.theedgearkets.com/my/article/99-speedmart-founder-buys- ekuinas%E2%80%99-burger-king The Star. (2009). “KK Super Mart Plans to Venture Abroad”. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com.my/business/business-news/2009/04/18/kk-super-mart-plans-to- venture-abroad/ The Star. (2013). “KK Super Mart Fights Back”. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2013/07/24/kk-supermart-fight-back/

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