THE SPICE REGION
THE RICE BOWL OF INDIA.
The people of this region are predominantly Muslims and Hindus.
The Hyderabadi Muslims got their food habits from the moguls, while the Hindus
had their own distinctive style.
The cuisine is considered as the spiciest and hottest of all the Indian cuisine.
The cuisine includes both the original Andhra cooking and the Hyderabadi cuisine
with its mogul influence.
Hyderabadi Muslims prefer a liberal use of red meats and all most all their gravies
are made of rich ingredients.
Haleem is a mixture of meat and cereals with the regular spices and is a must in
all the Muslims occasions.
One of the most characteristics features of Hyderabadi cuisine is the use of
tamarind as a souring agent; the moguls use lime.
Early morning begins with nahari a lamb stew made from lamb trotters, seasoned
with cassia buds, cardamom and potli ka masala (which includes sandal wood, khas roots
and dried rose petals). This is eaten with sheermal.
Andhra food is very spicy because of the abundant cultivation of chilies.
Guntur being the largest producer of chilies in the state.
The cuisine is largely vegetarian except in the coastal areas.
Fish and prawns are curried in sesame and coconut oil and flavored with freshly
ground pepper and eaten with rice.
Traditionally the meal is served in a clean banana leaf or stainless steel thali.
The people eat sitting on the floor or on a low wooden stool.
The main course must include rice, dhal, and vegetables like yam, ladies finger,
brinjal and bitter gourd.
PULUSU and CHAARU are the two thick and thin clear soups respectively, eaten
PULUSU is made with tamarind and spices tempered and thickened with rice
flour while CHAARU is a clear tempered soup.
Authentic Hyderabadi cuisine is served course by course.
Briyanis one of the India's finest food is closely associated with this region.
Kulcha the charcoal baked rotis, haleem made out of coarsely pounded wheat and
spiced mutton gravy is some specialties.
Like southern foods dosa, pesarattu, uppma, rasam are also famous.
The spicy chutneys and pickles of Andhra especially mango and shrimps are
famous in these area.
The last course is the thickset curd.
Rice is the staple food served plain or else flavored.
Avakkai, the hot mango pickle of Andhra pradesh, is a necessary adjunct to its
Ghee is served with rice and sambar.
Til oil is used for cooking and for making pickles.
Andhra is also famous for its Gongura patchadi- a form of cooked green chutney
served with boiled rice and ghee.
KODI VEPPUDU: dry preparation of chicken and chicken liver is roasted with
brown onion; curry leaves, ginger, garlic and spices.
THAKALLI PAPPU: tomatoes cooked in a spicy masala, sourness of tamarind
and tempering of curry leaves, mustard, chilies and urad dhal.
DALCHA: dried beans and lamb, which are stewed together and soured with
tamarind, cumin seeds, red chilies and curry leaves.
DOUBLE KA METHA: a bread pudding sprinkled with pistachios and raisins.
GHOST KA BRIYANI:
BAGHARA BAINGAN: small whole aubergines, slit browned and cooked gently
in a nutty sauce containing sesame seeds and peanuts.
TOMATO KUT: an aromatic puree of fresh tomatoes perked with tamarind; curry
leaves and bits of browned garlic.
MIRCHI KA SALAN: long chilies cooked in nutty brown sauce.
THE LAND OF ALL RELIGIONS
• This is a region of all religion like a Jainism's and Parsees etc.
• Population of Gujarat is mainly vegetarians, due to the influence of Jains and
Buddhists. Except the Parsees and boras (Muslim community).
• Boras are very famous for their meat preparation.
• The staple food is millet.
• Jains are the vegetarians who don’t use onion and garlic in their dishes.
• There is extensive use of millets, jaggery, vegetables, roots and grains.
• The cuisine has a unique balance of sweet and sour.
• Food consists of bajra or jowar rotlo or bhakri eaten with locally grown
vegetables such as brinjal, varieties of beans, gourds, fenugreek leaves, lentils and milk.
• Pappad is a great favorite and every house prepares its own variety.
• Geographically Gujarat is divided into 3 main regions…
Kathaiwari and Kutch
Southern Gujarat or Surath
KATHIAWARI AND KUTCH
• They use grains, pulses and vegetables in abundance.
• Their preparation has a predominant flavor of garlic in their food.
• Peanut fudge made from jaggery is a specialty of this region.
• Another favorites are Dhebras made from wheat flour; green chilly, curds, salt
and sugar are eaten with chundo.
• Another specialty is methia masala made from dry powder of methi seeds, red
chilly powder and salt. It is sprinkled over raw vegetables and salads for flavor.
• They include plenty of spices and a lot of hot pickles and chutney as
• They are very famous for their spiciness and they use lot of chilly powder for this.
SOUTHERN GUJARAT OR SURATH
• Green vegetables and plenty of fruit dominate Surath food.
• Here they use green chilly to make their food spicy.
• They use more sugar and their cuisine has a sweet and tangy flavor because of the
use of jaggery.
• Surath has plenty of green vegetables and fruits this is because of proper rainfall
in southern Gujarat.
• In surath other Gujarati specialties like nankhatais, Kari biscuits, kesar biscuits
and mithas are served in several bakeries.
• Kutch cuisine is relatively simple; kitchidi is the main dish, which is eaten with
• Kadhi is a soupy stew of yogurt-based gravy may be thickened with besan.
• In sourashtra sugar cane, wheat, millet, pulses, vegetables are available in
• The use of sugar cane is because of the abundantly grown sugarcane in this
• The food is mainly dominated by pulses and accompanied sweets.
A BASIC GUJARATHI THALI CONSISTS OF…
• Food starts with a glass of chaas (butter milk)
• Rice and wheat are consumed in equal quantity.
• 1. Variety of dhal.
• 2. Kadhi.
• 3. Two or three types of pulses.
• 4. Vegetables.
• 5. Salads called cuchumbers.
• 6. Savories.
• 7. Sweet puris or chapatti or roti.
• 8. Rice
• 9. Chutney and pickles.
• 10. Papad.
FARSANS & VAGHARS
• Farsans or snacks form the essential part of the Gujarati diet.
• They are consumed along with the meal.
• Farsans such as kachories, papadies etc. are famous.
• Use of pickle is also a must in this cuisine.
• Surathis are also famous for their vaghar, which is tempering of foods.
• Vaghars give the food a distinctive flavor.
• Asafetida is used in all vaghars as it helps to reduce the gas in the body.
• Khamam dhokla: a salty steamed cake made out of chick pea flour.
• Methi thepla: dough made out of jowar and wheat mixed with coriander, chopped
fenu greek and chilies, rolled thin and shallow fried in a griddle.
• Khandvi : a snack made by cooking a mixture of butter milk, gram flour, water till
dough like consistency and set, tempered with mustard seeds, red chili and hinge.
Garnished with chop coriander and g.. Coconut.
• Shrikandh: flavored yogurt.
• Methi Dhal: tempered dhal, finished off with jaggery and lemon juice or tamarind
• Brown rice:
• Doodh pak:
• Aam rass: mango juice.
• Undhiyoo: a winter delicacy in which all the seasonal vegetables are put,
traditionally it is made in earthen ware, which after being filled with the ingredients and
sealed and buried upside down with fire lit above they is cooked in the pot.
• Much variety of mouth freshener served in the end mark the completion of meal
varies from saunf, dhana dhal, elachi etc.
THE SPICE REGION.
It is a spice region, which produces the best cardamoms and black peppers.
Karnataka culinary culture revolves round three staple items…
The two main regions are
• The coorg / kodavas
COORG / KODAVAS
It is culturally quite different from the rest of the state and has an equally
Coorg are perhaps the only Hindus who serve non-vegetarian foods and alcoholic
drinks in their marriage ceremonies and traditional functions.
The culinary art of coorg is noted for its appetizing taste and smell.
They use lot of hot condiments and lot of ghee, which suits the cold climate.
Meat whether game or pork, mutton, chicken, fish is cut in to small pieces
irrespective of the joints and made into a nourishing curry, with which various puttus
seasoned with lime, citron, mango, pickles make an excellent meal.
They have a variety of dosas, idly, adai etc.
They make use of each and every part of the vegetables in their preparation. Even
the skin of many vegetables being used effectively in different chutneys.
They like their curries hot and spicy.
Coconut is in abundance in this region, so it is used as either milk or oil or grated
along with bedgi chilies, which is used in most masala.
Meat either chicken or lamb is cooked in coconut milk has a special flavor.
Lot of spices is usually roasted before grinding.
Fish and seafood's like crabs, prawns, clams etc. are available in plenty.
Jackfruit, banana and mango are cooked as vegetables especially in the villages.
Rice and rice preparation are must as accompaniments.
One goes within the state, the food begins to resemble that of Maharastra and the
cuisine of coastal Karnataka has similarities with the food of Kerala in the southern part
and GOA in the northern part.
Unleavened breads made out of millet are made and eaten with spiced vegetable
In rural Karnataka, ragi is widely used in each meal. This staple grain is ground,
boiled till cooked and rolled into small balls called as MUDDE and served with hot
chutneys or huli or saaru.
The cooking medium in the coastal strip is the coconut oil whereas in the plateaus
it is sesame or groundnut oil.
Use of greens is extensive in Karnataka in the form of palya, gojju or huli.
A typical Karnataka meal has many delicacies like koshimbirs, a salad made out
of soaked split moongh dhal, spiced with salt, green
Chilies and tempered with mustard and mixed grated coconuts, cucumber and carrots
and dressed with little lemon juice.
Break fast foods in Karnataka includes the popular UPPITTU (UPPAMA), set
dosa, kesari bhath, Mysore pak, akki roti etc.
TRADATIONAL KARNATAKA MEAL CONSISTS OF
STARTS WITH PICKLE.
MOSURUBHAJI (SIMILAR TO RAITHA)
SPICED DHAL CALLED AS TOUVE.
HULI AND SAARU.
FINISHED WITH MOSARANNA (curd rice) OR RICE WITH MAJJIGE (butter
SWEETS (MYSORE PAK).
ALONG WITH THE MEALS ARE SERVED HAPLAS (PAPPAD).
Meal is served on a PATRAVALLI (banana leaf) or MUTTGA LEAVES stitched
KUDUTHA SAAR: called as horse gram rasam, brown colored thin soup, and
sourness given by tamarind.
KORI GASSI: Mangalorean chicken curry, which is reddish brown in color.
Spice thin fine gravy made of coconut, red chili, coriander, peppercorns, garlic and cumin
seeds are made into fine paste.
NEER DOSAI: a handkerchief thin, delicate rice pancake that melts in the mouth.
KAI KAJPU: mixed veg. stew. Vegetables cooked in onion and tomatoes masala
added with fine paste of coconut, coriander, poppy seeds and whole garam masala and
finely thinned by adding coconut milk.
LAND DESICATED FROM WATER
The name Kashmir implies “land desiccated from water”.
In Sanskrit KA means water and SHIMIRA means to desiccate.
The legend that Kashmir valley was a vast mountainous lake called SATISAR,
which was drained by KASHYAP RISHI who called Brahmins and tan tricks to drain the
lake by using their force and thus it was called as Kashyap – mar and later Kashmir.
Traditional Kashmir cooking is called as WAZAWAN and comprises mostly of
Most Kashmir's including Brahmins are meat eaters. The Kashmiri cuisine is
divided between two main communities
Kashmiri pandits are non-vegetarians, but they don’t use garlic and onions in their
An unavoidable ingredient in Kashmiri cuisine is curd and asafetida. They use
curd in almost all the dishes except in certain kebabs. Curd helps to reduce the spiciness
and also gives a smooth creamy consistency to the dish.
Brahmins and Kashmiri pandits have generally been great meat eaters and prefer
goat especially young goat.
Rice was the staple food of Kashmir, which is, still continues to be; barley was
regarded as food only fit for poor and no wheat was eaten.
Rice was cooked and eaten cold called as TURN BAT.
Pulaos like zarda pulao, tursh pulao were introduced during the sultan rule in
Hindus ate pork in pre Islamic period; beef was introduced with Muslim rule.
It has developed its own specialty in cooking. Locally grown rice is sweetly
fragrant and very light.
All dishes are built around the main course of rice.
Lotus stem is also an important produce for boat dwelling people and makes a
very good substitute for meat.
Morel mushroom called GUCCHI are harvested and consumed fresh in summer.
They are expensive and therefore used only for specific religious occasions and wedding
Corn bread is an alternate for rice.
Sauces and gravies are made from dairy rich products. The fruits and nuts grown
from the valley are used lavishly in the daily menu.
Saffron is widely used in cooking, which is obtained from the stigma of the
flower called, crocus and is used to impart flavor and color to the dishes.
The origin of wazwan seems to be still at large. The traders introduced it from
Although wazwan sums to be Persian word but since Persian and Sanskrit are
sister language and as per another school of thought “wazwan” could be originally
WAZA means cook / head cook and WAN means work shop / place. So wazwan
means cooks shop.
Wazwan is a feast comprising of 36 courses of meat, chicken, vegetables, salads,
curd, sweet and KAHWA (spiced green tea).
With the passage of time some dishes have been omitted and new dishes included
like KALYA (yellow meat stew).
It is a festive banquet, which every Kashmiri rich or poor held at one or the other
time like marriage and other social functions and as a matter of pride.
HINDU / MUSLIM
Though the Hindu and Muslim cooks use the same spices but the taste and flavor
The method of cooking in both the cases is mostly stewing except Hindu cooks
using deep-frying and braising for TABAK MAZ and ROGAN JOSH. Where of Muslims
use shallow frying and boiling.
For thickening the Hindu cooks make use of ground spices, where as the Muslim
cooks use a paste of onions, herbs and garlic.
Hindus in India serve meals in thali and leaves to individuals, the Kashmiri
Muslims on the other hand place the THRAMIS consisting of various delicacies for every
one to eat together when in groups.
One of the important characteristics of WAZWAN is the predominant flavor of
garlic in most of the dishes.
SPICES IN WAZWAN
Turmeric. Ginger powder.
Aniseed powder. Red chilly powder.
Cinnamon Green cardamom
Cloves Black pepper powder.
Cocks comb Mint
Dania leaves Green chilly
RISTA: pounded meat with fat and spices rounded in the form of small balls and
cooked in saffron flavored red gravy.
TABAK MAZ: shallow fried spare ribs.
METHI MAZ: roughly chopped offal's cooked with dried fenugreek.
SHEEK KEBAB: finely minced meat spiced, skewered and grilled on an open
ROGAN JOSH: meat pieces cooked in red gravy. ROGAN – means and JOSH –
means exciting color.
DHANIWAL KHORUMA: boneless cubes of meat stewed in yellowish gravy
and garnished with lot of green coriander leaves.
MIRCHI KHORUMA: korma cooked in red gravy with Kashmiri chilly powder
and saffron flavored.
AAB GOSHT: large pieces of meat cooked in milk, lightly spiced and flavored.
PALAK SABZI: small spinach cooked in spinach gravy.
GOSHT TABA: pounded meat with fat turned into large balls cooked in yogurt
based yakhni gravy.
TAMATER PANEER: cottage cheese in tomato based gravy.
YAKHNI SHORBA: a rich mutton based stock flavored with and enriched with
ginger, garlic and garam masala.
KHURBANI KA METHA: popular dessert in Kashmir in which dried apricots
are soaked in water and simmered in sugar syrup and mildly flavored with saffron.
KAHWAH: the green spicy flavored tea also is a part of WAZWAN.
CHUTNEYS: like almond, walnut and onion sliced chutney.
PHIRNI: Sweet custard made of rice flour and nuts.
GODS OWN COUNTRY.
Four distinct groups in Kerala are
The Muslims called moflas.
The nairs who are the warrior class.
Namboodris who are the Brahmins.
Yellow banana chips fried in coconut oil and lightly salted are famous and eaten
in this region.
Rice appams, a pancake also called as Vellappam is common to all Keralaties and
is eaten with meat stew by Syrians and with avial by Namboodris and nairs.
Idiappam a dish of cooked rice noodles, the puttu consisting of rice rava and
grated coconut and jackfruit cooked with jaggery and cardamom are among the common
They prefer steak beef.
Most of the curries are prepared using coconut milk.
For Christmas the specialty is wild duck with mappas.
MUSLIMS OR MOFLAS
They use rice, coconut and jaggery in abundance.
There is a strong Arab influence as is seen in their biriyanis and ground wheat and
meat porridge called as aleesa.
Several flavored soups are made from both rice and wheat with added coconut or
coconut milk and spices.
A distinct and unusual sweet is MUTTA MALA, chain like strings of egg yolk
cooked in sugar syrup.
A weeding feast of nairs includes several types of patchadis, pickles, chips and
payasams based on milk or coconut milk.
Rice, dhal and bananas, however no meat is served.
The Brahmins are strictly vegetarians.
They favour the idli, dosa and puttu for their break fast with coconut or curd as
They eat rice with kootu, kalan and olan.
The use of garlic is avoided.
Kerala food in general is hot and spicy.
The food is traditionally eaten by hands and served in banana leaves.
Abundant use of coconut oil, mustard seeds, curry leaves and coconut milk are
used in their day-to-day cooking.
Soft pancake made from fermented rice batter with soft spongy middle, which is laced
with crispy edges. Served with vegetables, chicken or mutton stew.
A steamed cake made from rice flour and steamed in long, hallow bamboo or metallic
cylinders. Had with steamed bananas and sugar or with spicy curries.
Made with chicken and potatoes simmered gently in a creamy, white sauce flavored
with black pepper, cinnamon, clove, green chilly, lime juice, shallots and coconut
Syrian Christian specialty in which raw mangoes are cooked in coconut based gravy
mildly flavored with curry leaves, garlic and shallots.
PODI PATHIRI / KOZHI PATHRI
Roti made out of rice flour and is griddled in a thawa until it puffs up and dipped in
coconut milk before service.
A thin stew of fish tempered with curry leaves, green chilies, ginger, garlic and soured
with kodumpuli. Finally adjusted with coconut milk.
Blanched green beans sautéed in onions, garlic, cumin and turmeric added with grated
coconut and tempered with mustard, curry leaves, dried red chilies, split urud dhal.
• In this age of frozen foods it is reassuring to find that in the kitchens of some
nawabs and talukdars, life is still in tune with the natural rhythms of the season and food
has not changed for generations.
• Food occupies the highest position in most cultures and religions.
• This land has always been a major center of culture and learning's.
• To start with, Suryavanshis of Ayodhya ruled a part of the Kaushal kingdom and
then many rulers conquered it.
• But it was NAWAB ASAF UD DAULAH the benevolent ruler and a great
builder transformed Lucknow from a village to a town.
• Wajidh Ali Shah the last of the nawabs of awdh is also a great lover of the arts.
During his regime many innovative dishes were introduced.
• The cook is called as BAWARCHIS.
• The cuisine is mainly influenced by the difference in regions.
• A lot of emphasis was on vegetarian cooking.
• Basic cuisine is simple but on occasions the make it more elaborate.
• Fried food items are very popular such as kachories and puri, and they are a must
for every functions and festivals.
• Food habits vary from region to region, in Mathura the people use lot of desi
ghee, milk and milk products.
• In Lucknow it is very famous for its biriyanis and meat preparation.
• The word dum pukht style of cooking was originated from this region only.
• It is also famous for the sweets.
• The bazaar of Banaras is full of sweets like jalebi, pethas of Agra and sweets
dishes like kheer, ghajar ka halwa, imarti, rabdi, burfi and boondi ladu are famous in this
CULINARY TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH THIS REGION
• GHEE DURUST KARNA:
This is the vital step in cooking almost any awadhi dish. It is essentially the tempering or
seasoning of the cooking medium and flavoring with kewra water and cardamoms. The
method is as follows, heat ghee or oil to the smoking point and add kewra water and
green cardamoms, stir till the water evaporates and ghee gives a pleasant aroma. Remove
from the fire, strain through a muslin cloth and keep for further use.
This is a quick smoke procedure to flavor the meat, dhals or even raitha. This is a
common technique employed when making kababs. The method is as follows. In a
shallow utensil or lagan in which the meat or the mince has been marinated, a small bay
is made in the center and a katori or onionskin or betel leaves is placed. In it a piece of
live coal is placed and hot ghee, some times mixed with aromatic herbs and spices, is
poured over it and covered immediately with a lid to prevent the smoke from escaping.
The lid is not removed till about 15 minutes.
• DUM DENA:
This is frequent used in Awadh cooking. DUM literally means ‘breath’ and the process
involves placing the semi cooked pot or degchi sealing the utensils with dough and
applying very slow charcoal fire from the top, by placing some live charcoal on the lid
and some below. The Persians influence is the most evident in this method. The magic of
dum is the excellent aroma, flavor and texture, which result in slow cooking. This method
is followed for number of delicacies such as shabdeg, pulao and biryani. Any dish cooked
by this method is called as DUM PUKHT OR DUM BAKHT.
Refers to the use of softening agents such as papian (raw papaya) or kalmi shora to
This is the method of tempering the foods with oil or ghee and spices. It may be done at
the beginning or it can be done at the end. In the former the fat is heated in a vessel to the
smoking point and reducing the flame, spices are added to it. When they begin to crackle,
the same process is carried out in a ladle which is immersed into the cooked dish and
immediately covered with the lid, so that the aroma are retained within the dish.
This is the term used to denote the final stage in cooking when the oil used during
cooking rises to the surface giving the dish a finished appearance. This occurs mostly
when slow cooking of gravy dish is involved.
The use of perfumes plays a very important role in Awadh cuisine, they are used to
enhance the aroma of the dish and make it delicate. Most of which they use is made from
MUSK DEER, the hunting of which is now banned worldwide.
The cuts of mutton are generally bony pieces with flesh on them. These cuts are usually
taken from the joints and the ribs of the animals. The main purpose is to derive the juice
and flavor and hence the shape of the meat doesn’t count much.
• CHANDI WARQ:
This is the process in which small pieces of silver are placed between two sheets of paper
and then patted continuously with hammer till it becomes papery thin. These are used in
decorating the dishes before presentation e.g. chandi kaliya, moti pulao.
• ZAMIN DOZ:
This is a style of cooking in which a hole is dug in the ground and the ingredients are
placed and covered with mud. Then burning charcoal is placed over it. The cooking
process takes about 6 hours.
BASIC UTENSILS USED
A pear shaped pot with a lid made of brass, copper or aluminum. The shape of the utensil
is ideally suited for dum method and is suited to cook pulaos, biryani, nehari etc.
A deep concave shaped utensil made out of brass, iron or aluminium and used for deep
poories and the like.
It has generally a brass lid and is used for bhunna or sauté or even for boiling and
simmering. It is also used for preparing yakhani or salan, khoruma or kaliya.
It is a round and a shallow copper utensil with a slightly concave bottom. Used for
cooking whole or big cuts of meat or poultry.
• MAHI TAWA
In Awadh the version of griddled shaped like a big round, flat bottom
tray with raised edges, used for cooking kababs.
• LOHE KA TANDOOR
Iron tandoor. It is kind of dome shaped iron oven used for making most breads such as
sheermal, taftan, bakarhani etc.
It is a big round thali used as a lid for lagan or mahi were live coal are placed for the dum
All the copper and brass utensils are almost always used after KALAI or TIN
PLATTING the insides.
• Now represents the area in and around LUCKNOW, the capital of the state
• It stretches from the Ganges to the Himalayas on one side and equidistant from
Delhi on one side and extreme east of Bihar on the other.
• The cuisine was richly influenced by life styles of the Nawabs.
• The annexation of the Awadh by the British brought to an end to the rule of the
gracious Nawabs. The Nawabs may have perished but their legacy of gracious living the
fine building, arts and crafts and of course the exquisite cuisine still lives on on on …
• This region is rich in cattle population. Traditional farming also encompasses
rearing of animals such as goats, sheep and pigs.
• Poultry farming is also common.
• Religion and traditions have led to the choice of lamb, chicken and fish as the
favorite meat, but however mutton is most extensively used. The meat of male goat is
preferred, as it is believed to have more flavor and marrow in the bones.
• Neck portion of the lamb has nonfibrous meat and is there fore used for making
korma, salan, pulao or biryani.
• The chops have high content of marrow and the tender meat, which is least
fibrous, and are used in delicate kormas, kaliyas, pulaos and biryanis.
• Minced meat called as chikna keema, which is a high quality mild flavored mince
used in delicate kabab preparation such as GALAVAT KABAB.
• Front leg or the hind leg of mutton called, as raan are most versatile used cuts.
• The trotters or the paya are essentially the bones are used in making paya shorba,
POULTRY AND GAME BIRDS
• Birds are raised with greater care, with special attention given to the beak, which
are kept in perfect conditions.
• The cooking of quails and partridges and other game birds are popular in this
region and are greatly relished.
FISH AND VEGETABLES
• Fish varieties like rohu, sole, taingan, pata, moh and mahasher are used in this
• The Muslims favor the meat-based diet and the Hindus are predominantly
• Vegetables such as gourds, nimona (green pea and lentil dumpling) gobhi are
• Milk and milk products are widely used.
• KOLMINO PATIO:
• NARGISI KOFTA CURRY:
Hard-boiled egg wrapped in mince and deep-fried, when halved lengthwise it resembles
as that of the eyes.
• KUNDAN KALIYA:
Kaliya is a mutton preparation with the gravy with compulsory inclusion of turmeric or
saffron. The use of gold leaf lends a touch of luxury to it. The carefully carved mutton
pieces wrapped in gold leaf, placed on a bed of rich gravy.
• NEHARI KHAAS:
The word NEHARI is derived from NEHAR or fasting and is popular break fast item. It
is originally beef, braised and then stewed overnight, further prepared in the morning and
eaten with kulchas. 23 different types of herbs and spices are incorporated in it. Now
days they are made from mutton.
• PASANDA KABABS:
It is a 2 inch square boneless cut flattened out by beating with a blunt knife. It can be
skewered or cooked in vessel. The later method is more common in Lucknow.
• SHAMI KABAB:
It is the national kebab of the awadh. Meat mince often stuffed with a wide variety of
fillings mainly the mango or Kari. The texture of the kebab is extremely soft and simply
melts in the mouth.
A dish with wheat and mutton, which is light and yet delicious.
• Food is eaten with hands, the right hand to be precise, serving at the table and
picking up glasses of water with the left hand. It’s almost sacrilege to use cutlery.
• Tamil food never tastes as good as when one licks it off fingers.
• Rice, of course, is the queen of grains and makes it almost ubiquitous appearance,
in one or more forms, in almost every meal.
• Lentils or dals are also very important since they form a bulk of protein in a
vegetarian diet. These two staples, together or alone, are used in a variety of mouth-
watering ways-pounded, ground, fermented, boiled and sautéed.
• The most famous of the TAMIL NADU dishes are the snack idli, dosa, vada, etc.,
which have become popular not only in other parts of the country but also the world.
• TAMILIANS are also known for their savouries, which are rice-based. Fried in
coconut oil, they remain fresh for a longer time.
• Mysore pak is another specialty made of gram flour, ghee and sugar.
• A variety of kheers and halwas round off the recipes of Tamilnadu.
FEATURES OF TAMIL CUISINE
• HEALTHY & NUTRITIOUS
• LOW FAT
• FRESHLY GROUND
• USAGE OF DIFFERENT OILS
• ENORMOUS VEGETABLE PREPARATION
• HYGIENIC PREPARATION AND SERVING TECHNIQUES
TYPICAL TAMIL MEAL CONSISTS OF
• The RICE is generally served steaming hot and pearly white.
• SAMBARS, tart and thick, made with tamarind, dal and vegetable is usual boiled
along with the base.
• The next course, the RASAM, is watery and soupy. With their judicious
combination of tamarind and tomatoes, RASAM have a piquant, tangy taste, which lends
itself to drinking it straight.
• The last course is always the soothing, SET CURD, so good for the stomach.
Made with homemade YOGHURT, it is perfect way to end a satisfying meal.
• Vegetable dishes called PORIYALS, KOOTUS, PATCHIDI, PICKLES and
PAPPODOMS- either fried or roasted are always served on the side.
CATEGORIES OF PREPARATION
• VARUVAL – Crispy Fried Vegetables
• KOZHAMBU – Gravy with delicate spices
• KURMAH – Coconut based Gravy
• MANDI – Vegetables cooked from the water in which rice has been soaked and
soured with tamarind.
• PORIYAL – Tempered stir fried sautéed vegetables
• KOOTUS – Vegetable preparation not too dry or too wet thickened with coconut
• PATCHADI – Vegetables marinated with curd or Lemon based dressing.
• PICKLES & CHUTNEYS
• PAPADAMS – Crispy fried savouries.
• MEEN KOZHAMBU
• SOURED, SPICED FISH GRAVY.
• KOZHI VARUTHA KARI
• CHICKEN STIR FRIED IN A DARK BROILED MASALA OF THE NATIVE.
• PARUPPU URUNDAI KOZHAMBU
• DUMPLINGS OF DHAL STEAMED/FRIED & SOAKED IN A RICH GRAVY
OF COCONUT & CHICKPEA DHAL.
• CHENAAI KIZHANGU PORIYAL
• STIR FRIED YAM FINISHED WITH TEMPERING & LOT OF COCONUTS.
• KAI KARI PERATAL
• MIXED VEGETABLES COOKED IN A RICH GRAVY OF CASHEW &
• URULAI KIZHANGU PODIMAS
• MASHED POTATOES TEMPERED, FLAVORED WITH ASAFOETIDA &
FINISHED OF WITH GRATED COCONUTS.
• KOZHI CHETTINAD
• DARK, PUNGENT, SPICED CHICKEN GRAVY FLAVORED WITH WIDE
VARIETY OF CHETTINAD SPICES.
• KOZHI KHORMA
• CHICKEN COOKED IN COCONUT EXTRACTIONS GIVING WHITE
• KOZHI VARUVAL
• STIR FRIED CHICKEN MARINATED WITH AUTHENTIC MASALA.
• KOZHI SHULLI
• SPICY FRIED CHICKEN.
• CHETTINATTU ATTU CURRY
• MUTTON CUBES COOKED WITH CHETTINAD SPICES, SOURED WITH
• CHETTINATTU YERA THOKKU
• PICKLED SHRIMPS FLAVORED WITH CHETTINAD SPICES.
• PACHAI NETHALI KOZHAMBU
• FRESH SARDINE CURRY.
• REGIONS ADJOINING COIMBATORE
• REGIONS ADJOINING TRICHY & KARAIKUDI
• REGIONS ADJOINNING MADURAI & PARTS OF KERALA
• REGIONS ADJOINNIG KANCHI & CHENNAI.
• Chettinad is one of the places of interest in Ramanathapuram District in
Tamilnadu. Chettinad is located on the Madras – Rameshwaram railway line, and lies 10
miles North of Karaikudi and South West of Kanadukatham.
• In southern India the Chettinad community became a tribe of thrifty merchant
bankers, travelling through all of South East Asia earning a good living.
• Chettinad means Chettiars territory. It is the hometown of “Nattukottai Chettiars”
who are well known for their concentration in commerce and business in our country.
• The life style of “Nattukotai Chettiars” is reflected by the “Chettinad cuisine”.
These people came from one of the driest region of South India and belong to the trading
community. Inspire of living frugally, they make enormous fortunes.
• The dishes are hot and darkly pungent with fresh ground masalas and topped with
a boiled egg that is somehow considered essential for a proper meal.
• At the same time, number of sun dried and salted vegetables are stored by the
Achis or Chetiar housewives, and made use of every seed fruit or legume that is found in
• As with many communities in the south, a great deal of dishes such as dosais,
appam, idiappams or string hoppers, adais and idlies have a rice base.
IMPORTANT SPICES OF CHETTINAD
• 1. Marathi mokku (dried flower pods)
• 2. Anasippo (star anise)
• 3. Kalpasi (dried bark)
• 4. Jadhipathri
• Apart from these, there is prominent use of tamarind, red whole chilies and sonf.
Other spices used are cinnamon, cloves, bay leaf, peppercorn, cumin seeds, fenugreek
BREAK FAST DISHES
• DOSAS & VARIETIES
ACCOMPANIMENTS SUCH AS
• ASSORTED CHUTNEY
• MILAGAI PODI
• POTATO MASALA
• Marathi foods use lot of fish and coconut.
• There is enormous variety of vegetables in their regular diet.
• Grated coconut is used in many kinds, but coconut oil is not very widely used as a
• Peanut and cashew nuts are widely used in vegetables.
• Peanut oil is the main cooking medium.
• They eat both rice and wheat.
• Ratangiri a district in Maharashtra has the distinction of producing the best mango
in the entire world, called ALPHONSO or APUS.
• The meal is eaten in large metal plates called TAATS; most of the food is already
on the plate in a very special changing order.
• TAATS contain one or more small katories called VATI for gravies and dessert.
• Each item has a designated place on the plate like number on the clock.
• The left side is for seasoning, relish and savories; the right side is for vegetables,
split peas and sweets.
• Cash crops such as sugar cane, cotton and tobacco and oil seeds such as
groundnuts, sesame seeds, sunflower, safflower and jowar are grown on a large scale.
• Dairy and animal husbandry are the other important occupation of the people.
• The meal is a well balanced diet of grains, pulses, vegetables and milk products.
• WESTERN GHATS
• Vidharbha is situated in the eastern part of Maharashtra.
• Includes the winter capital Nagpur and other major cities.
• Best quality oranges come from Nagpur.
• Most of the population in the region is vegetarians, food with mild flavor.
• Jalgaon is famous for bananas.
• Rich in peanuts, rice and most of all citrus fruits like oranges and sweet limes.
• The cuisine is spicy and the ingredients commonly used are besan or chickpea
flour and ground peanuts.
• Situated in the southeastern part of Maharastra.
• People of Kholapur like spicy foods with lot of chilies.
• Due to the preference of non-vegetarian, the meat cookery is highly developed in
• Most people are in the farming business- with sugar cane, rice, pulses, fruits and
• It is famous for meat curries called RASSA, a red-hot meat curry served with
• PANDHARA RASSA white gravy is also famous in this region.
• Situated at the eastern part just below Vidharbha.
• People of Marathwada like spicy foods, like kholapur.
• They use lot of chilies and garlic in their dish.
• It is also famous for the homemade pickles and chutneys.
• Situated at the North West coast line along the Arabian Sea.
• The major cities are Mumbai, Nasik, Pune etc.
• The people of this region show their preference towards moderately spiced food.
• Fish and other seafoods are popular. Bombil is a variety of dried fish, which is
• The western ghats are the birth place of Indian fast foods like vada pav, pav bhaji
• Nashik is famous for the grapes.
• Konkan is situated at the southern tip of the western coast.
• Kholapur and Ratangiri are some of the important cities that come under Konkan.
• Cookery of this region shows an influence of Karnataka as they use lot of coconut
in their dishes, so coconut act as an important ingredient.
• They use kokum instead of tamarind to impart a tangy flavor.
• They like both vegetarian and non-vegetarian food.
• The climate of konkan is favorable for the growth of fruits also, the most
important and famous being the alphonso mango.
• The other fruits are jackfruit, coconut, betel nuts, cashew nuts and kokum.
• The main occupation of the people is agriculture.
• Rice is grown in large scale; it is the staple food of this region.
• They eat rice, bhakri made out of rice, dhal, sprouted pulses and vegetables.
• Coconut is also used in lot of dishes.
• The konkani curries are based on the two basic masalas pastes they are…
• RASGOLI- made from fresh coconut and variety of spices.
• Bhajana – made from the paste of stronger spices with roasted coconut and
• The former is used for fish curries and later is used for meat and chicken curries.
• Both can also be used for the vegetable curries.
A typical maharashtrian meals consists of
• Special bhath – masale bhath.
• Poli / pori
• Batata bhaji
• Gravied whole lentil – usal
• Chutney and pickle
• Papad / bhaji
• Plain / spiced butter milk
• Sweet dish – kheers
• Komdi cha rassa
Chicken pieces cooked in onion,coconut, poppy seed paste,flavored with pepper, cloves,
cinnamon, nutmeg, somph, ginger and garlic.
• Pandhra rassa
• Besan ladoo
• Coconut poli / puran poli
• Masalyachi wangi
They are not exactly soup, however soupy and are eaten in Maharashtra with Indian
bread. They are served in small individual bowls.
They are simple every day relishes that are served with most meals.
• Mutton kholapur
• Batata bhaji
Potatoes cooked with cumin seeds, curry leaves, lime juice and a touch of sugar and
coconut flavored with Maharashtra famous masala called KALA MASALA.
• Sesame seeds
• Copra (blackened coconut)
• Roast and ground all the above spices and store it in a air tight container.
•Parsi are another Gujarathi speaking minority. They are Zoroastrians who fled Iran in
the eighth century. There is a saying among the parsis that the community can be divided
into two groups. (a) that loves good food. (b) the other loves eating.
•It’s a delicious blend of western influences. A Gujarathi loves sweet and sour mixture
whereas the Parsians are genius in combining meat with dried fruits such as apricots.
•To enjoy the flamboyance of Parsi meal it is best to attend a lagan in bhonu or wedding
•Parsi has their food course wisely and usually seated.
•Drinks are first served and then the guest are seated in long tables
•The food is placed on leaf plates. The first food is Meva nu achar (a sweet chutney made
from carrots and dry fruits). Waffers made of potatoes and sago comes next.
•Followed by whole wheat griddle breads or chapathis.
•Then comes the fish course. Then the chicken and meat courses. Next comes the egg
course which may consist of beaten eggs poured over sauted onions and baked.
•Half way through the meal is the appearance of the pilaf, rice. Studded with meat and
potatoes which has to be eaten with well spied tur dhal.
•Ice creams, chocolates, betel leaves and fennel seeds follow.
•Fennel seeds are a much needed digestive.
•They cook eggs with all types of vegetables and some times a small fish as well.
Akoori- savoury scrambled eggs.
Poro- flat omlette made in many ways.
•Being settled on western coast parsis not only enjoy eating fish but also consider it
•No Parsi dish can be completed without mutton or chicken dish, and these are cooked
with vegetables and the name is self explanatory.
• PATRANI MACHI: Fish is smothered in fresh coconut chutney, wrapped in
banana leaves and steamed. In Parsi community it is served in all weddings.
• KOLMINO PATIO: A popular Parsi delicacy in which onion is fried and made as
paste with garlic, coriander, garam masala and red chilli, finished with tamarind and
jaggery. So it is sharp (chillies), sweet (jaggery) and sour (tamarind). Prawns are cooked
in this curry.
• SALI JORDALOO MURGI: Sweet and sour made from chicken and dried
apricots, served with crunchy potato straws.
• DHANSHAK: It is a wholesome meal in which lamb is cooked in dal and various
other vegetables till everything is well cooked with masalas. The usual accompaniment is
deep fried kebab that looks like kofta (meat balls).
• BATATA NA TARKARI: Quarter of boiled potato tossed in oil with mustard,
cumin, turmeric, chopped green chilli and coriander.
• BROWN RICE: Traditional accompaniment of Dhanshak. Rice cooked with
brown onions and added with caramel to give brown colour.
• NAAN KHATAI: A type of cookies. Flour, butter, sugar, curd, soda bi carbonate
and other flavourings are mixed together to form a dough, divided into small portions and
THE LAND OF FIVE RIVERS
• The name Punjab means "land of five rivers", and literally translates from Persian
into the words Panj, related to Sanskrit Pañca, meaning "five", and Âb ,related to Sanskrit
Âp, meaning "water" respectively.
• The rivers are the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas. The five rivers, now
divided between India and Pakistan, merge to form the Panjnad, which joins the Indus.
• Agriculture is the largest industry in Punjab. Bhangra is one of the many Punjabi
musical art forms.
• Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Punjabi people.
• Punjabi cuisine can be non-vegetarian or completely vegetarian.
• The main masala in a Punjabi dish consists of onion, garlic and ginger and usually
• Tandoori food is a Punjabi specialty especially for non-veg dishes.
• The history of Punjab dates back to 5000 years back when the Aryans came and
• Richly influenced by all invaders such as Alexander to Nadir shah, the Persians to
Sher shah, the Afghans to Barbar to the Mongols.
• The land of five rivers also called as the granary of the sub continent.
FESTIVALS & DANCES
• Sikhism is the main religion and Baisakhi is the harvest festival, which is
celebrated on a grand scale.
• Other festivals are Lohri, Dusherra, Diwali, Holi, Gurpurab etc..
• Wheat and maize are the staple food grains.
• All lentils especially black gram and yellow gram are the part of Punjabi cuisine.
• Food of Punjab is wholesome and is rich in taste and texture.
• Tandoor is a much more than a versatile equipment.
• It is used to cook breads such as roti, naan, paranthas, kulchas and for non
vegetarian dishes such as tandoori chicken, tandoori jinga etc.
• Food have a thick creamy consistency.
• Use of ghee and white butter is almost in all dishes.
• Milk and milk products are available in abundance like paneer, curd, cream etc..
• Land of agriculture and one of the main crop is mustard. This is used in the
famous veg. preparation of Punjab such as Makki ki roti, Sarson ka saag.
• Basically consists of chapattis, parathas, stuffed parathas et. Served with milk or
milk products such as curd, paneer or butter.
• Most Punjabi menus are made according to the season. The universal favorite is
chole-bathure which is a round-the-year item and is available at every wayside dhaba
anywhere in Northern India.
• The other popular dishes, which belong exclusively to Punjab, are mah ki dal,
rajma (kidney beans) and stuffed parathas.
• Punjabi cuisine is characterized by a profusion of dairy products in the form of
malai (cream), paneer (cottage cheese) and curds.
• Though chicken is a favorite with non-vegetarians, fish is also considered a
delicacy, especially in the Amritsar region, which is also known for its kulcha, baked
bread made of refined flour.
• Almost all the preparations are cooked on a slow fire to coax out that perfectly
robust taste. Sarson ka saag is cooked on a slow fire for hours with a minimum of spices
so that the fresh taste can be retained. In fact, the longer it takes to cook the saag, the
better it tastes.
• The dals are a specialty of Punjabi cuisine. Made of whole pulses like black gram,
green gram and Bengal gram, they are cooked on a slow fire, often simmered for hours
till they turn creamy and then are flavored with spices and rounded off with malai for that
• The basic gravy used for vegetables and meat dishes is onion-tomato-garlic-
• Punjabi food is wholesome and full of rustic flavor. The custom of cooking in
community ovens or tandoors prevails in rural areas even today.
• Tandoori dishes are popular all over the country today. Nans and parathas, rotis
made of maize flour (makke di roti) are typical Punjabi breads.
• Of course, over the years the roti has been modified to add more variety, so there
is the rumali roti, the naan and the laccha parathas, all cooked in the tandoor.
• Tall glasses of lassi, made of yogurt, tempered with either salt or sugar, is a
popular cooling drink of Punjabi origin but it is quite popular all over the country.
• Phirni, a sweet dish made of milk, rice flour and sugar and chilled in earthenware
bowls is a typical Punjabi dessert.
• Punjabi sweet dishes like gulab jamuns and burfi have a strong percentage of
khoya again made from milk.
• paneer-a must in the vegetarian Punjabi menu. Several delectable items are made
out of this rather bland derivative of milk.
• Creations like the Kadai Paneer, and Makhani Paneer are basically Punjabi but
are well loved all over the country.
• One thing that makes Punjabi cuisine so special is the tandoor. Besides being a
versatile kitchen equipment it is much more - a social institution.
• In rural Punjab, the community tandoor, dug in the ground, is a meeting place,
just like the village well, for the women folk, who bring the kneaded atta (dough) and
sometimes marinated meats to have them cooked while chit-chatting. Until a few years
ago, this phenomenon existed in urban neighborhoods too. Even today, a few
neighborhoods have a communal tandoor.
• Punjab's other grand contribution is the dhaba - the roadside eatery that has
become a prominent feature on the national and state highways. Earlier frequented only
by truck drivers, today it is in vogue to eat at a dhaba-urban or roadside.
• A predominantly wheat eating people, the Punjabis cook rice only on special
occasions. Rice is rarely cooked plain or steamed and is always made with a flavoring of
cumin or fried onions, which is the served with rajma (kidney beans) or kadhi (curd
• In winter, rice is cooked with jaggery - gurwala chawal or with green peas or as a
delicacy called Rao ki kheer, which is rice cooked on a slow fire for hours together with
sugar cane juice.
• To go with their fine cuisine, the Punjabi's follow a very simple code of eating. A
meal of vegetables and lentils is eaten with phulka or tandoor parathas (wheat bread)
spread with desi-ghee or butter. On the other hand, a meat delicacy is usually eaten with a
plain phulka or tandoor roti (without ghee or butter), accompanied by nothing more than
a raita and muthi-piaz (onions split open by smashing them with a fist).
• Punjabis believe in eating out of a big brass thali using their fingers and drinking
out of a 12-inch-long brass glass.
SARSON DA SAAG
• Mustard leaves with spinach, green chillies, and ginger are cooked, pureed and
cooked in butter for longer time on a slow flame so that the mustard leaves a pungent, but
robust and delicious aroma.
• Palak is spinach and Paneer is Indian cheese usually home made, used to make
various Indian dishes. Spinach is cooked with light spices and ground coarsely and
Paneer is added just before serving,makes a nutritious side dish as well for Rotis.
• A crispy fried sweet dish, usually prepared from refined flour, soured with curd
and flavored with saffron.
• The batter is fermented for 8 hours and then deep fried in ghee and soaked in
sugar syrup just before service.
• Jalebis are bright orange or yellow in colour, but are also available in white. It is
sometimes called honion or honyun rings.
• It can be served warm or cold. It has a somewhat chewy texture with a
crystallized sugary exterior coating. The sugars get partly fermented which adds flavor to
• A similar sweet is imarti, which is red-orange in color and sweeter in taste, made
in Uttar Pradesh. Jalebis in Orissa are also sometimes made of chhena.
• Jalebi is one of the most popular sweets in Pakistan. Similarly, it is popular in
India as well, having being served as the Celebration Sweet of India especially during the
national holidays like Independence Day and Republic Day in the government offices,
defence and other organisations.
• Jalebi is similar to the sweet referred to as "Zangoola", popular in the middle east.
The Persian word for Jalebi is "zoolbiah," while it is called "jeri" in Nepal, derived from
jangiri, and the Mogul Emperor Jahangir
GAJAR KA HALWA
• Grated carrots cooked in milk, khoya and sweetened with sugar.
• Finished with ghee and flavored with saffron and cardamoms.
• Garnished with nuts.
• Tandoori chicken is one of India’s most popular dishes. Tandoori chicken is
originated from Mughals and now widely known as part of Punjabi cuisine famous for its
wide range of tandoor recipes. This particular dish has a nice blend of sour curd/yogurt
and masala blended well in the chicken when marinated. The spice mixture gives this
crisp nice taste to the chicken. All of its work goes into how we marinate and how we
• BAIGAN KA BHARTA - Charcoal smoked aubergines delicacy cooked with
onions and tomatoes.
• KADHI – a soupy stew made of yogurt and chickpea flour with various
flavorings filled with dumplings made of besan flour.
• Samosa –
A famous snack preparation served round the clock, with wide variety of filling
ranging from vegetables to mince meat. Served with an appropriate chutney.
Bengali food has inherited a large number of influences, both foreign and South
Asian, arising from a turbulent history and strong trade links with many parts of the
Originally inhabited by Dravidians and other ethnic groups, and later further
settled by the Aryans during the Gupta era, Bengal fell under the sway of various Muslim
rulers from the early thirteenth century onwards, and was then ruled by the British for
two centuries (1757-1947).
It also saw a fair share of immigrants from various parts of the world - most
promimently Jews, Chinese and Afghans who settled down in their own distinct
communities in and around Kolkata.
Bengal (before its partition into eastern and western parts) has been ruled by
Muslim rules since the Delhi Sultanate in early 12th century. However, for over five
hundred years the center of Muslin rule in Bengal was centered in Dhaka.
Trade routes going from Delhi to Dhaka travered the entire width of today's West
Bengal but seems to have little influence beyond that. West Bengal came under Muslim
influence only when Murshid Quli Khan became the governor of Bengal and moved the
capital from Dhaka to the newly founded city of Murshidabad in the late 17th century.
From the culinary point of view, a key influence to the food came much later,
when Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Avadh was exlied to Metia Bruz, in the outskirts
of Kolkata. He is said to have brought with him hundreds of cooks and masalchis (spice
mixers) who, on his death, dissipated into the population, starting restaurants and food
carts all over Bengal.
Bengali food today has some broad (though not so distinct) variations -
Traditional, Mughal, Anglo-Indian and Chinese.
Fish is the dominant kind of meat, cultivated in ponds and fished with nets in the
fresh-water rivers of the Ganges delta. More than forty types of mostly freshwater fish
are common, including carp varieties like rui (rohu), katla, magur (catfish), chingŗi
(prawn or shrimp), as well as shuţki (small dried sea fish).
Salt water fish (not sea fish though) Ilish (hilsa ilisha) is very popular among
Bengalis, can be called an icon of Bengali cuisine. Almost every part of the fish (except
fins and innards) is eaten; the head and other parts are usually used to flavor curries.
Khashi (referred to as mutton in Indian English, the meat of sterilized goats) is the
most popular red meat.
Other characteristic ingredients of traditional Bengali food include rice, moshur
đal (red lentils), mug đal (mung beans), shorsher tel mustard oil, mustard paste, posto
(poppyseed) and narkel (ripe coconut).
Bengal is also the land of am (mangoes), which are used extensively—ripe,
unripe, or in pickles. Ilish machh (hilsa fish), which migrates upstream to breed is a
delicacy; the varied salt content at different stages of the journey is of particular interest
to the connoisseur, as is the river from which the fish comes - fish from the river Pôdda
(Padma or Lower Ganges) in Bangladesh, for example, is traditionally considered the
To some part of the community, particularly from West Bengal, Gangatic Ilish is
considered as the best variety.
The pãch phoron spice mixture is very commonly used for vegetables. A touch of
gôrom môshla or hot spices (elachi cardamom, darchini cinnamon, lông clove, tej pata
bay leaves, and peppercorn) is often used to enliven food.
Another characteristic of Bengali food is the use of a unique cutting instrument,
the bothi. (This instrument is also used in Maharashtra, where it is known as vili and in
Andhra Pradesh, known as kathi peeta (kathi = knife and peeta = platform) ).
It is a long curved blade on a platform held down by foot; both hands are used to
hold whatever is being cut and move it against the blade.
The method gives excellent control over the cutting process, and can be used to
cut anything from tiny shrimp to large pumpkins.
The Mughal influence is most distinct in preparations involving meat especially
However, even chicken and other meats became more prevalent.
The influence was also seen in desserts; traditional desserts were based on rice
pastes and jaggery but under the Mughal influence moved towards significantly increased
use of milk, cream and sugar along with expensive spices such as cardamom and saffron.
THE EATING HABIT
At home, Bengalis typically eat without the use of dining utensils; kaţa (forks),
chamoch (spoons), and chhuri (knives) are used in the preparation of food, but will
almost certainly not be used to eat one's own food, except in some urban areas.
Most Bengalis eat with their right hand, mashing small portions of meat and
vegetable dishes with rice and in some cases, lentils. In rural areas,
Bengalis traditionally eat on the ground with a large banana or plantain leaf
serving as the plate or plates made from sal leaves sown together and dried.
Meals were usually served course by course to the diners by the youngest
housewives, but increasing influence of nuclear families and urbanization has replaced
It is now common to place everything on platters in the centre of the table, and
each diner serves him/herself. Ceremonial occasions such as weddings used to have
elaborate serving rituals, but professional catering and buffet-style dining is now
TYPICAL BENGALI MEAL
Alu-Potoler Dalna (Potato Parwal gravy), Maacher Sorse Jhol (Fish in Mustard
gravy), Ghee Bhat (sweetish Bengali rice Pulao), Porota (Flatbread), Lankar Achar
(Green chillies pickle)and Patishapta (sweet flour crepe with sweet aromatic coconut
filling and topped with Saffron cream).
Fish, Dal, Fried Aubergines, Fried Potatoes, Luchi, Shaag, Paayash & of course
Rice. That's all the food tht's made for the infant to mark the occasion of tasting food for
the very first time in his life.
A Bengali day begins with big bowl containing MOORI ( puffed rice), thick
creamy milk and healthy dollops of freshly mashed fruits such as sweet, ripe mangoes or
musky jack fruit.
A lunch time favorite is shukto. It starts the meal consists of diced and fried
vegetables, some bitter gourds, some pungent like white radish, some starch like potatoes,
some stiff like besan and other soft such as stem and leaves.
Some rice and dhal is always accompanied by fried bhajjis made out of fish and
Bengalis staple food is rice. Though coconut and its oil is available, pure golden
mustard oil is mostly used as a cooking medium.
Like others in India, Bengalis eat everything with their fingers.
Vegetables especially the bitter ones are the first course followed by dhal, perhaps
accompanied by fritters or fries of fish or vegetables.
Meat will always follow fish and chutneys and ambals will provide a refreshing
touch. Finally comes the dessert.
SHUKTO: Mixed vegetable preparation cooked in mustard paste with deep fried
gram flour dumplings in it.
CHOLAR DHAL: A lentil preparation of split bengal gram, tempered with
cumin, ginger, garlic, chilli, coconut and powdered masalas.
LUCHI: Similar to poori made of refined flour and slightly smaller.
PAYESH: A dessert made of rice cooked in milk.
SHINGARA: Another name for samosa.
CHAR CHARI: A mixed vegetable preparation cooked in mustard oil with
mustard paste, with deep fried gram flour dumplings, tempered with pancha poran
PATHAR JHOL (spied mutton stew): Young goat meat cooked with sliced
onions, cumin, coriander and pepper paste in mustard oil with few slits of green chillies.
BEGUM BHAJA: Roundels of brinjal deep fried after applying salt and turmeric.
Dalna: Mixed vegetables or eggs, cooked in medium thick gravy seasoned with
ground spices, especially garom mashla and a touch of ghee.
Jhal: Literally, 'hot'. A great favorite in West Bengali households, this is made
with fish or shrimp or crab, first lightly fried and then cooked in a light sauce of ground
red chilli or ground mustard and a flavoring of pãch-phoron or kala jira. Being dryish it is
often eaten with a little bit of dal pored over the rice.
Jhol: A light fish or vegetable stew seasoned with ground spices like ginger,
cumin, coriander, chili, and turmeric with pieces of fish and longitudinal slices of
vegetables floating in it. The gravy is thin yet extremely flavorful. Whole green chilis are
usually added at the end and green coriander leaves are used to season for extra taste.
This term is also used to refer to any type of stew in meat, fish or vegetable dishes.
RASAGULLAS: Chenna made into small balls dipped in boiling syrup.
SANDESH: Chenna with sugar syrup and cooked over low flame until the
moisture evaporates and then molded.
Rajasthan is a kind of fairs,forts and festivals.
In the Royal kitchens of Rajasthan, the preparation of food was a very serious
matter and was raised to the level of an art form.
A professional Brahmin cook was called as Maharaj. He is the only one
responsible for the whole kitchen and is only one allowed to enter into the kitchen.
Cuisine was mainly influenced by its climate, availability of raw materials, life
style of Maharajas.
Love for hunting is responsible for shaping the culinary art of Game cooking.
The other part is vegetarian cooking of the Maheshwaries of Marwar or Jodhpur.
They don’t use garlic and onions.
Grains such as bajra, makkai, jowar, wheat, fried lentils and beans are also very
Gram flour is used in making ghattes, pakodas. Jowar, bajra and makkai are used
to make rotis and wheat is used to make bati (dal bati churma).
The staple diet of locals are very simple like bajare ki roti with lasoon ki chutney
as the thin garli helps to safe guard against the wind.
In maheswari cooking, mango powder and asafoetida are an integral part of
cuisine. Both act as a major substitute of tomatoes and garlic and onions.
They use lot of pure ghee as a medium of cooking. Due to the scarcity of water
they use milk and butter milk.
The best known Rajasthani food is the combination of dal, bati and churma but
for the adventurous traveller, willing to experiment, there is a lot of variety available.
Besides, each region is distinguished by its popular sweet - Mawa Kachori from
Jodhpur, Malpuas from Pushkar, Rasogullas from Bikaner, Ghevar from Jaipur..to name
Famous Cuisines :
Marwari Cuisine - Daal Bati and Churma , Lachhedar Paratha and Besan ki Missi
Rajput Cuisines - Meat Preparations of Wild Boar, Hare and Game Birds
Maheshwaries -The other part is vegetarian cooking of the Maheshwaries of
Marwar or Jodhpur. They don’t use garlic and onions.
Cuisine Exotica :Red Chilli Chutneys, Chhaach (Butter Milk), Jal Jeera
(Refreshing Lemon Water with Mint), Thandai (Cool Almond Milk).
Non Veg Dishes :Murgh ko Khaato (chicken cooked in curd) , Kacher Maas
(Llamb), Achhar Murgh (Chicken Pickle), Lal Mass (Red Meat), Safed Maas (White
Veg Dishes :Kair Sangri - Govind Gatta, Papad Ki Sabzi (Veg with Papad), Alu
Mangori, Au Samosa, Kair Sangri.
Sweet Dishes :Churma, Ghewar, Rosugulla, Sattu, Sweet Rice.
Varied Chutney Flavours :Red Chillies Chutney, Mint Chutney, Garlic, Turmeric,
Food that could last for several days and could be eaten without heating was
preferred, more out of necessity than choice.
Scarcity of water, fresh green vegetables have had their effect on cooking
In the desert belt of Jaisalmer, Barmer and Bikaner, cooks use a minimum of
water and prefer, instead, to use more milk, buttermilk and clarified butter.
Dried lentils, beans from indigenous plants like sangri, ker etc. are liberally used.
Gram flour is a major ingredient here and is used to make some of the delicacies
like gatta ki sabzi, pakodi; powdered lentils are used for mangodi, papad.
Bajra and corn are used all over the state for preparations of rabdi, khichdi and
rotis. Various chutneys are made from locally available spices like turmeric, coriander,
mint and garlic.
MAKHI KA SOWETA: Spicy combination of corn and lamb in which lamb is
cooked with yogurt. Various spices and grated corn and milk is added.
BESAN KE GATTE: Gram flour with various flavoring ingredients are used to
make dough which is rolled into a cylindrical shape and pouched. It is cut into small
pieces and deep fried.
PATODE: A famous snack. Besan with crushed coriander, red chillies and cumin is
diluted with water and cooked till thick. This is set on trays, ut into small pieces, fried
and tossed in dry masala (amchur, garam masala, red chilli, salt, oil).
DOODHIYA KHEECH: A sweet preparation in which whole wheat soaked
overnight is cooked in milk, sweetened with sugar and garnished with dry fruits.
MOONG DAL KHILMA: Moong dal cooked with ginger till done but not
mashed and tempered with cumin seeds, hing, red chilli and turmeric.
Churma is a popular delicacy usually served with baatis and dal. It is coarsely
ground wheat crushed and cooked with ghee and sugar. Traditionally it is made by
mashing up wheat flour baatis or left over rotis in ghee and jaggery.
1 cup: Broken wheat (dalia)
3/4 cup: Sugar
2 tablespoon: Almonds
1 teaspoon: Cardamom powder
3/4 cup: Ghee
2 1/2 cup: Hot water
Dal Bati (Puffed Dough Dumplings with Lentil Curry)
Ingredients (Serves: 6)
3/4 cup: Whole black gram (urad) (soaked in water overnight with a pinch of soda
2 cups: Rajma beans (soaked in water overnight with a pinch of soda bicarb)
1 cup: Onions, chopped finely
3/4 cup: Tomatoes, chopped finely
1 tbsp: Ginger-garlic paste
2 tsp s: Garam masala powder
2 tsp: Chilli powder
1 tsp: Turmeric powder
2-3: Green chillies, slit lengthwise
1 cup: Coriander leaves, chopped finely
2 tbsp: Cream
4 tbsp: Ghee
Salt to taste
5 cups: Whole wheat flour, sieved
1 cup: Ghee, melted
2 tbsp: Curd
Salt to taste
Gatte Ki Sabji
Ingredients (Serves: 6-7)
200 gm: Besan
250 gm: Curd
2 tbsp: Ghee
1 tsp: Dhaniya
1 tsp: Red chilly powder
1 tsp: Salt
2 tsp: Oil
Haldi a pinch
Papad ki Sabzi
Get the extraordinary taste of Rajasthan cuisine with papad curry or papad ki sabji.
Papads are prepared with besan(chickpea flour) and spices. Here we are soaking the
papads in gravy and making an excellent curry. It tastes superb with jeera(cumin) rice.
Ingredients (Serves: 4)
200 gm: Papad (fried and broken into 2/3 inch pieces)
300 gm: Yogurt
4 tbsp: Ginger-garlic paste
1 tsp: Chopped ginger
1 tbsp: Chopped green chillies
2 tbsp: Chopped fresh coriander
1 tsp: Red chilly powder
1 tsp: Cumin seeds
2 tbsp: Coriander powder
6 tbsp: Ghee
Salt to taste
Mawa Misri (Reduced Milk with Crystal Sugar)
1 litre: Whole milk
250 gm: Condensed milk
50 gm: Crystal sugar
50 gm: Sugar
10 gm: Ghee
50 gm: Sliced almonds
05 gm: Cardamom powder
2 sheets: Silver leaf
This is one of the famous non vegeterian recipe of rajasthan. Jungli Maas or
Jungli Maas Samosa is a recipe made from meat and butter or oil. It is very easy to
prepare and does not take longer time.
Clarified butter or oil
Whole red chillies
Salt according to the taste and water
Jungli Maas does not take time to prepare. First heat the clarified butter or oil in a
pan and put the meat in it. After about ten minutes put salt to it according to the taste, and
the whole red chillies.
Keep adding little water frequently. Try to maintain a balance between the boiling
and frying part of the meat. Both the activities should be done simultaneously. Dry the
water when it is tender.
Serve it hot.
Saadi Baati (Dumplings)
Ingredients (Serves: 4)
300 gm: Wheat flour
100 gm: Semolina
Ghee (as per requirement)
1 teaspoon: Salt
1/2 litre: Water
Mix salt, 6 tbsp. ghee, flour and semolina and knead into stiff dough with a little
water. Cover with a wet cloth and set aside for half an hour.
Break the dough into about 10 pieces. Flatten the dough and press the centre with
Place the baati in half litre of boiling water for 10 minutes and lift out onto paper
Roast the baati in an oven (grill) until golden brown.
Dip each baati in hot ghee and serve with dal, churma, gatta curry and garlic
chutney for a real Rajasthani feast.
Lal maas/Lal Maans is a traditional Rajasthani dish, usually made with
Mutton/Gosht/Lamb. Bright red color for this dish mainly comes from Kashmiri chilli pd
and paprika, not necessarily spicy to taste because of the use of milder chilli pepper
About 4 boneless, skinless Chicken breasts or mix of dark and white meat, cut into bite
2 Onions, finely chopped or blended to a rough paste,
2" ginger and 2 Garlic, ground to smooth paste,
1/2 cup Tomato sauce+ 1 tsp Tomato puree,
2 tbsp Coriander powder,
2 tsp Kashmiri chilly powder, 1 tsp Paprika for color, Chili pd for heat if you like it hot,
1 tsp Garam Masala,
2 tbsp Butter+1 Tbsp oil.
Here is a very simple thali, Rajasthani style! lal maas is originally made with
Mutton/Gosht), spiced Bajra-Aloo-Besan rotis (Millet,Potato,Chickpea flour), Panchmel
(five lentils) dal, plain rice with onion, green chilli and lemon slice on the side.
Famous Dishes :
Rajasthani Thali, Lal Maans (Red Meat) Spiced Dish, and Safed Mass (White
Meat) Cooked with Almonds, Cashew Nuts and Coconut.
Ghevar is a sweet specialty from Jaipur. It is a round cake made from daal or flour
mix soaked in ghee and milk and topped with sliced almonds.
Milk: Half Cup
Water: Four Cups
Solidified Ghee: 1 Cup
Plain flour: 03 Cups
Food color (Yellow): 1/4 tsp
Ice cubes: Three-four pieces
Essence of Kewra: 5-6 Drops
Ghee - 1 k.g.
Milk with1/2 tsp. of rubbed saffron
Chopped Almonds and Pistachios: One tbsp
Powdered Cardamom: 1 tsp
Ingredients for making Syrup:
Sugar: 1 ½ Cups
Water: 1 Cup
Ladoo is a popular Indian sweet dish and stands as a symbol of festivals and joy. Suji
ladoo is a variation of ladoo, made with rava. Enrich it with lot of dry fruits.
Ingredients (Serves: 10)
1/2 kg: Semolina
1/2 kg: Khoya
400 ml: Sugar syrup
10 pcs: Almonds
2 tsp: Cardamom powder
250 gm: Ghee
KITCHEN EQUIPMENT AND CARE
Kitchen equipment being a capital investment, is expensive and therefore, the initial
selection is important . The following points should be considered before each item is
• Overall dimensions : In relation to available space
• Weight : Can the floor support the weight?
• Fuel supply : Is the existing fuel supply sufficient to take the load?
• Capacity : Can it cook the quantities of food required efficiently?
• Ease : Is it easy for staff to handle, control and use properly?
• Maintenance : Is it easy for staff to clean and maintain?
• Noise : Does it have an acceptable noise level?
• Construction : Is it well made - are all knobs, handles and switches
sturdy and heat resistant?
• Spare parts & servicing : Are they easily obtainable? Is there a local
• Durability : Will it withstand the usage?
Kitchen equipment may be divided into three categories:
1. Large equipment
E.g. Ranges, Stoves, Ovens, Boiling pans, Steamers, Brattpan etc.
2. Mechanical equipment
E.g. Peelers, Mincers, Choppers, Refrigerators, Mixers etc.
3 Utensils and small equipment
E.g. Pots, Pans, Knives, Whisks, Bowls, Spoons, Strainers etc.
A large variety of stoves are available operated by gas, electricity, microwave or
microwave plus convection.
Upkeep and maintenance:
• Solid top should be washed or wiped clean with a pad of cloth after every use
• On the open type of stove, all the bars and racks are removed, immersed in hot water
with a detergent, scrubbed clean, dried and put back in place on the stove.
• If it is attached with an oven, the oven racks should be cleaned while slightly warm,
using detergent water and a mild abrasive if necessary
• Oven door should not be slammed as this is liable to cause damage.
There are four basic types:
• Convection oven:
The most commonly used oven in the industry
• Convection and steamer oven:
Combi oven can be used for cooking by convection, steam or a combination of both.
Microwave is a method of cooking and heating of food by using high frequency waves.
The waves disturb the molecules or particles of food and agitate them, thus causing
friction which results in the food getting cooked.
• Combination convection and microwave cooker:
This cooker combines convection and microwave, which can be used separately or
simultaneously, thereby, giving the advantages of both the systems. Traditional metal
cooking pans may also be used without fear of damage to the cooker.
Upkeep and maintenance:
• When cleaning, do not allow the cleaning agent to soil or accumulate around the door
seal, as this could prevent a tight seal when the door is closed.
• Never use an abrasive cleaner to clean the interior of the oven as it can scratch the
These are solid top plates made of vitro ceramic material which provide heat, only when
pans are put on them and which stop the heat immediately, once the pan is removed.
Advantages - Energy saving, faster cooking, flexible, hygienic and easy maintenance
There are basically three types of steamers;
a. Pressure steamers
b. Atmospheric or pressure less steamers
c. Combi steamers eg. Pressure/convection steamer.
Upkeep and maintenance:
• The water generating chamber should be drained, cleaned and refilled and the inside
of the steamer cleaned.
• Grease door controls occasionally, and when not in use ,leave the door slightly open
to let air circulate inside the steamer.
This is the most versatile piece of cooking equipment in the kitchen because it is possible
to use it for shallow frying, deep frying, stewing, braising and even boiling.
Deep fat fryer:
This is one of the most extensively used equipment in many catering establishments.
Hot cupboards (hot plate) and Bain Marie
Hot plates are used for heating plates and keeping food hot. Care should be taken to see
that the heat is regulated or controlled to a reasonable temperature.
A Bain Marie is an open well of water used for keeping food hot, and is available in
many designs. Care should be taken to see that the Bain Marie is never allowed to burn
dry and that there is always water in the well.
Grills and salamanders:
There are three types of grills:
Top heat, Bottom heat, Contact grills
These equipment probably cause more wastage of fuel than any other item of kitchen
equipment by being allowed to burn unnecessarily for long unused periods.
Upkeep and maintenance:
• The bars, grills and the trays should be cleaned regularly after every session with hot
water containing a grease solvent such as soda.
• After cleaning they should be dried thoroughly.
Warning: Before cleaning, the mechanical equipment should be switched off and the plug
removed from the socket.
• Potatoes should be free from earth and stones before loading into the machine
• The interior should be cleaned daily and the abrasive plate removed so as to ensure
that small particles are not lodged below
• The peel trap should be emptied as frequently as possible
• The waste outlet should be kept free from obstruction
Food processing equipment:
This is an important labour saving, electrically operated machine used for many
purposes; e.g. mixing doughs, batters, mashing potatoes, beating egg whites, making
Care and maintenance:
• It should be lubricated frequently in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
• The motor should not be over loaded
• All components as well as the main machine should be thoroughly washed and dried.
• The mincer/mixing knife and plates will rust if not cleaned and dried.
They are labor saving devices used for slicing various vegetables, ham, cheese etc.
Care and maintenance:
• No material likely to damage the blade is to be sliced.
• Each section in contact with food should be cleaned and carefully dried after use.
• The blades should be sharpened regularly
• Moving parts should be lubricated, but oil must not come in contact with the food
• Extra care must be taken when the blades are exposed.
There are two types;
B) Industrial (Commonly used ones are Walk-in-cooler/freezer and Reach-in-
Refrigeration equipment is only designed to retard the natural process of deterioration.
For the maximum storage life of food and minimum health risk, the following points
have to be kept in mind:
• Select the appropriate refrigeration equipment for storage of food.
• Ensure that refrigerators maintain the correct temperature for food stored.
• Do not keep unwrapped food in the refrigerator.
• Do not keep cooked and raw foods in the same refrigerator.
• Never re-freeze food that has been thawed.
• Clean the equipment regularly and thoroughly.
DISH WASHING MACHINES
For hygienic washing up, the generally recognized requirements are good supply of hot
water at a temperature of 600
C for general cleaning, followed by a sterilizing rinse at a
temperature of 820
C for at least one minute
There are three main types of dish washing machines :
• Spray type
• Brush type
• Agitator water machine type
SMALL EQUIPMENT, TOOLS AND UTENSILS
Small equipment and utensils are made from a variety of materials such as non-stick
coated metal, iron, steel, copper, aluminium, wood etc.
Eg. frying pans, strainers, saucepans, stock pots, baking trays, mixing bowls, basins,
graters, cutting boards, knives etc.
SAFETY RULES FOR USING KNIVES
Always observe the rules of safety for the benefit of yourself and others.
4 Hold the knife point downward, when carrying knives around the kitchen.
4 Place knives flat on tables.
4 Do not let knives protrude over the edge of the table.
4 When using a knife, keep your mind and eye on the job.
4 Use the right knife for the right job.
4 Always keep knives sharp.
4 After use, always clean the knife and store correctly.
4 Always keep the handle of the knife clean and free from grease.
A menu or a Bill of fare, is a means of communication, informing the customer what the
caterer has to offer. The compiling of the menu is a caterer’s most important job.
The function of the menu is :
a. To let the catering staff know what to prepare
b. For the customer to know what is available
TYPES OF MENUS
• Table d’hôte : A set menu forming a complete meal at a set price.
• A la carte : A menu with a list of all the dishes individually
• Special party or function menu : For banquets or functions of all kinds
• Ethnic or specialty menu : Can be table d’ hote or a la carte specializing in
the food of a region.
STRUCTURE OF THE MENU
1. LENGTH: It is better to offer few dishes of quality and aim to give the customer what
he or she wants. The number of dishes in a menu may vary. A guideline would be 40 to
50 dishes in a speciality restaurant menu from starter to sweets and around 75 to 100
dishes in a 24 hours coffee shop menu.
2. DESIGN: The design of the menu should complement the decor, image, type of food
and the atmosphere of the restaurant.
3. LANGUAGE: Menus are a means of communication; so we should use language
which is easily understood by customers. Menus must be written in one language only,
however, explanation of dishes can be given in another language.
4. PRESENTATION: The way the menu is presented to the customer will often
determine the initial reaction to it.
FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHILE PLANNING A MENU
1. Competition in the locality
2. Potential clientele.
3. The spending power of the customer
4. Types of Customers and their requirements
5. Number of items and price range of the menu
6. Seat turn over
7. Space and equipment in the kitchen
8. Number and capability of the kitchen staff
9. Supplies / availability of raw materials (seasonal)
10. No repetition of colour, flavour and ingredients
11. Menu language
THE FUSSION COOKING
Famous for its sea beaches, churches and its festival.
It is a fusion of Christians, Hindus and Portuguese cuisine. Intermingling
American, Portuguese and native cuisine is reflected.
Being a coastal region they are famous for the sea foods such as prawns, lobster,
crabs, pomfrets etc.
They prefer rice instead of wheat. Rice is considered as the staple food.
The use of coconut milk is plenty due to the abundance of coconut. So coconut is
an essential ingredient in Goan cooking.
In the village’s food are cooked on wood fires in clay pot.
The staple food is rice, curry and fish, both among the Hindus and the Catholics.
They prefer pork, lamb and chicken.
They use lot of small red chilies.
Kokum is another important ingredient; it is sour deep red color fruit which
imparts sharp and sour taste.
Kokum is mainly used by Hindus.
Christians prefer vinegar instead kokum.
Dodol and bibinca are the popular sweet dishes of this region.
Vegetables were not a daily item on the menu probably because of limited
availability. Local variety such as lady finger, ridge gourd, snake gourd, turnip
called as knoll coll, radish, amaramthus were available during the monsoon.
Bibinca is a sweet dish which is made by pancakes baked one over the other,
traditionally it should have 16 layers.
The pancakes are made with coconut milk, flour, sugar, egg and nut meg.
Dodol is a soft jaggery flavored fudge made of palm jaggery, rice flour and
Feni is a integral part of every Goan. Feni is locally brewed wine made with
cashewnut fruit and they enjoy with the meal.
Coconut feni is also made from toddy, the fermented sap of the coconut tree.
Feni cocktails are a must in every cocktail party.
Hardly any Goan dish is complete without coconut as one of its main flavorings
Coconuts either grated fresh or made into paste nor milk is used.
Coconut, vinegar and jaggery give the Goan food its own identity.
The food is inherently spicy and sour. Red chillies are used in fairly high
Meat consumed are pork, chicken, beef and mutton. Use of pork is extensive
especially for feasts and celebration dinners.
The masalas are always roasted and cooked before grinding it fine. The finer
grinding the better flavor. it is traditionally on a stone locally known as PATTO
Food is usually cooked in mud pots. The mud pots are believed to impart certain
flavour to the dishes.
Catholic food is much influenced by the Portuguese who has wine as one of the
main ingredient in cooking.
The substitute for the wines was Goan palm feni.
Palm feni is in preparing meat dishes like beef or roast pork and for grinding
galmo (fine shrimps) to make a preserve called as balchao.
In making dried fish, fish such as mackerels, king fish called as para is used. The
fresh fish is washed in vinegar.
The spices are ground in vinegar.
The fish is then marinated with the grinded spices.
This can be preserved for years if properly stored and is served fried.
Hindu cooks use dry mango rind, kokum and tamarind as the souring agent.
A variety of aperitifs, which include pickles, chutney and crispy papads are served
in a Hindu meal.
Papad is basically a Hindu specialty.
There are days when they cook even without onion and garlic, and the food is
called as SHIVARAK. Also on the occasions of marriages and thread ceremony
SHIVARAK is served.
No Hindu meal is completed without the delicious and refreshing SOL CODDI.
Which is prepared by adding dry kokum rind with water, seasoned with chillies
and coriander leaves. Coconut milk is also added and finished off with the
tempering of oil, mustard and asafetida.
Portuguese prefer cow’s milk and the Goans use coconut milk to prepare sweets.
Goan prefers to use jaggery rather than sugar.
Goans prefer to use ghee rather than the butter or margarine used by the
Rice and rice flour usually replaces wheat and refined wheat flour.
PRAWN BLACHO – dry shrimps cooked in feni, jaggery and vinegar. This is
called as pickled prawns.
GOAN FISH CURRY – spicy and sour fish curry with raw mangoes and coconut
CHICKEN XACHUTTI – prepared in its own xachutti masala.
FISH RECHEDE – dry fish marinated in spicy paste and shallow fried. Can also
stuffed with various combinations.
BHENDI CALDEEN – ladies finger cooked in coconut milk along with the
tamarind spiced with green chilly, pepper corns and flavored with ginger, garlic,
SOL KADDI – prepared by adding dry kokum rind with water, seasoned with
chillies and coriander leaves. Coconut milk is also added and finished off with the
tempering of oil, mustard and asafetida.
ALLE BELLE – rolled pan cakes made with flour, eggs, salt, milk and coconut
milk. Stuffed with grated coconut sweetened with jaggery and flavored with
MANGANE – a sweet made out of channa dhal, coconut, white jaggery and sago,
flavored with cardamom and garnished with raisins and cashew nuts.
CALDO VERDE - a soup made out of spinach leaves, potato, onion, meat or
chicken stock, milk and olive oil. Served along with the rice.