Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Indexes in orthodontics

7,427 views

Published on

indexes of Orthodontics treatment

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • www.HelpWriting.net is a really good site. thanks
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • A professional Paper writing services can alleviate your stress in writing a successful paper and take the pressure off you to hand it in on time. Check out, please ⇒ www.HelpWriting.net ⇐
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • ⇒ www.HelpWriting.net ⇐ is a good website if you’re looking to get your essay written for you. You can also request things like research papers or dissertations. It’s really convenient and helpful.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Hello! I can recommend a site that has helped me. It's called ⇒ www.WritePaper.info ⇐ They helped me for writing my quality research paper.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • check out the cool video of me training my dog on this page. ♥♥♥ http://ishbv.com/brainydogs/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Indexes in orthodontics

  1. 1. Shahzad Hussain Final year BDS Roll no 52
  2. 2. Index has been defined as a numerical value describing the relative status of a population on a graded scale with defined upper and lower limits, which is defined to facilitate and permit comparison with other populations classified under the same criteria and method. In the ORTHODONTIC context an index is used to describe a rating system that assingns a numeric score to a person’s occlusion.
  3. 3.  In this era of evidence based Dentistry, Quantitative measurements are necessary, so as to quantiate the treatment and compare the results with some standard care.  Comparing the quality of Orthodontic treatment is more difficult.  For this reason several valid and reliable Indices have been developed to 1. Asses the treatment need 2. Compare the treatment Outocome  Indices have been used for the purpose of Epidemiology , research and for categorizing patients according to treatment need.
  4. 4.  Five distinct Type of Indices have been defined, each for a distinct purpose. 1. Diagnostic Indices 2. Epidemiologic Indices 3. Treatment need indices 4. Treatment outcome Indices 5. Treatment Complexity Indices
  5. 5.  Proposed by BROOK and SHAW in 1989.  Asses orthodontic treatment need from anatomic and aesthetic point of view.  It consists of Two independent components 1. Dental Health component 2. Aesthetic Component
  6. 6.  This is categorized in 5 grades ranging from 1 (no treatment need ) to 5 (great need).  Based on evaluation of 5 occlusal traits 1. Missing teeth 2. Overjet 3. Crossbite 4. Contact point diplacment 5. Overbite
  7. 7.  Grade 1 (no treatment need)  Extremely minor malocclusion including contact point displacement.  Grade 2 (Mild/little need) 2.a) Increased overjet greater than 3.5mm but less than or equal to 6 mm with competent lips 2.b) reverse overjet greater than 0 mm but less than or equal to 1 mm 2.c) anterior or posterior crossbite with less than or equal to 1 mm discrepency 2.d) anterior or posterior open bite of 1 mm but less than or equal to 2 mm. 2.e) increased overbite greater than or equal to 3.5 mm but with no gingival contact. 2.f) contact point diplacment equal to 1 mm but less than or equal to 2 mm. 2.g) pre normal or post normal occlusion with no other abnormalities.
  8. 8.  Grade 3(moderate/borderline need) 3.a) Same as grade 2 with incompetent lips 3.b) reverse overjet greater than 1 mm but less than or equal to 3.5 mm 3.c) anterior or posterior crossbite with greater than 1mm discrepancy but less than 2 mm 3.d) contact point displacement greater than 2 mm but less than or equal to 4 mm. 3.e) lateral or anterior open bite greater than 2 mm but less than or equal to 4 mm 3.f) Deep overbite on gingival and palatal tissues but no trauma
  9. 9.  Grade 4(severe/need treatment) 4.a) Less extensive hypodontia (less than or equal to one tooth per quadrant) 4.b) increased over jet greater than 6 mm but less than or equal to 9 mm 4.c) reverse over jet greater than 3.5 mm with no speech or masticatory difficulty. 4.d) anterior or posterior crossbite with greater than 2 mm discrepancy. 4.e) posterior lingual crossbite with no functional occlusal contact in one or both buccal segments. 4.f) severe contact point displacement greater than 4 mm. 4.g) extreme openbite greater than 4mm 4.h) partially erupted, impacted tipped teeth. 4.i) increased overbite with palatal trauma. 4.j) presence of supernumerary teeth.
  10. 10.  Grade 5(extreme/need treatment) 5.a) Impacted eruption of teeth(except third molars) due to crowding, displacement, the presence of supernumerary, retained deciduous and pathological causes 5.b) extensive hypodontia 5.c) increased overjet greater than 9 mm 5.d) reverse overjet greater than 3.5 mm with reported masticatory and speech problems 5.e) submerged deciduous teeth
  11. 11.  10 front viewing photographs illustrating varying degree of Occlusion (serves as a scale) attractive and unattractive occlusion or casts viewed from front.  The rating is based on matching the dental appearance of the patient with one of the photographs by an orthodontist or non professional  No profile views are included
  12. 12.  Photographs are arranged from number 1(most attractive) to number 10(most non attractive)  The patient score is based on matching his/her photograph with that of reference photographs.  Rating is allocated for overall dental attractiveness rather than specific morphologic similarities to the photographs.
  13. 13.  Modifications were introduced in 1993  The Dental health component and aesthetic component were modified to improve the reliability of these components.  In the dental health component DHC, the 5 grades were reduced to 3  Grade 1,2….. No treatment need  Grade 3……. Borderline  Grade 4,5….. Treatment need
  14. 14.  In the Aesthetic component AC the 10 point scale was reduced to 3 point scale 1. Photographs 1-4…. No treatment need 2. Photograph 5-7….. Borderline need 3. Photograph 8-10…. Definite need  These modifications were accepted and are used in British standards for Orthodontic treatment.
  15. 15.  The use of indices in orthodontics allows more uniform interpretation and application for criteria for treatment need and changes.  Still there is a need of a development of index which can be universally accepted in terms of reliability and validity.  There is a need to improve diagnostic criteria and develop a common approach for assessing treatment need.
  16. 16. Contemporary Orthodontics

×