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1
A PROJECT REPORT
ON
“AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON LEVEL OF STRESS AMONGST
WORKING WOMEN IN SUMANDEEP VIDYAPEETH OF
VADODARA’’
(...
2
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
Date: _______________
This is to certify that this Project Report entitled “AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON L...
3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
At the outset, I would like to articulate this project as small journey which was a remarkable
learning ...
4
CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY
Date: __________
I, Mr. Krunal Bhupendrabhai Shah (Exam Seat No. HR4000090), the undersigned ...
5
PREFACE
Today we are at the doorstep of 21st Century; competition at the various levels is increasing
day by day. New an...
6
DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the entire work embodied in the Project Report entitled “An Empirical
Study on Stress ...
7
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
NUMBER
TITLE OF THE CHAPTER PAGE
NUMBER
Bonafide Certificate
Acknowledgement
Certificate of Or...
8
2.8 Organization Structure………………………………………. 29
3.0 LITRATURE REVIEW 30
4.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.1 Title of the Study………...
9
CHAPTER 1.0
INTRODUCTION
10
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Stress an individual’s adaptive response to situation that is perceived as challenging
threatening to ...
11
WHAT IS STRESS?
 S stands for sorrow.
 T stands for tension.
 R stands for rivalry.
 E stands for emotional outburs...
12
1.1 DEFINITION OF STRESS:
According to Sommerville and Langford (1994) describe stress as a social problem.
According t...
13
subjective feeling of tension or arousal is triggered by potentially stressful situation.
However, where pressure excee...
14
Phase 3: Stage of Exhaustion
Following long-continued exposure to the stressor, to which the body had become adjusted,
...
15
Severe acute stress such as stress suffered as the victim of a crime or life-threatening situation
can lead to mental h...
16
1.5 CONSEQUENCES AND SYMPTOMS OF STRESS:-
As stated earlier stress is caused by or reaction to the external events and ...
17
1.6 LEVEL OF STRESS:-
Level 1 - Immediate stress
 Increased heart rate and blood pressure
 Rapid breathing
 Perspiri...
18
1.7 EFFECT OF STRESS:-
Negative effects
A. Impairment of cognitive functioning:
A moderately common effect of stress is...
19
 Second, stress may frequently promote personal growth. Basically, personal growth
refers to movement toward greater p...
20
While you're at it, it would be a good idea to write down all the reasons why you love your
job and how you could use y...
21
compensation for their work and feel that employers offer them fewer opportunities for
internal career advancement than...
22
Differences may have existed in the past but these differences are rapidly disappearing.
Perhaps what needs to be exami...
23
CHAPTER 2.0
COMPANY PROFILE
24
2.0 COMPANEY PROFILE
Name : Sumandeep Vidyapeeth
Establishment year : 2007
2.1 INTRODUCTION:
Sumandeep Vidyapeeth Unive...
25
2.2 HISTORY:
K. M. Shah Charitable Trust which began with a small clinic with two dental chairs has today
metamorphosed...
26
2.3 GENESIS:
The philanthropic orientations of Dr. Mansukh Shah, President of K.M. Shah Charitable
Trust which register...
27
effective learning. Sumandeep Vidyapeeth puts in all necessary efforts and takes all
precautions to fulfil and attain t...
28
 Short Term:
To improve the quality, Facility & Infrastructure of the six existing Institutes.
2.6 WOMEN GRIEVANCE CEL...
29
2.8 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE:
30
CHAPTER 3.0
REVIEW OF
LITRATURE
31
3.0 A BRIEF REVIEW OF LITRATURE
Stress is excitement, feeling of anxiety, and/or physical tension that occurs when the ...
32
Rabin,1993) Thus acute phase activation is potentially another physiological marker of
stress that might be useful in h...
33
Cob (1975) has the opinion that, “The responsibility load creates sever stress among workers
and managers.” If the indi...
34
body, whether it is an environmental condition that we must survive, or a demand that is
being made in order to accompl...
35
compared to men. women are less likely to be promoted than men in professions such as
engineering and medicines.
Desmuk...
36
Stephen Palmer and Kristina Gyllensten (2005) did a study of review of literature to
evaluate research relating to the ...
37
CHAPTER 4.0
RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
38
4.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.1 TITLE OF THE STUDY:
“An Empirical Study on Level of Stress amongst Working Women in Sumand...
39
relationship with job satisfactions and performance and hence, stress become an
organizational problem where women cont...
40
4.7 RESEARCH DESIGN:
The Research design of this study is descriptive. The study is concerned about
The factors that le...
41
4. Research Instrument:
A structured non-disguised questionnaire has been prepared to get the relevant information
from...
42
4.12 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:
 The Working women were reluctant to give correct information.
 The investigator inten...
43
CHAPTER 5.0
DATA ANALYSIS
AND
INTEREPRETATION
44
5.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:
SECTION-1- DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE:
1. Age
TABLE: 1
Sr.No Age Frequency Percentage (%...
45
2. Educational Qualification
TABLE-2
Sr.No Educational Qualification Frequency Percentage (%)
1 Under Graduate 7 14%
2 ...
46
3. Marital Status
TABLE: 3
Sr.No Material Status Frequency Percentage (%)
1 Married 24 48%
2 Un Married 23 46%
3 Widow ...
47
4. Children
TABLE-4
Sr.No Children Frequency Percentage
1 Yes 10 20%
2 No 40 80%
Total 50 100%
Interpretation: From the...
48
5. Family Types
TABLE-5
Sr.No Family Types Frequency Percentage (%)
1 Joint 28 56%
2 Nuclear 22 44%
Total 50 100%
Inter...
49
6. Departments
TABLE-6
Sr.No Departments Frequency Percentage (%)
1 HR 4 8%
2 Account 5 10%
3 Admission 2 4%
4 Nursing ...
50
7. Job Experience
TABLE-7
Sr. No Job Experience Frequency Percentage (%)
1 1-5 years 27 54%
2 6-10 years 14 28%
3 11-15...
51
8. Monthly Income
TABLE-8
Interpretation: From the above table 48% of the women employees get below 10000
monthly incom...
52
SECTION-2
A. Personal Stress:
1. I often feel that this job has made my life cumbersome
TABLE-1
Sr.No Particulars Frequ...
53
2. Being too busy with official work I am unable to devote sufficient time to my domestic and
personal problems
TABLE-2...
54
3. My suggestions and cooperation is not sought in solving even those problems in which I
am quite competent
TABLE-3
Sr...
55
4. I am unable to carry out my assignments to my satisfaction on account of excessive load of
work and lack of time
TAB...
56
5. I feel as if nobody in my family really understands me and my organizational
responsibilities
TABLE-5
Sr.No Particul...
57
6. Sometimes it becomes a complicated problem for me to make adjustments between
political/group pressures and formal r...
58
7. I have to do some work unwillingly owing to certain group/political pressures
TABLE-7
Sr.No Particulars Frequency Pe...
59
8. I am not provided with clear instructions and sufficient facilities regarding the new
assignments trusted to me
TABL...
60
9. Over all CalculationPersonal Stress
TABLE-9
Sr.No Particulars Percentage (%)
1 Strongly Disagree 8%
2 Disagree 22%
3...
61
B. Organization Stress:
1. I have a lot of work to do in this job
TABLE-1
Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%)
1 ...
62
2. The available information relating to my job-role and its outcomes are vague and
insufficient
TABLE-2
Sr.No Particul...
63
3. My different officers often give contradictory instructions regarding my work
TABLE-3
Sr.No Particulars Frequency Pe...
64
4. The responsibility for the efficiency and productivity of many employees is thrust upon me
TABLE-4
Sr.No Particulars...
65
5. I get less salary in comparison to the magnitude of my workload
TABLE-5
Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%)
1...
66
6. I do my work under tense circumstances
TABLE-6
Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%)
1 Strongly Disagree 1 2%
2...
67
7. My higher authorities do not give due significance to my work and position
TABLE-7
Sr.No Particulars Frequency Perce...
68
8. Gender discrimination at workplace irrespective of work
TABLE-8
Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%)
1 Strong...
69
9. I am able to receive support from my boss, colleagues and juniors
TABLE-9
Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%...
70
10. I carry official work at home
TABLE-10
Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%)
1 Strongly Disagree 13 26%
2 Dis...
71
11. My role does not allow me to have enough time with my family
TABLE-11
Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%)
1...
72
12. I find myself with insufficient time to complete my work
TABLE-12
Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%)
1 Stro...
73
13. There is a need to reduce some part of my work
TABLE-13
Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%)
1 Strongly Disa...
74
14. There is a very little scope for growth in my role
TABLE-14
Sr.
No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%)
1 Strongly ...
75
15. Promotion policy of my organization needs to be modified
TABLE-15
Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%)
1 Str...
76
16. Over all Calculation Organization Stress
TABLE-16
Sr. No Particulars Percentage (%)
1 Strongly Disagree 10%
2 Disag...
77
C. Group Stress
1. Some of my colleagues and subordinates try to defame and malign me as unsuccessful
TABLE-1
Sr.No Par...
Project Report on Stress
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Project Report on Level of Stress

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Project Report on Stress

  1. 1. 1 A PROJECT REPORT ON “AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON LEVEL OF STRESS AMONGST WORKING WOMEN IN SUMANDEEP VIDYAPEETH OF VADODARA’’ (A STUDY OF SUMANDEEP VIDYAPEETH) Submitted by MR. KRUNAL BHUPENDRABHAI SHAH ROLL NO: HR4000090 in Partial Fulfillment for the Award of the Degree of MASTER OF COMMERCE (SPECIALIZATION IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT) Under the Guidance of Shri. R. Hariharan Assistant Professor Department of Commerce and Business Management Faculty of Commerce The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda Vadodara 09TH MAY 2014
  2. 2. 2 BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Date: _______________ This is to certify that this Project Report entitled “AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON LEVEL OF STRESS AMONGST WORKING WOMEN IN SUMANDEEP VIDYAPEETH OF VADODARA (A STUDY OF SUMANDEEP VIDYAPEETH)” which is to be submitted to the office of the Registrar (Examination), The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Baroda has been prepared by Mr. Krunal Bhupendrabhai Shah (Exam Seat No. HR4000090) as a partial fulfillment of the award of the Master of Commerce Degree with specialization Human resource Management for the Academic year 2013-14 for the evaluation in lieu of the Annual Examination to be held in March/April, 2014. He / She has carried out this work under my personal supervision and guidance. (Signature of the Guide) Shri R. Hariharan Assistant Professor Department of Commerce & Business Management Faculty of Commerce, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara.
  3. 3. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT At the outset, I would like to articulate this project as small journey which was a remarkable learning experience for me. The successful completion of this project is only because of the extraordinary support, guidance, counseling and motivation from my respectable guides, staff of the M.S. University, and my organization. This journey was also could not be completed without support of my family and friends. I firstly express my hearted thankfulness to Dr. Umesh Dangarwala, Associate Professor and Project Guide Shri R. Hariharan in this project who made me felt his presence during all those crucial and decision making moments this project went thorough. The deep insights in to the subject given by him are believed the root caused in completing this project must qualitative and timely. Also, I express my deep gratitude to Ms. Stuti Dave (HR Executives), my training officer and mentor for this project. Thorough the support provided by her, I have imparted knowledge on the avenues which this project have opened and explored . Her directions in making me think about unique conceptual and practical aspects of stress level amongst working Women which has lifted this project at this stage of successful completion. I extend my gratitude to Sumandeep Vidyapeeth and My Manager and all my colleagues, friends for their encouragement, support, guidance and assistance for undergoing industrial training and for preparing the project report.
  4. 4. 4 CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY Date: __________ I, Mr. Krunal Bhupendrabhai Shah (Exam Seat No. HR4000090), the undersigned hereby declare that the project report entitled, “An Empirical study on level of stress amongst working women in Sumandeep Vidyapeeth” submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the Master of Commerce Degree with specialization in Human Resource Management for the Academic year 2013-14 for the evaluation in lieu of the Annual Examination to be held in March/April, 2014 is my own work and has been carried under the guidance of Shri. R. Hariharan. The work is an original one and has not being submitted earlier to this university or to any other institution/ organization for fulfillment of the requirement of a course or for award of any Degree/ Diploma/ Certificate. All the sources of information used in this Project Report have been duly acknowledged in it. (Signature of the Student) Mr. Krunal B. Shah Exam Seat No : HR4000090 Master of Commerce (Specialization in Human Resource Management) Department of Commerce & Business Management Faculty of Commerce, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara.
  5. 5. 5 PREFACE Today we are at the doorstep of 21st Century; competition at the various levels is increasing day by day. New and new developments are taking place and these days in all fields all over India to make the life of the people more comfortable a luxurious. Those in order to survive in market on should practical as well as theoretical knowledge about all different fields existing market. In today’s competitive world edges is more significant than theoretical knowledge. Today practical training and knowledge also plays an important role. Master education brings its students in direct contact with the real corporate world thorough industrial training. The Master programmes provide its students with an in depth study of various managerial activities that are performed in any organization.
  6. 6. 6 DECLARATION I hereby declare that the entire work embodied in the Project Report entitled “An Empirical Study on Stress Level Amongst Working Women in Sumandeep Vidyapeeth", has been carried out by me under the supervision and guidance of Shri R. Hariharan Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce and Business Management, Faculty of Commerce, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara. The matter presented in this report incorporates the results of independent investigations carried out by me. To the best of my knowledge, no part of this report has been submitted for any Degree or Diploma to The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda or any other University/Institution in India or Abroad. Date: 09/05/2014 Mr. Krunal B. Shah Place: Vadodara
  7. 7. 7 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NUMBER TITLE OF THE CHAPTER PAGE NUMBER Bonafide Certificate Acknowledgement Certificate of Originality Preface Declaration List of Tables List of Figures/ Charts Student – Project Guide Interaction Report 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Definitions of Stress…………………………………………. 1.2 Meaning of Stress……………………………………………. 1.3 Sources of Stress…………………………………………….. 1.4 Types of stress………………………………………………. 1.5 Consequences and Symptoms of Stress……………………... 1.6 Level of Stress………………………………………………. 1.7 Effect of Stress………………………………………………. 1.8 Stress and the Working Women…………………………… 1.9 Workplace Stress and Working Women……………………. 1.10 The Problems Working Women face……………………… 1.11 Why do Some Experts Feel that Women are Particularly Susceptible to Stress?................................................................... 9 12 12 13 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2.0 COMPANY PROFILE 2.1Introduction…………………………………………………... 2.2 History……………………………………………………….. 2.3 Genesis………………………………………………………. 2.4 Mission and Vision………………………………………….. 2.5 Strategic Plan………………………………………………… 2.6 Women grievance cell……………………………………….. 2.7 The Sexual Harassment of women Committee……………… 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 28
  8. 8. 8 2.8 Organization Structure………………………………………. 29 3.0 LITRATURE REVIEW 30 4.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4.1 Title of the Study……………………………………….. 4.2 Duration of the Study…………………………………... 4.3 Basic Terms of Present Research Study………………. 4.4 Rational of the Proposed Research Study……………… 4.5 Scope and Coverage of Research Stud…………………. 4.6 Objectives of Research Study …………………………. 4.7 Research design………………………………………… 4.8 Source of Information………………………………….. 4.9 Sampling decisions……………………………………... 4.10 Data collection, Analysis, Interpretation…………….. 4.11 Significance of the Proposed Research Study………… 4.12 Limitations of the Study……………………………… 37 38 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 41 41 42 5.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 43 6.0 FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 85 BIBLIOGRAPHY 90 QUESTIONNAIRE 92
  9. 9. 9 CHAPTER 1.0 INTRODUCTION
  10. 10. 10 1.0 INTRODUCTION Stress an individual’s adaptive response to situation that is perceived as challenging threatening to the person well-being. Modern life is full of stress. An organization become more complex, the potential for stress increases. Urbanization, industrialization and increase in scale of operations are some of the reasons for rising stress. Stress is an inevitable consequence of socio-economic complexity and to some extent, its stimulant as well. Stress in health psychology, a general term used to refer to a range of negative perceptions and reactions experienced when pressure become too much. In health psychology, stress is typically used to refer more generally to a range of negative perceptions and reactions. The concept of stress and stress management is increasingly gaining recognition in literature and the globe. Oyerinde (2004) describes stress as the biological responses to events that threaten to overwhelm the individual capacity to cope satisfactory in the environment. Melinda, Ellen, Jeanne and Robert (2008) defined stress as powerful neurochemicals and hormones that prepare one for action to fight or flee one don t take action, the stress responses can lead to health problems. Every era in history has been characterized by some incapacitating diseases. Plague, Polio and Pneumonia were eliminated when the environmental conditions were improved or when the germs or viruses were destroyed or protected through drugs or vaccines. In the modern society we have some characteristic diseases, but normally consider not being so easy to eliminate. It leads to psychosomatic disease or heart disease and it is a major contributor to disturbances in one’s emotional, family and social life. It inhibits creativity and personal effectiveness and it is present as general dissatisfaction that is so obvious in our daily lives. The name of this condition is stress. Stress is very much dynamic condition in which people confronted with opportunities, constraints or demand related to what one desires and for which outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Stress is associated with constraints and demand. Two conditions are necessary for potential stress to become actual stress. The workplace is widely regarded as a major source of stress and, as such, has been a significant focus of research. Work stress is of concern to both occupational and health psychologists. Entrepreneurial role stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the business or job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the entrepreneurs. .
  11. 11. 11 WHAT IS STRESS?  S stands for sorrow.  T stands for tension.  R stands for rivalry.  E stands for emotional outburst.  S stands for success phobia.  S stands for exit suspense. Stress is not a useful term for scientists because it is such a highly subjective phenomenon that it defies definition. And if you can’t define stress, how can you possibly measure it? The term “stress”, as it is currently used was coined by Hans Selye in 1936, who defined it as “the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change”. Selye had noted in numerous experiments that laboratory animals subjected to acute but different noxious physical and emotional stimuli (blaring light, deafening noise, extremes of heat or cold, perpetual frustration) all exhibited the same pathologic changes of stomach ulcerations, shrinkage of lymphoid tissue and enlargement of the adrenals. He later demonstrated that persistent stress could cause these animals to develop various diseases similar to those seen in humans, such as heart attacks, stroke, kidney disease and rheumatoid arthritis. At the time, it was believed that most diseases were caused by specific but different pathogens. Tuberculosis was due to the tubercle bacillus, anthrax by the anthrax bacillus, syphilis by a spirochete, etc. What Selye proposed was just the opposite, namely that many different insults could cause the same disease, not only in animals, but in humans as well. More women are employed now than ever before, but more likely women get low productivity, low pay and vulnerable jobs, lack of social protection and basic rights than men according to a new report by the international labor organization ILO. Davidson (1983) and Cooper (1992) in two books on managerial women and stress found that managerial women felt isolated at work, exhibited Type A behavior, and experienced greater strain than did men. Extra pressures on managerial women included lack of self-confidence and subtle forms of discrimination. The study confirmed the impression that working women still carry the major burden of home and family problems. The main aim of the study was to examine for factors that are responsible for generating entrepreneurial role stress among women those who are working in “Mahila Bachat Gat” Objective the aim of this review was to evaluate research relating to the role of gender in the level of workplace stress. A further aim was review of literature relating to stressor of particular relevance to working women. The stressor include multiple roles, lack of career progress and discrimination and stereotyping.
  12. 12. 12 1.1 DEFINITION OF STRESS: According to Sommerville and Langford (1994) describe stress as a social problem. According to Robbins and sanghi (2006) “A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraints, or demand related to what he or she desire and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.” According to Richard Carlson “Stress is nothing more than a socially acceptable form of mental illness’ Robins and sanghi (2006) also contributed “stress is typically discussed in a negative context; it also has positive value. It is an opportunity when offers a potential gain.” According to ILO (1986) “It is a recognized world-wide as a major challenge to individual mental and physical health. and organizational health.” According to Usman and Ismail (2010) “One of the affected outcomes of stress is on job performance.” According to Newman and Beehr (1979) define job stress or workplace stress as “ a situation wherein job-related factors interact with the worker to change his or her psychological and/or physiological condition such that the person is forced to deviate from normal functioning.” According to Hans Selye “stress is the body‘s nonspecific response to a demand placed on it.” According to Richard S. Lazarus “Stress as a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that demand exceed that personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize.” According to D ‘Souza “ Nervous tension that results from internal conflicts from a wide range of external situations.” 1.2 Meaning of Stress: Stress may be understood as a state of tension experienced by individual facing extraordinary demands. Constraints or opportunities. The pressure of morden life, coupled with the demand of the job, can lead to emotional imbalances that are collectively labled stress. However, stress is not always unpleasant. Stress is as result of an interaction between an individual‘s emotional, intellectual, social, and physical resources and the demand on him or her. Subjective and self reported evaluations of stress are just as a valied as ‘objective’ data such as statistics on accidents or absenteeism. A recent report by National Association of Mental Health distinguishes between stress and pressure, where pressure can be defined as a
  13. 13. 13 subjective feeling of tension or arousal is triggered by potentially stressful situation. However, where pressure exceeds an individual‘s ability to cope, the result is stress. (Ricardo Blaug, Amy Kenyon, Rohit Lekhi). The health and safety Executive (HSE) defines stress as “the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed on theme”. Recent research shows that this ‘adverse reaction’ can seriously undermine the quality of people’s working lives and, in turn, the effectiveness of the workplace. Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman suggested in 1984 that stress can be thought of as resulting from an “imbalance between demands and resources” or as occurring when “pressure exceeds one’s perceived ability to cope”. The term “stress” refers only to a stress with significant negative consequences, or distress in the terminology advocated by Hans selye , rather than what he call eustress, a stress whose consequences are helpful or otherwise positive. He defines this stress as a state manifested by a syndrome which consists of all non specifically induced changes in a biologic system. 1.3 SOURCES OF STRESS:- At present stress is the number one problem for working people. It is increasing continuously day by day due to globalization and global economic crisis. It creates the fight or flight response in the brain, the stress hormone then circulates in the blood stream which causes the heart to speed up, the arteries to narrow and blood sugar to rise. In our daily life we face different type of stressors, such as biological, psychological, sociological and philosophical In any case, regardless of the stressor; the body’s reaction will be the same (Greenberg 1990). Hans Selye (1976) in his classic book The Stress of Life briefly described the stress reactivity as a three-phase process termed the general adaptation syndrome as follows: Phase 1: Alarm Reaction The body shows the changes characteristic of the first exposure to stressor. At the same time, its resistance is diminished and, if the stressor is sufficiently strong (severe burns, extremes of temperature), death may result. Phase 2: Stage of Resistance Resistance ensues if continued exposure to the stressor is compatible with adaptation. The bodily signs characteristic of the alarm reaction have virtually disappeared and resistance rises above normal.
  14. 14. 14 Phase 3: Stage of Exhaustion Following long-continued exposure to the stressor, to which the body had become adjusted, eventually adaptation energy is exhausted. The signs of the alarm reaction reappear, but now they are irreversible, and the individual dies (Greenberg 1990). Table: 1 Type of Stressor & Examples Types of Stressors Examples Work factors • Excessive work hours • Unreasonable performance demands Physical Environment • Noise and Overcrowding • Health and safety risks • Ergonomic problems Organizational Practices • Lack of autonomy • Poor communication Workplace change • insecurity in Job • High turnover Relationship • poor relationship with superiors • Bullying or harassment Source: helpguide.org,www.helpguide.org/mental/work_stress_management.html 1.4 Types of Stress:- 1. Acute Stress: Acute stress is your body's immediate reaction to a new challenge, event, or demand -- the fight or flight response. As the pressures of a near-miss automobile accident, an argument with a family member or a costly mistake at work sink in, your body turns on this biological response. Acute stress isn't always caused by negative stress; it's also the experience you have when riding a roller coaster or having a person jump out at you in a haunted house. Isolated episodes of acute stress should not have any lingering health effects. In fact, they might actually be healthy for you -- as these stressful situations give your body and brain practice in developing the best response to future stressful situations.
  15. 15. 15 Severe acute stress such as stress suffered as the victim of a crime or life-threatening situation can lead to mental health problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder or acute stress disorder. 2. Chronic Stress If acute stress isn't resolved and begins to increase or lasts for long periods of time, it becomes chronic stress. Chronic stress can be detrimental to your health, as it can contribute to several serious diseases or health risks, such as heart disease, cancer, lung disease, accidents, cirrhosis of the liver, and suicide. 3. Emotional Stress The pain of emotional stress can hit harder than some other types of stress. For example, the stress that comes from a conflicted relationship tends to bring a greater physical reaction and a stronger sense of distress than the stress that comes from being busy at work. Therefore, it is important to be able to manage emotional stress in effective ways. Strategies that help you to process, diffuse, and build resilience toward emotional stress can all work well, and different approaches can work in different situations. Here are some ways to manage emotional stress. 4. Time Stress The kind of stress is the resultant of one’s worry about time or the lack thereof. One worry about the number of things that one has to do, and fear that will fail to achieve something important. One might feel tr4apped, unhappy or even hopeless. This stress is common in all facets of lives. Time management skills have been advocated over the years as a useful tool in coping with this kind of stress. 5. Situational Stress This stress occurs in a scary situation that one has no control over. This stress is not anticipated by the individual and as such it is always sudden. Conflict has been identified as the major causes of situational stress and effective conflict resolution skills have equally been identified as a possible way out.
  16. 16. 16 1.5 CONSEQUENCES AND SYMPTOMS OF STRESS:- As stated earlier stress is caused by or reaction to the external events and bring about changes in our response and our general behavior. It is important to learn how to know when our stress levels are out of control. Stress affects the mind, body, and behavior in many ways, and everyone experiences stress differently. The stress response, also called the fight or flight response, first described by Cannon, refers to the physiological and emotional changes brought on by stress hormones in response to certain situational or event stressors (Cannon 1918). Stress associated with positive events, helps us respond effectively in times of trauma. It also increases our performance or efficiency in ordinary times. On the other hand distress tends to block our performance, create health problems, increase anxiety and depression, and reduce optimal efficiency (Selye 1976). The presence of stress can be divided into three different categories; i) Physiological, ii) Behavioral and iii) Psychological. Now we describe these three symptoms as follows (table-2): Table 2: The three categories of symptoms of stress Physiological Symptoms Behavioral Symptoms Psychological Symptoms • Perspiration • Impulsive behavior • Physical trauma • Eating disorders • Depression/Isolation • Moodiness • Irritability • Lower energy levels • Anxiety • Headaches • Change in personality • Fear and tension • Illness • Laughing in a high pitch • Memory problems • Trembling • Irritable/Aggressive • Depression • Urinating frequently • Increased errors • Depression or general unhappiness • Premenstrual tension • Turnover • Dissatisfactions Source: Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  17. 17. 17 1.6 LEVEL OF STRESS:- Level 1 - Immediate stress  Increased heart rate and blood pressure  Rapid breathing  Perspiring and sweaty palms  Indigestion and nervous stomach These symptoms occur in response to a stressor that causes fright or nervousness. Your body releases adrenalin to prepare you for action. Examples range from immediate, external danger such as a fire or a car speeding towards you to a self-imposed situation such as a job interview or first date. Level 2 - Continued stress  Feelings of being pressured or driven  Exhaustion and fatigue  Anxiety  Memory loss  Colds and flu  Increase in smoking or alcohol and caffeine consumption These symptoms can occur when there is no relief from a Level 1 stress. Your body begins to release stored sugars and fats, using up its resources. For example, a long-term deadline at work, or a drawn-out divorce may lead to Level 2 stress. Level 3 - Ongoing stress  Insomnia  Errors in judgment  Personality changes  Autoimmune disorders  Heart disease  Mental illness When a stressful situation is not resolved and carries on for prolonged periods, Level 3 stress can result. Your body cannot produce the energy resources it needs and the on-going strain can cause dysfunctions and breakdowns. An unsatisfying and highly demanding job or caring for a disabled family member could potentially cause this kind of stress.
  18. 18. 18 1.7 EFFECT OF STRESS:- Negative effects A. Impairment of cognitive functioning: A moderately common effect of stress is impairment of one‘s mental functioning. In some people, stress may lead to a narrowed from of attention, reduced flexibility in thinking, poor concentration and less effective memory storage. Such effects are far from inevitable. (Mandler,1979) B. Shock and disorientation: Sever stress can leave people dazed and confused. (Horowitz, 1979) in these states people tends to feel emotionally numb and they respond in a flat, apathetic fashion to events around theme. C. Burnout: Burnout is a buzzword for the eighties. This is a stress-related Syndrome wherein one‘s behavior comes to be dominated by feelings of physical, mental and emotional exhaustion. The physical exhaustion includes chronic figure, weakness, and low energy. The emotional exhaustion is manifested in highly negative attitudes towards oneself. One’s work and life is general. D. Physical problems and illness: The existence of connection between stress and certain kinds of physical illness has long been recognized. Examples of illness that have long been viewed as stress-related are asthma, hypertension, migraine headache, and ulcers. Positive effects The beneficial effects of stress are more difficult to pinpoint than the harmful effects because they tend to be more subtle.  First, we would probably experience a suffocating level of boredom if we lived a stress-free existence. Life would be very dull indeed if it were altogether devoid of challenge. There is evidence (Suedfeld,1979) that an intermediate level of simulation and challenge tends to be optimal for most people. Although most of us think of stress in terms of stimulus overload, it is clear that under load can be extremely unpleasant as well.
  19. 19. 19  Second, stress may frequently promote personal growth. Basically, personal growth refers to movement toward greater psychological health. Stress must some time force us to develops new skill, learn new insights, and acquire new strengths. In other words, the adaption process initiated by stress may often lead to personal changes for the better. Confronting and conquering a stressful challenge may lead to improvement in specific coping abilities and to favorable alternative in one‘s self-concept.  Third, today‘s stress can “inoculate” us so that we are less affected by tomorrow‘s stress. If stressful experience is moderate in intensity and does not overwhelm us, it may increase our subsequent stress tolerance. Thus, a fellow who has previously endured business ‘s setbacks may be much better prepared than most people to deal with the fact that bank ia about to foreclose on his home.In light of negative effects that stress can have improved stress tolerance is a desirable outcome. 1.8 STRESS AND THE WORKING WOMEN: Waking up at sharp 6 in the morning after retiring to bed late at night, rustling up an appetizing breakfast for everyone while getting the kids all spruced up for school, taking care of the sundry house requirements that demand her attention that's the average working woman's home schedule for you. And things are not easy for her on the work front either. After all the modern workplace comes with its own share of tensions. The multiple-roles that women find themselves compelled to play these days, often bring about a major energy leak both at the physical as well as psychological level. One might argue that men too face stressful situations at the workplace. True enough, but then very few men are called upon to give their hundred percent equally at home and at work. No one says that life should always be a smooth ride sans pressures and stress. In fact there is a school of thought which claims moderate amounts of stress is like the rev up act, enhancing performance and producing exhilaration. It even contributes to attaining goals and fulfilling commitments. It's the "I'm going over the edge," kind of stress that must be competently dealt with soon enough. So how does one win over stress? First of all, ask yourself how much time have you carved for yourself in a day, doing the things that make you most happy? Second, find ways to add energy to your life. Eat a wholesome breakfast, exercise a little and drink plenty of water. Identify whether you are a morning or an evening person and learn to capitalize on your best work times. The next step would be to plug the source of your energy leak. Is it your home situation, office environment, co-workers, workload, or lack of team participation that's getting to you?
  20. 20. 20 While you're at it, it would be a good idea to write down all the reasons why you love your job and how you could use your strengths to enhance your performance. Make a short list of priorities and stick to them. Get organized, ticking off chores that have got to be completed. Remember to keep yourself centered so that you don't feel overcome by guilt when you say 'no' to someone asking an inconvenient favour of you. Finally, create a realistic action plan that includes you in a big way as you balance your life and set goals that are important to you. Women who overextend themselves might find it helpful to actually schedule time for themselves. Remember, you don't need to make yourself more important than anyone else, but you do need to consider yourself at least as important as everyone else. 1.9 WORKPLACE STRESS AND WORKING WOMEN:- “Workplace stress” is the response people may experience when presented with work demand and pressure that are not matched to their knowledge and ability and which challenge their ability to cope. It has been described as an emotional experience associated with nervousness, tension and strain, brought about by factor related to work. Job stress affects both men and women, although there are some gender differences in certain aspects. A report in 2005 found the odds of association of cumulative job stress with poor mental Health conditions like anxiety, depression, and chronic fatigue among women to be 1.4 to 7.1, compared to 1.8 to 4.6 for men. In general, women are more likely than men to experience physical symptoms of stress, such as fatigue, irritability, headaches and depression. Women are also more likely than men to cope with job stress with unhealthy behaviors, such as poor eating habits. For working women, care giving and balancing work/life issues is a significant stressor. Well over half of the caregivers in the United States are women and 59 percent are also employed. Specifically, women are the primary caretakers of children, including children who have a chronic illness such as asthma now the leading cause of school absence as well as the cause of more than 15 million days of less productive work or absences per year. Overall, working women who are also caregivers often face work adjustments, including reduced hours, taking leaves of absence and even quitting their jobs, according to a report sponsored by The National Alliance for Caregivers. Not surprisingly, women are more than twice as likely as their male counterparts to report the benefits of having employer-provided support systems that offer counseling or support groups. Low salaries, lack of opportunity for advancement and heavy workloads have more than one- third of Americans reporting feeling chronic work stress. And women are feeling it more acutely than ever. After decades of making progress in the work force, many women are feeling less valued than men, according to a recent APA survey on Stress in the Workplace. They’re feeling they don’t receive adequate monetary
  21. 21. 21 compensation for their work and feel that employers offer them fewer opportunities for internal career advancement than men. Take a look at the healthcare industry as one example. Healthcare as a whole is still an overwhelmingly female occupation: 80 percent of all workers in this field are female, according to a report on the healthcare industry by Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce. But men are still earning more in many healthcare careers. For example, female doctors earn less than their male counterparts and male nurses earn more than female nurses at every level of education, according to the Georgetown report. And healthcare isn’t alone. According to the results of the annual VIDA Women in the Literary Arts survey, male authors were featured 3 to 4 times more often than female authors in many major literary publications, such as The New York Review of Books and Harpers Magazine. The reality is, in down economic times a wide range of people have good reason to feel stress at work. Both men and women are often working during paid time off, typically checking email, but sometimes participating in conference calls or using days off to catch up on work. And exacerbating the realities of the stressors in the job market, women may be more likely to internalize stress, according to a recent article in the Wall Street Journal. They may hesitate to speak up for themselves or to challenge behavior that they see as unfair. And, according to the APA survey, men are more likely than women to use flexible work arrangements, although both men and women report that job demands interfere with their ability to fulfill family or home responsibilities. But chronically stressful situations that go unaddressed can lead to serious health problems. Constant job stress can impact eating and exercise habits, which can contribute to high blood pressure, high cholesterol and weight gain. Stress on the job can also accelerate the onset of heart disease and can lead to burnout, which is often associated with depression. 1.10 THE PROBLEMS WORKING WOMEN FACE:- Research confirms that employment has a positive effect for women and families. And misperceptions that affect their performance in the workplace. This paper will examine some of these difficulties describe various methods employed by working women to resolve them. One such difficulty is the belief that men and women have different leadership styles. Leadership styles attributed to women are believed to reduce their effectiveness in the workplace. Specifically, women are thought to be more people-oriented in their leadership style and men more task-oriented. The people-oriented leadership style of women is viewed as less likely to inspire productivity among workers. Gender stereotyping is a problem that working women must deal with. Barnett and Hyde, (2001), conclude that the empirical studies they reviewed challenge gender differences predictions of earlier theories. The behavior of men and women in the workplace is similar.
  22. 22. 22 Differences may have existed in the past but these differences are rapidly disappearing. Perhaps what needs to be examined is why these differences are disappearing. There is a work/family conflict that particularly affects working women. It is extended work hours. (Piotrkowski et al 1987). There is research that suggests that a child’s well being suffers as a result of lack of time with parents (Piotrkowski et al 1987). Specifically, “the lack of sensitive, responsive, and consistent care from overworked parents or substitute providers can lead to decreased cognitive and social skills (Percel & Menaghan 1994). And can promote attachment insecurity in children (Belsky, 1990) (Glass & Estes, 1997: 295).” Men and women communicate differently and; therefore, negotiate differently (Miller, 2003). The successful female professional must not only understand the gender differences in communication but be able to use them to her advantage as well. 1.11 WHY DO SOME EXPERTS FEEL THAT WOMEN ARE PARTICULARLY SUSCEPTIBLE TO STRESS? Women are socialized to be the caretakers of others. More women than men have both a career outside the home and continue to try to juggle traditional responsibilities after hours. Over 70% of married women with children under the age of 18 are employed outside the home. Sociologists describe women as struggling to achieve the "male standard" at work, while trying to maintain the perfect wife and mother standards at home. Women are also less likely to be in as powerful positions as men to change their environment. Women find it harder to say no to others' requests and often feel guilty if they can't please everyone. They often spend less time nurturing their own emotional and physical needs, as that might be perceived as selfish. In addition, relationship alterations or the loss of loved ones can produce empty nest or other separation syndromes. As women progress through life's stages, hormonal balance associated with premenstrual, post-partum and menopausal changes can affect chemical vulnerability to stress and depression.
  23. 23. 23 CHAPTER 2.0 COMPANY PROFILE
  24. 24. 24 2.0 COMPANEY PROFILE Name : Sumandeep Vidyapeeth Establishment year : 2007 2.1 INTRODUCTION: Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University once a nurtured dream of a single man stands as an unmistakable reality and landmark today. A single seed sown has sprouted today into a huge tree with deep seated roots. The dream grew as The K. M. Shah Charitable Trust and has taken the shape of The Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University of today is a symbol of trust, service and hospitality; having touched and influenced the life of countless people. K. M. Shah Charitable Trust (KMSCT) symbolizes change. What once began with a small clinic with two dental chairs has today metamorphosed into an educational hub encompassing dental, medical and physiotherapy colleges. Today that dream is shared by one and all at SVU. Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University is one of the reputed Universities which provide the Post Graduate Medical and Dental Programs to the aspiring candidates. University is declared as deemed to be University under section 3 of the UGC Act 1956. Admission into this University is based on Mall India Post Graduate Entrance exam. University is located in Gujarat for providing these. Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, as a socially responsive institution is committed to healthcare education and training, research and philanthropic in-house and outreach practices. With the deemed university status the Sumandeep Vidyapeeth enjoys greater academic freedom which is being used in designing and offering relevant academic programmes, bring timely changes to keep these programmes relevant and creating environment and infrastructure conducive to effective learning.
  25. 25. 25 2.2 HISTORY: K. M. Shah Charitable Trust which began with a small clinic with two dental chairs has today metamorphosed into an educational hub encompassing dental, medical and physiotherapy collages. Shree Kanjibhai Manjibhai Shah Dental College & Hospital was established in 1999 to promote education in modern professional subjects. The focus rapidly expanded and in 2001, Smt. Kashiba Jayshankar Pandya College of Physiotherapy was established. This was followed in quick succession by foray into general healthcare services with the establishment of Dhiraj General Hospital in 2002. Dr. Mansukhlal Shah, a visionary, a first generation entrepreneur, and a philanthropic is the founder chairman of K.M. Shah Charitable Trust (KMSCT). The Trust bears its name from Shri Kanjibhai Manjibhai Shah, a small time businessman and father of the Chairman. Established in 1981, the Trust had very humble beginnings. During the formative years, the Trust zealously rendered dental health care services at concessional charges to the poor and the needy patients. Free dental checkup camps were organized at regular intervals and free dentures were also provided to the poor and the needy senior citizens. The Trust strongly believes in creating employment and employability opportunities for the local residents. To this extent, the Trust has generated employment opportunities for hundreds of local residents from the surrounding villages. The Trust is also strongly committed to Social Responsibility. It frequently organizes free diagnostic camps, provides free food and social services to the inhabitants of the surrounding villages during natural calamities like flood as well as remains ever-ready for adoption of villages.
  26. 26. 26 2.3 GENESIS: The philanthropic orientations of Dr. Mansukh Shah, President of K.M. Shah Charitable Trust which registered in 1981 at Charitable Trust in 1981. The Trust initially engaged in providing Dental Healthcare services. The backbone of this initiative was an untiring and a relentless zeal of its founder Dr. Mansukh Shah who is a philanthropic medical professional. His committed enterprise and professional vision led him to make a foray in healthcare education. In the mid nineties, Dr. Shah turned his attention to growing challenges in professional healthcare education. This motivated him to set up K.M.Shah Dental College & Hospital in 1999. The focus gained momentum with the launch of College of Physiotherapy in 2001. These initiatives were furthered by a foray into general healthcare services with the establishment of Dhiraj General Hospital and Smt. B.K. Shah Medical Institute & Research Center in quick successions in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Sumandeep Nursing College was established in 2006. The Professional vision continued to probe diversified educational needs of the society and as a result The Sumandeep School of Pharmacy and The School of Management were launched in quick succession in 2007 and 2008 respectively. 1200 bedded Dhiraj General Hospital, 350 chairs Dental hospital, state of the art learning resource centre. The zealous pursuit of professional dream and vigorous industry of the trust culminated into the authentication of the Sumandeep Vidyapeeth on 17th January, 2007 as a Deemed to be the University u/s 3 of the UGC Act 1956. With this status the educational programmers of the Sumandeep Vidyapeeth enjoy the recognition of the UGC. Sumandeep Vidyapeeth has the distinction of being the only Deemed University of the State of Gujarat under de novo category. Sumandeep has acquired this status on the Strength of introduction of path breaking healthcare education and training delivery system namely Evidence Based Education System (EBES). Sumandeep as a socially responsive institution is committed to healthcare education and training, research and philanthropic in-house and outreach practices. With the deemed university status Sumandeep Vidyapeeth enjoys greater academic freedom which is being used in designing and offering relevant academic programmes, bring timely changes to keep these programmes relevant and creating environment and infrastructure conducive to
  27. 27. 27 effective learning. Sumandeep Vidyapeeth puts in all necessary efforts and takes all precautions to fulfil and attain the highest standards of professional education. Sumandeep Vidyapeeth continuously strives to design and offer socially relevant higher professional education programmes. Thus, a small step took giant leaps and culminated into a huge network of core and ancillary institutes located on a sprawling campus of 70 acres situated at Piparia on Waghodia Road – a destination just 17 Kilo Meters away from Vadodara Railway Station. The journey so far has been testing yet exciting while creating these milestones. We at the Sumandeep Vidyapeeth believe that we have miles to go yet as we envision to venture many new areas of art and science of professional education. We are prepared and dedicated to face the challenges of turbulent time to seize the existing and emerging educational opportunities by effectively meeting the expectations of our effort holders. In the process, we have resolved to keep upgrading and adding to our efforts and infrastructure. We aspire to be socially germane by being responsive and sensitive. 2.4 MISSION: To be recognized as an “Educational Hub of Quality and Development”. SUMANDEEP VIDYAPEETH aims to be a world class center of excellence in learning and innovation driven by social sensitivity and state-of-the-art technology. In near future it will be amongst the top rated Educational Institutes nationally and internationally, offering contemporary education, high quality research, training and consultancy services to suit the ever changing needs of Global society and to provide high quality health care services to the society. VISION: Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University envisages itself as a vibrant and reflective institution providing Health - care, Education Services and Research of the highest recognized standard and best practices in all its perspective. 2.5 STRATEGIC PLAN: Sumandeep Vidyapeeth has grown within a very short span of time to give Education in the field of Medical & Paramedics. We have continuously evolved to endeavor with the latest Medical Education by engracing into the Cardiac and Nephrology Department.  Long term: In future we are going to start with ayurveda, Homeopathy and naturopathy Education.
  28. 28. 28  Short Term: To improve the quality, Facility & Infrastructure of the six existing Institutes. 2.6 WOMEN GRIEVANCE CELL: Sr. No Name Designation 1. Dr. Dulari Gandhi HOD, Pediatrics, SVU Chairman 2. Dr. Lata Parmar Principal, College of Physiotherapy, SVU Member 3. Dr. A. K. Seth Principal, Dept. of Pharmacy, SVU Member 4. Dr. Hetal Pandya Professor, Dept. of Medicine, SBKS MIRC, SVU Member 5. Dr. (Mrs.) Sucheta Lakhani Professor & HOD, Microbiology Dept., SBKS MIRC, SVU Member 6. Mrs. Motibala Chief Matron, Dhiraj Hospital, Piparia Member 7. Ms. Stuti Dave Asst. Registrar – HR & Legal, SVU Member 8. Ms. Trusha Shah Chief Warden, HoR Secretary 2.7 THE SEXUAL HARASSMENT OF WOMEN COMMITTEE: Sr. No Name Designation 1. Dr. Dulari Gandhi HOD, Pediatrics, SVU Presiding Officer 2. Ms. Stuti Dave Asst. Registrar – HR & Legal, SVU Member 3. Mrs. Kalpana N. Shah OSD – Admission Member 4. Dr. Prof. Parulben Shah Dean – Performing Arts, MSU Member
  29. 29. 29 2.8 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE:
  30. 30. 30 CHAPTER 3.0 REVIEW OF LITRATURE
  31. 31. 31 3.0 A BRIEF REVIEW OF LITRATURE Stress is excitement, feeling of anxiety, and/or physical tension that occurs when the demands placed on individual are thought to exceed his ability to cope. This most common view of stress is often called distress or negative stress. The physical or psychological demands from the environment that cause this condition are called stressor. (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2004) Stress (psychology), an unpleasant state of emotional and physiological arousal that people experience in situation that they perceive as dangerous or threatening to their well-being. (Auerbach et al, 2007/Encarta 2008). According to WHO (2011), Stress arise from a wide range of work circumstances and becomes worse due lack of support, low skill discretions, high job demands and organizational condition. (Hallin et al.2007.) More recently recognized stressor include workplace bullying, discrimination in the workplace and sexual harassment. Upstream determination of psychosocial working condition include the state of the economy and the contractual arrangements under which workers are employed (Benach et al., 2007; Quinlan & Bhole, 2009), with many recent studies looking at contigent work or precarious employment and its relationship with working conditions and health (Benach & Muntaner, 2007; Cranford et al., 2003; Lamontangne et al; 2009; Quinlan et al; 2001 Tompa et al; 2007). Despite many beneficial health effects of work, jobs with poor psychosocial quality can be more harmful to health than being unemployed, as a recent Australian study has demonstrated (Broom et al., 2006) Kreitner, Kinicki & Buelens (1999:503) define stress as, “…..an adaptive response, mediated by individual characteristics and/or psychological process, that is consequence of any external action, situation or event that places special physical and/or psychological demands upon a person”. Cryer, Mccraty & Childre (2003:103) refer to stress as “….two simultaneous events: an external stimulus called a stressor, and the emotional and physical response to that stimulus (fear,anxiety,surging heart rate and blood pressure, fast breathing, muscle tension, and so on) . Good stressors (a ski run, a poerty contest) inspire you achieve”. Stress also affected the human immune system. Although chronic stress typically produces suppression of a wide range of immune system parameters, acute stress has been found to stimulate certain aspects of an immune functioning (McEwen, 2000) . Specifically, acute stress can trigger aspects of an immune system acute phase response, even in the absence of an infectious agent (Deak, Meriwether, Flashner, spencers, Abouhamze, Moldawer, Grehn, Watkins, & Maier, 1997). This acute phase activation results in a rapid increase in blood levels of certain acute phase proteins, as well as production and secretion into blood of the immune system related hormone, interleukin-6 Zohu,Kusnecov,shurin,Depaoli, &
  32. 32. 32 Rabin,1993) Thus acute phase activation is potentially another physiological marker of stress that might be useful in human studies. Recent animal studies have provided evidence for stress-induced impairments in memory consolidation (Cahill & McGaugh, 1996: Pugh, Nguyen, Goneyea, Fleshner, Watkins, Maier, & Rudy, 1999). These studies support accumulating evidence for brain activity to dynamically regulate by immune system factors (Maier, Watkins, & Fleshner, 1994). According to Douglas [1980], stress is defined as any action or situation that places special physical or psychological demand upon a person. Van Fleet [1988], stress is caused when a person is subjected to unusual situations, demands, extreme expectations or pressures that are difficult to handle. Watson Wyatt (1998), in their annual survey of integrated disability management programmes, found that incidents of disability are increasingly related to slowly developing, chronic conditions and work-induced stress. In this survey, musculoskeletal problems such as carpal tunnel syndrome and repetitive motion complaints (50%) exceeded injuries (44%) as the most common condition triggering an occupational disability expense. Murphy (1988) conducted a review of several interventions which addressed the nature and design of the work environment (Jackson, 1983; Wall & Clegg, 1981; Pierce & Newstrom, 1983). The issue of control emerged as a dominant theme throughout the literature included in the review. For instance, a study conducted by Wall & Clegg (1981) manipulated worker control over significant aspects of the work process. Manipulation of the work environment in a study carried out by Jackson (1983) produced modest increases in worker control. Pierce & Newstrom (1983) introduced flexi-time systems into their workplace which increased worker control over some aspects of their work. All 3 studies demonstrated how manipulation of the work environment to increase worker control led to a reduction in the experience of stress amongst employees. Job stress has been defined as the nonspecific response of the body to any demands made upon it (Selye, 1976) . It is consider to be an internal state or reaction to anything we consciously or unconsciously perceive as threat, either real or imagined (Clarke & Watson, 1991). Robbins (2001) defines stress as a Dynamic condition in which the individual is confronted with an opportunity , constraint, or demand related to what he or she desire and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Stress can be caused by environmental, or organizational, and individual variables (Matteson & Ivancevich, 1999; cook & Hunsaker, 2001). Perrewe and zellars observe that some of the recent research on job stress has focus on the importance of objective stressor s (Bischoff and Terborg, 1995; Ganster and Duffy, 1995)… Although the examination of objective work stressor may be useful to broadly predict employee strain, the focus is entirely too limiting.
  33. 33. 33 Cob (1975) has the opinion that, “The responsibility load creates sever stress among workers and managers.” If the individual manager cannot cope with the increased responsibilities it may lead to several physical and psychological disorders among them. Book (1973) reported that qualitative changes in the job create adjust mental problem among employees. The interpersonal relationship within the department and between the departments creates qualitative difficulties within the organization to a great extent. Stress and conflict are widely covered in theorizing and empirical literature. Stress is also debated in media as growing problem in today’s society, leading to decreased well-being, or even burnout (Sommerville & Langford 1994; Ortqvist & Wincent 2006), and thus to both social and monetary costs. Stress at work is becoming a greater focus at companies in the western world. Managing such a situations and reducing stress-related illness is of great potential benefit to firms and a way to stay competitive (Fay & Sonnentag 2002; Sommerville & Langford 1994.) Conflict is a term with a broad meaning, from smaller disagreements to legal fights or even growing into physical violence. When it occurs in business relations it also may hinder progress at work, such as projects. Often involving people of different background and specialties is becoming a more common way of working in companies to create change with benefit its customers and clients (Boddy 2002). Such work demands coordination, collaboration as well as keeping pressure on the involved to stay within time schedules and strict budgets. This is highly dependent on the work relations in term of the work roles ( Fay & Sonnetag 2002; Gong, Shenkar, Luo & Nyaw 2001; Sommerville & Langford 1994; Ortqvist & Wincent 2006), the trust and control (Faulkner 1999; Turner & Muller 2004), the communication (Boddy 2002; Erikson 2005; Gong et al 2001; Turner & Muller 2004), and the individual personalities within the project (Boddy 2002; Sommerville & Langford 1994). Stress was object of the study in early clinical research. The emotional breakdown of men in military combat was studied in clinical research in the early 1949’s known as ‘combat fatigue’ psychotic behavior, extreme fearfulness, anxiety, ulcers and hypertensions were found to result from this stress full experience. Furthermore, shock reactions to civilian disasters were also studied in early research as well as living in chronically stressful situations for prolonged periods, resulting in symptomatic pattern in the likes of combat fatigue being observed (Berry, 1998:416). According to Berry (1998:418) Hans Selye an important theorist and pioneer, who originally conducted research on the body’s response to stressor defined stress in physiological terms as, ‘a non-specific or generalized bodily response results when any demand is made on the
  34. 34. 34 body, whether it is an environmental condition that we must survive, or a demand that is being made in order to accomplish a personal goal. Selye also distinguished between two forms of stress, namely ‘distress’, which is the body ’s response to negative events and ‘eustress’, which is the body’s response to positive stress, emphasizing that both positive and negative stress can constitute to physiological stress or reaction in the body. Walter Cannon was the first person who used the term stress to refer to, ‘the physiological reaction’, which is caused by the perception of aversive or threatening situation. Cannon also introduced the term ‘fight or fight’, referring to the response which prepares one to cope with the threats poses by a predator. Jick & Mitzi’ conducted a very well cited review of the empirical evidence of sex Differences in stress. Nineteen studies were reviewed and in these studies women tended to report higher levels of psychological distress than men. The authors suggest that men and women are likely to be exposed to different stressors, and that gender moderates the relationship between stressors, the appraisal of stressors and coping, and the relationship between coping and strain. The review comprised 99 different studies dealing with the issues of research on women and research on workplace stress. It was concluded that women suffer from more workplace stress than men, because, as well as experiencing stressors common to both genders women also experience certain unique stressors. The specific stressors faced by women included discrimination, stereotyping, marriage/work interface, and social isolation. Both these reviews strongly suggest that gender plays an important role in level of workplace stress. However, it is important to note that the reviews are almost 20 years old and that both reviews used a qualitative method for synthesizing the evidence. Green glass, Pantony & Burkes2 conducted a study with 555 teachers investigating the relationship between work stress, social support and role conflict, the latter referring to the conflicting pressures from two or more sources. The role-conflict scales were used and it was found that role conflict was significantly higher in women than in men, and women had more role conflict between their work role and each family role. The workplace is often portrayed as gender neutral by management, but evidence suggests that gender bias exists, and this bias contributes to working women’s unique stressors. Lack of career progress has been suggested as a major source of work stress for women and it has been linked to negative health consequences and reduced satisfaction. Women are still not properly integrated in many organizational systems, and there is evidence that women face a ‘glass ceiling’ within the workplace. The glass ceiling refers to a subtle but powerful barrier that limits women’s career advancement to top management in big organizations. Studies have found that women are less likely to be promoted than men in professions such as engineering and medicines. Davidson &Cooper conducted a study with 940 British managers and it was found that women were more likely to work in lower level management
  35. 35. 35 compared to men. women are less likely to be promoted than men in professions such as engineering and medicines. Desmukh N.H. (2009), Stress and life satisfaction among working and non working women from similar levels of socio economic status of the society, resulted that there was no significant difference in physical and family stress among working and non working women. Gillian E Hardy, David woods and Toby D Wall (2003), Psychological distress particularly depression was found to predict absence, with higher levels of distress predicting a greater number of days and number of times absent. Job satisfaction and psychological distress independently predicted levels of absence. Job satisfaction and psychological distress – absence relationship was not moderated by demographic variables. Michael R. Frone (2008), the relationship of work stressor, those work over load and job insecurity, to employees alcohol use illicit drug use resulted, support the relation of work stressor to alcohol and illicit drug use before work, during the workday, and after work. There is a lack of research investigating work stress and ethnic minorities Nevertheless, it has been reported that perceived discrimination is a stressor for individuals from ethnic minorities. Mirrashid compared stress and social support between white women and women from ethnic minorities. The study found no significant differences between the two groups in the level of work stress or work/family conflict. Similarly, white women and minority women experienced the same levels of perceived co-worker support. However, minority women experienced significantly lower levels of organizational support. Snapp65 interviewed 100 black and 100 white professional women to explore occupational stress, social support and depression. Women were not randomly selected for the study; rather women were recruited in accordance to the objective of the study. Mishra et al (1997) studied the nature and inter relationship between motivation and role stress on entrepreneurs in and around Delhi. The major findings of the study revealed that women entrepreneurs scored higher on the motivational variables namely safety, belongingness, self-esteem and self-actualization as compared to role stagnation, role isolation and role ambiguity. Self-esteem was associated positively and significantly with role overload. Sharma et al (2001) found that gender related unequal division of domestic duties when coupled with a job, may not result in more severe psychological or subjective health impairments. It was found that job provides women with means of feeling useful and important and provides an opportunity to interact with people and this could be the important source of satisfaction for women. The study also revealed that paid work enhances the status of the employee resulting in enhanced self-esteem.
  36. 36. 36 Stephen Palmer and Kristina Gyllensten (2005) did a study of review of literature to evaluate research relating to the role of gender in the level of workplace stress. A further aim was to review literature relating to stressors of particular relevance to working women. These stressors included, multiple roles, lack of career progress and discrimination and stereotyping. Much of the research indicated that women reported higher levels of stress compared to men. However, several studies reported no difference between the genders. Furthermore, the evidence for the adverse effects of multiple roles, lack of career progress and discrimination and stereotyping was inconsistent. Their review concluded that the evidence regarding the role of gender in workplace stress and stressors was inconsistent. Limitations of the research were highlighted and implications for practice were discussed. According to hofboll , Geller & Dunahoo suggest that it is important to consider the stressor that are unique employed women, as this can increase the understanding of the specific needs of working women. This particularly important according to hofboll as several studies have found that the provision of workplace support was more effective in reducing occupational stress in women. Research has reported that women in particular are exposed to the following stressors multiple roles lack of career progress and discrimination and stereotyping.
  37. 37. 37 CHAPTER 4.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  38. 38. 38 4.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4.1 TITLE OF THE STUDY: “An Empirical Study on Level of Stress amongst Working Women in Sumandeep Vidyapeeth”. 4.2 DURATION OF STUDY: This study was carried out for duration of 2 month (Sem-4). 4.3 BASIC TERMS OF PRESENT RESEARCH STUDY:  Stress: Stress is the body's reaction to a change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response. It can come from any situation that makes you feel frustrated, angry, nervous etc.  Management: Management is an individual or a group of individual accepts responsible to run an organization. They plan organize direct and control all essential activates of the organization. Management bring to gather all six Ms i.e. men and women, money, machine, material, method and market.  Stress Management: A predetermined strategy for coping with psychological or emotional turmoil. As part of a health benefits package, a company may offer stress management therapy to improve job performance. 4.4 RATIONALE OF THE PROPOSED RESEARCH STUDY: When it comes to performance, working women the stress is one of the main hurdle in their performance. It is a general observation that stress level is generally higher on working women duo to multiple responsibilities carried out by them. Technology turmoil, information revolution, fast changing materialistic life style, innovations and growing competition have generated in human a feeling of powerlessness, helplessness, and in turn a source of consequent stress amongst the working women. Studies shows that stress has inverse
  39. 39. 39 relationship with job satisfactions and performance and hence, stress become an organizational problem where women contribution in development of the organization. Therefore, it is an need of the hour where organizational has to make very specific efforts for managing stress of working women to optimally utilize knowledge and skills of female work force. In present socio economic conditions, women also expected to work from their family for better quality life. In this situations, society as a whole has to understand the social factors who acts as stressors amongst the working women so that women can contribute maximum in their social responsibility in family and society. This inspired me to take the study and effort will be made to study the stress management with working women. 4.5 SCOPE AND COVERAGE OF RESEARCH STUDY: The research was conducted in Sumandeep Vidyapeeth. The project work was focus on level of stress amongst on the working women at supervisor level of different departments. The result of the study reporting on level of stress of the working women of Sumandeep Vidyapeeth. 4.6 OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH STUDY: The objectives of the study are…….  To find out the kind and level of stress faced by working women in Sumandeep Vidyapeeth of Vadodara.  To find out reasons that cause stress in the day to day working life of working women.  To identify impact of stress on job performance of working women.  To identify expectations of working women who are under stress from family and organizations.  To suggest the techniques to manage the stress and reducing managerial problems.  To Measure action taken by the working women for relieving stress in the organization.  To explore various tools use by the organization for reducing the stress level among the working women.
  40. 40. 40 4.7 RESEARCH DESIGN: The Research design of this study is descriptive. The study is concerned about The factors that lead to stress among working women come under descriptive Research category. 4.8 SOURCES OF INFORMATION: 1. Primary Data : The primary data has been obtained from the selected working women of various departments at supervisor level of the Sumandeep Vidyapeeth thorough circulation of the structured non-disguised questionnaires. 2. Secondary Data: The secondary data has been obtained from published as well as unpublished literature on the topic and from Books, journals, news papers articles, websites, magazines, past research paper etc. 4.9 SAMPLING DECISIONS: 1. Sample size: 50 supervisor level women employees were selected as the sample size for the purpose of collecting primary data from the selected departments of the Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, Vadodara. 2. Sampling Method: Non-probability sampling design based on convenient sampling method has been used for this research study. 3. Sampling Frame: The women employees’ database, available with the institute has been used as the sampling frame for the purpose of collecting primary data for the research study.
  41. 41. 41 4. Research Instrument: A structured non-disguised questionnaire has been prepared to get the relevant information from the respondents. The questionnaire consists of variety of questions presented to the respondents for their responses. The researcher has been used structured non-disguised questionnaire, support and cooperation of the selected respondents of various departments at supervisor level of Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, Vadodara. 5. Sampling Media: Sampling media as a questionnaire and other related information collected from the Sumandeep Vidyapeeth for the research study. 6. Sampling Design: The Sampling design followed for the research study is based on non-probability sampling. 4.10 DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION: The researcher has collected primary data, classified, tabulated, analyzed, interpreted and reported using suitable statistical tools and techniques. 4.11 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROPOSED RESEARCH STUDY: The research study covered the level of stress on the women employees’ performance at workplace which is help to institute as well as women employees for relieving stress and give better performance and perfection in work. This study creates awareness for managing stress at work place to the women employees and also to the organization. It will also assist to Sumandeep Vidyapeeth authorities in the designing of the recreational activities for the reducing stress level among women employees. The organization will able to develop the different interventions to control the stress.
  42. 42. 42 4.12 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:  The Working women were reluctant to give correct information.  The investigator intended to cover only few areas of stress relevant to the proposed study.  As the study was done within a limited time, investigator could not select the sufficiently large sample for the study.  The time and cost factors in collected the responses as well as in conducting the research study would be the limiting factor.  In lieu of the variation in the co-operation and involvement of the selected women employees of selected departments of Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, there may be inaccuracy of the responses given by them.
  43. 43. 43 CHAPTER 5.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTEREPRETATION
  44. 44. 44 5.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION: SECTION-1- DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE: 1. Age TABLE: 1 Sr.No Age Frequency Percentage (%) 1 21-25 25 50% 2 26-30 17 34% 3 30 above 8 16% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 50% of women employee lies under the age group of 21-25, 34% of women employee lies under the age group of 26-30, and 16% of women employee lies under age group of 30 above. Majority of the women employees lies under the age group of 21-25. 50% 34% 16% Age 21-25 26-30 30 above
  45. 45. 45 2. Educational Qualification TABLE-2 Sr.No Educational Qualification Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Under Graduate 7 14% 2 Graduate 18 36% 3 Post Graduate 10 20% 4 Diploma 11 22% 5 Others 4 8% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 14 % of the women employees are under graduate, 36% of the women employees are graduate, 20% of the women employees are from post graduate, 22% of the women employees are from Diploma. 8 % of the women employees are from others. Majority of the women employees are from Graduate. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Under Graduate Graduate Post Graduate Diploma Others 7 18 10 11 4 14% 36% 20% 22% 8% Frequency Percentage (%)
  46. 46. 46 3. Marital Status TABLE: 3 Sr.No Material Status Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Married 24 48% 2 Un Married 23 46% 3 Widow 2 4% 4 divorce 1 2% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 48% of the women employees are married, 46% of the Women employees are unmarried, 4% women employees are widow, and 2% of the women employees are divorce. Most of the women employees are married. Married Un Married Widow divorce 24 23 2 1 48% 46% 4% 2% Frequency Percentage (%)
  47. 47. 47 4. Children TABLE-4 Sr.No Children Frequency Percentage 1 Yes 10 20% 2 No 40 80% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 20% of the women employees are in favor to Children, while 80% of the women employees are not in favor to Children. 0 10 20 30 40 Frequency Percentage 10 20% 40 80% Yes No
  48. 48. 48 5. Family Types TABLE-5 Sr.No Family Types Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Joint 28 56% 2 Nuclear 22 44% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 56% of the women employees are in favor joint family, and 44% of the women employees are in favor nuclear family. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Frequency Percentage 28 56% 22 44% Joint Nuclear
  49. 49. 49 6. Departments TABLE-6 Sr.No Departments Frequency Percentage (%) 1 HR 4 8% 2 Account 5 10% 3 Admission 2 4% 4 Nursing 14 28% 5 other 25 50% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 8% of the women employees are in HR Department, 10% of the women employees in Account Department, 4% of the women employees in Admission Department, 28% of the women employees in Nursing Department, 50% of the women employees in Other Department. 0 5 10 15 20 25 HR Account Admission Nursing other 4 5 2 14 25 8% 10% 4% 28% 50% Frequency Percentage
  50. 50. 50 7. Job Experience TABLE-7 Sr. No Job Experience Frequency Percentage (%) 1 1-5 years 27 54% 2 6-10 years 14 28% 3 11-15 years 4 8% 4 More than 15 years 5 10% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 54% of the women employees have work experience of 1-5 years, 28% of the women employees have work experience of 6-10 years, and 8% of the women employees have work experience of 11-15 years. & 10% of women employees have more than 15 years of work experience. Majority of the women employees in the organization have a work experience of 1-5 years. 54% 28% 8% 10% Job Experience 1-5 years 6-10 years 11-15 years More then 15 years
  51. 51. 51 8. Monthly Income TABLE-8 Interpretation: From the above table 48% of the women employees get below 10000 monthly income.34% of the women employees get 10000-20000 monthly income. 14% of the women employees get 20000-30000 monthly income. 4% of the women employees get 30000 above monthly income. Majority of the women employees in the organization monthly income below 10000. 48% 34% 14% 4% Monthly Income below 10000 10000-20000 20000-30000 30000 above Sr. No Monthly Income (thousand) Frequency Percentage (%) 1 below 10000 24 48% 2 10000-20000 17 34% 3 20000-30000 7 14% 4 30000 above 2 4% Total 50 100%
  52. 52. 52 SECTION-2 A. Personal Stress: 1. I often feel that this job has made my life cumbersome TABLE-1 Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 3 6% 2 Disagree 14 28% 3 Neutral 13 26% 4 Agree 10 20% 5 Strongly Agree 10 20% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 6% respondent strongly disagree that I often feel that this job has made my life cumbersome, 28% of respondent disagree that I often feel that this job has made my life cumbersome, 26% respondent Neutral that I often feel that this job has made my life cumbersome, 20% respondent agree that I often feel that this job has made my life cumbersome, while 20% respondent are strongly agree I often feel that this job has made my life cumbersome. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 3 14 13 10 10 6% 28% 26% 20% 20% Frequency Percentage (%)
  53. 53. 53 2. Being too busy with official work I am unable to devote sufficient time to my domestic and personal problems TABLE-2 Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 3 6% 2 Disagree 9 18% 3 Neutral 11 22% 4 Agree 22 44% 5 Strongly Agree 5 10% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 6% respondent strongly disagree that Being too busy with official work I am unable to devote sufficient time to my domestic and personal problems, 18% of respondent disagree that Being too busy with official work I am unable to devote sufficient time to my domestic and personal problems , 22% respondent Neutral that Being too busy with official work I am unable to devote sufficient time to my domestic and personal problems 44% respondent agree that Being too busy with official work I am unable to devote sufficient time to my domestic and personal problems, while 10% respondent are strongly agree Being too busy with official work I am unable to devote sufficient time to my domestic and personal problems. 3 9 11 22 5 6% 18% 22% 44% 10% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Frequency Percentage (%)
  54. 54. 54 3. My suggestions and cooperation is not sought in solving even those problems in which I am quite competent TABLE-3 Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 3 6% 2 Disagree 4 8% 3 Neutral 21 42% 4 Agree 16 32% 5 Strongly Agree 6 12% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 6% respondent strongly disagree that My suggestions and cooperation is not sought in solving even those problems in which I am quite competent, 8% of respondent disagree that My suggestions and cooperation is not sought in solving even those problems in which I am quite competent, 42% respondent Neutral that My suggestions and cooperation is not sought in solving even those problems in which I am quite competent, 32% respondent agree that My suggestions and cooperation is not sought in solving even those problems in which I am quite competent, while 12% respondent are strongly agree My suggestions and cooperation is not sought in solving even those problems in which I am quite competent. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 3 4 21 16 66% 8% 42% 32% 12% Frequency Percentage (%)
  55. 55. 55 4. I am unable to carry out my assignments to my satisfaction on account of excessive load of work and lack of time TABLE-4 Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 1 2% 2 Disagree 10 20% 3 Neutral 12 24% 4 Agree 16 32% 5 Strongly Agree 11 22% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 2% respondent strongly disagree that I am unable to carry out my assignments to my satisfaction on account of excessive load of work and lack of time, 20% of respondent disagree that I am unable to carry out my assignments to my satisfaction on account of excessive load of work and lack of time , 24% respondent Neutral that I am unable to carry out my assignments to my satisfaction on account of excessive load of work and lack of time, 32% respondent agree that I am unable to carry out my assignments to my satisfaction on account of excessive load of work and lack of time, while 22% respondent are strongly agree I am unable to carry out my assignments to my satisfaction on account of excessive load of work and lack of time. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 10 12 16 11 2% 20% 24% 32% 22% Frequency Percentage (%)
  56. 56. 56 5. I feel as if nobody in my family really understands me and my organizational responsibilities TABLE-5 Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 9 18% 2 Disagree 17 34% 3 Neutral 8 16% 4 Agree 11 22% 5 Strongly Agree 5 10% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 18% respondent strongly disagree that I feel as if nobody in my family really understands me and my organizational responsibilities, 34% of respondent disagree that I feel as if nobody in my family really understands me and my organizational responsibilities, 16% respondent Neutral that I feel as if nobody in my family really understands me and my organizational responsibilities, , 22% respondent agree that I feel as if nobody in my family really understands me and my organizational responsibilities , while 10% respondent are strongly agree I feel as if nobody in my family really understands me and my organizational responsibilities. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 9 17 8 11 5 18% 34% 16% 22% 10% Frequency Percentage (%)
  57. 57. 57 6. Sometimes it becomes a complicated problem for me to make adjustments between political/group pressures and formal rules and instructions TABLE-6 Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 5 10% 2 Disagree 8 16% 3 Neutral 9 18% 4 Agree 22 44% 5 Strongly Agree 6 12% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 10% respondent strongly disagree that Sometimes it becomes a complicated problem for me to make adjustments between political/group pressures and formal rules and instructions, 16% of respondent disagree that Sometimes it becomes a complicated problem for me to make adjustments between political/group pressures and formal rules and instructions, 18% respondent Neutral that Sometimes it becomes a complicated problem for me to make adjustments between political/group pressures and formal rules and instructions, 44% respondent agree that Sometimes it becomes a complicated problem for me to make adjustments between political/group pressures and formal rules and instructions, while 12% respondent are strongly agree Sometimes it becomes a complicated problem for me to make adjustments between political/group pressures and formal rules and instructions. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 5 8 9 22 6 10% 16% 18% 44% 12% Frequency Percentage (%)
  58. 58. 58 7. I have to do some work unwillingly owing to certain group/political pressures TABLE-7 Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 2 4% 2 Disagree 10 20% 3 Neutral 14 28% 4 Agree 16 32% 5 Strongly Agree 8 16% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 4% respondent strongly disagree that I have to do some work unwillingly owing to certain group/political pressures, 20% of respondent disagree that I have to do some work unwillingly owing to certain group/political pressures, 28% respondent Neutral that I have to do some work unwillingly owing to certain group/political pressure, 32% respondent agree that I have to do some work unwillingly owing to certain group/political pressures, while 16% respondent are strongly agree I have to do some work unwillingly owing to certain group/political pressures. 0 10 20 30 40 50 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 2 10 14 16 84% 20% 28% 32% 16% Frequency Percentage (%)
  59. 59. 59 8. I am not provided with clear instructions and sufficient facilities regarding the new assignments trusted to me TABLE-8 Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 5 10% 2 Disagree 17 34% 3 Neutral 11 22% 4 Agree 12 24% 5 Strongly Agree 5 10% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 10% respondent strongly disagree that I am not provided with clear instructions and sufficient facilities regarding the new assignments trusted to me, 34% of respondent disagree that I am not provided with clear instructions and sufficient facilities regarding the new assignments trusted to me, 22% respondent Neutral that I am not provided with clear instructions and sufficient facilities regarding the new assignments trusted to me, 24% respondent agree that I am not provided with clear instructions and sufficient facilities regarding the new assignments trusted to me, while 10% respondent are strongly agree I am not provided with clear instructions and sufficient facilities regarding the new assignments trusted to me. 0 10 20 30 40 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 5 17 11 12 5 10% 34% 22% 24% 10% Frequency Percentage (%)
  60. 60. 60 9. Over all CalculationPersonal Stress TABLE-9 Sr.No Particulars Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 8% 2 Disagree 22% 3 Neutral 25% 4 Agree 31% 5 Strongly Agree 14% Total 100% Interpretation: From the above table 8% respondent strongly disagree that personal stress, 22% respondent disagree that personal stress, 25% respondent Neutral that personal stress, 31% respondent agree that personal stress, while 14% respondent strongly agree that personal stress. Strongly Disagree 8% Disagree 22% Neutral 25% Agree 31% Strongly Agree 14% Percentage (%)
  61. 61. 61 B. Organization Stress: 1. I have a lot of work to do in this job TABLE-1 Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 6 12% 2 Disagree 8 16% 3 Neutral 4 8% 4 Agree 18 36% 5 Strongly Agree 14 28% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 12% respondent strongly disagree that I have a lot of work to do in this job, 16% of respondent disagree that I have a lot of work to do in this job, 8% respondent Neutral that I have a lot of work to do in this job, 36% respondent agree that I have a lot of work to do in this job, while 28% respondent are strongly agree I have a lot of work to do in this job. 0 10 20 30 40 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 6 8 4 18 14 12% 16% 8% 36% 28% Frequency Percentage (%)
  62. 62. 62 2. The available information relating to my job-role and its outcomes are vague and insufficient TABLE-2 Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 5 10% 2 Disagree 10 20% 3 Neutral 10 20% 4 Agree 22 44% 5 Strongly Agree 3 6% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 10% respondent strongly disagree that The available information relating to my job-role and its outcomes are vague and insufficient, 20% of respondent disagree that The available information relating to my job-role and its outcomes are vague and insufficient , 20% respondent Neutral that The available information relating to my job-role and its outcomes are vague and insufficient, 44% respondent agree that The available information relating to my job-role and its outcomes are vague and insufficient, while 6% respondent are strongly agree The available information relating to my job-role and its outcomes are vague and insufficient. 5 10 10 22 3 10% 20% 20% 44% 6% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Frequency Percentage (%)
  63. 63. 63 3. My different officers often give contradictory instructions regarding my work TABLE-3 Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 1 2% 2 Disagree 9 18% 3 Neutral 21 42% 4 Agree 14 28% 5 Strongly Agree 5 10% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 2% respondent strongly disagree that My different officers often give contradictory instructions regarding my work , 18% of respondent disagree that My different officers often give contradictory instructions regarding my work, 42% respondent Neutral that My different officers often give contradictory instructions regarding my work, 28% respondent agree that My different officers often give contradictory instructions regarding my work, while 10% respondent are strongly agree My different officers often give contradictory instructions regarding my work. 0 10 20 30 40 50 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 9 21 14 5 2% 18% 42% 28% 10% Frequency Percentage (%)
  64. 64. 64 4. The responsibility for the efficiency and productivity of many employees is thrust upon me TABLE-4 Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 1 2% 2 Disagree 6 12% 3 Neutral 21 42% 4 Agree 17 34% 5 Strongly Agree 5 10% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 2% respondent strongly disagree that The responsibility for the efficiency and productivity of many employees is thrust upon me , 12% of respondent disagree that The responsibility for the efficiency and productivity of many employees is thrust upon me, 42% respondent Neutral that The responsibility for the efficiency and productivity of many employees is thrust upon me, 34% respondent agree that The responsibility for the efficiency and productivity of many employees is thrust upon me, while 10% respondent are strongly agree The responsibility for the efficiency and productivity of many employees is thrust upon me. Strongly Disagre e Disagre e Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Percentage (%) 2 12 42 34 10 Frequency 1 6 21 17 5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
  65. 65. 65 5. I get less salary in comparison to the magnitude of my workload TABLE-5 Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 3 6% 2 Disagree 9 18% 3 Neutral 9 18% 4 Agree 18 36% 5 Strongly Agree 11 22% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 6% respondent strongly disagree that I get less salary in comparison to the magnitude of my workload, 18% of respondent disagree that I get less salary in comparison to the magnitude of my workload, 18% respondent Neutral that I get less salary in comparison to the magnitude of my workload, 36% respondent agree that I get less salary in comparison to the magnitude of my workload, while 22% respondent are strongly agree I get less salary in comparison to the magnitude of my workload. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 3 9 9 18 11 6% 18% 18% 36% 22% Frequency Percentage (%)
  66. 66. 66 6. I do my work under tense circumstances TABLE-6 Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 1 2% 2 Disagree 15 30% 3 Neutral 11 22% 4 Agree 18 36% 5 Strongly Agree 5 10% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 2% respondent strongly disagree that I do my work under tense circumstances, 30% of respondent disagree that I do my work under tense circumstances, 22% respondent Neutral that I do my work under tense circumstances, 36% respondent agree that I do my work under tense circumstances, while 10% respondent are strongly agree I do my work under tense circumstances. 1 15 11 18 5 2% 30% 22% 36% 10% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Frequency Percentage (%)
  67. 67. 67 7. My higher authorities do not give due significance to my work and position TABLE-7 Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 5 10% 2 Disagree 9 18% 3 Neutral 12 24% 4 Agree 16 32% 5 Strongly Agree 8 16% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 10% respondent strongly disagree that My higher authorities do not give due significance to my work and position, 18% of respondent disagree that My higher authorities do not give due significance to my work and position, 24% respondent Neutral that My higher authorities do not give due significance to my work and position, 32% respondent agree that My higher authorities do not give due significance to my work and position, while 16% respondent are strongly agree My higher authorities do not give due significance to my work and position. 0 10 20 30 40 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 5 9 12 16 8 10% 18% 24% 32% 16% Frequency Percentage (%)
  68. 68. 68 8. Gender discrimination at workplace irrespective of work TABLE-8 Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 6 12% 2 Disagree 18 36% 3 Neutral 11 22% 4 Agree 10 20% 5 Strongly Agree 5 10% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 12% respondent strongly disagree that Gender discrimination at workplace irrespective of work, 36% of respondent disagree that Gender discrimination at workplace irrespective of work, 22% respondent Neutral that Gender discrimination at workplace irrespective of work, 20% respondent agree that Gender discrimination at workplace irrespective of work while 10% respondent are strongly agree Gender discrimination at workplace irrespective of work. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 6 18 11 10 5 12% 36% 22% 20% 10% Frequency Percentage (%)
  69. 69. 69 9. I am able to receive support from my boss, colleagues and juniors TABLE-9 Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 3 6% 2 Disagree 13 26% 3 Neutral 7 14% 4 Agree 14 28% 5 Strongly Agree 13 26% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 6% respondent strongly disagree that I am able to receive support from my boss, colleagues and juniors, 26% of respondent disagree that I am able to receive support from my boss, colleagues and juniors, 14% respondent Neutral that that I am able to receive support from my boss, colleagues and juniors, 28% respondent agree that that I am able to receive support from my boss, colleagues and juniors, while 26% respondent are strongly agree I am able to receive support from my boss, colleagues and juniors. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 3 13 7 14 13 6% 26% 14% 28% 26% Frequency Percentage (%)
  70. 70. 70 10. I carry official work at home TABLE-10 Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 13 26% 2 Disagree 10 20% 3 Neutral 8 16% 4 Agree 10 20% 5 Strongly Agree 9 18% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 26% respondent strongly disagree that I carry official work at home, 20% of respondent disagree that I carry official work at home, 16% respondent Neutral that that I carry official work at home, 20% respondent agree that that I carry official work at home, while 18% respondent are strongly agree that I carry official work at home. 13 10 8 10 9 26% 20% 16% 20% 18% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Frequency Percentage (%)
  71. 71. 71 11. My role does not allow me to have enough time with my family TABLE-11 Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 8 16% 2 Disagree 12 24% 3 Neutral 12 24% 4 Agree 14 28% 5 Strongly Agree 4 8% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 16% respondent strongly disagree that My role does not allow me to have enough time with my family, 24% of respondent disagree that My role does not allow me to have enough time with my family, 24% respondent Neutral that My role does not allow me to have enough time with my family, 28% respondent agree that My role does not allow me to have enough time with my family, while 8% respondent are strongly agree that My role does not allow me to have enough time with my family. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 8 12 12 14 4 16% 24% 24% 28% 8% Frequency Percentage (%)
  72. 72. 72 12. I find myself with insufficient time to complete my work TABLE-12 Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 9 18% 2 Disagree 12 24% 3 Neutral 9 18% 4 Agree 15 30% 5 Strongly Agree 5 10% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 18% respondent strongly disagree that I find myself with insufficient time to complete my work, 24% of respondent disagree that I find myself with insufficient time to complete my work, 18% respondent Neutral that I find myself with insufficient time to complete my work, 30% respondent agree that I find myself with insufficient time to complete my work, while 10% respondent are strongly agree that I find myself with insufficient time to complete my work. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Percentage (%) 18 24 18 30 10 Frequency 9 12 9 15 5
  73. 73. 73 13. There is a need to reduce some part of my work TABLE-13 Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 3 6% 2 Disagree 11 22% 3 Neutral 11 22% 4 Agree 21 42% 5 Strongly Agree 4 8% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 6% respondent strongly disagree that There is a need to reduce some part of my work, 22% of respondent disagree that There is a need to reduce some part of my work, 22% respondent Neutral that There is a need to reduce some part of my work, 42% respondent agree that There is a need to reduce some part of my work, while 8% respondent are strongly agree that There is a need to reduce some part of my work. 0 20 40 60 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 3 11 11 21 4 6% 22% 22% 42% 8% Frequency Percentage (%)
  74. 74. 74 14. There is a very little scope for growth in my role TABLE-14 Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 5 10% 2 Disagree 14 28% 3 Neutral 4 8% 4 Agree 21 42% 5 Strongly Agree 6 12% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 10% respondent strongly disagree that There is a very little scope for growth in my role, 28% of respondent disagree that There is a very little scope for growth in my role, 8% respondent Neutral that There is a very little scope for growth in my role, 42% respondent agree that There is a very little scope for growth in my role, while 12% respondent are strongly agree that There is a very little scope for growth in my role. 0 20 40 60 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 5 14 4 21 6 10% 28% 8% 42% 12% Frequency Percentage (%)
  75. 75. 75 15. Promotion policy of my organization needs to be modified TABLE-15 Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 1 2% 2 Disagree 17 34% 3 Neutral 9 18% 4 Agree 14 28% 5 Strongly Agree 9 18% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 2% respondent strongly disagree that Promotion policy of my organization needs to be modified, 34% of respondent disagree that Promotion policy of my organization needs to be modified, 18% respondent Neutral that Promotion policy of my organization needs to be modified, 28% respondent agree that Promotion policy of my organization needs to be modified, while 18% respondent are strongly agree that Promotion policy of my organization needs to be modified. 1 17 9 14 9 2% 34% 18% 28% 18% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Frequency Percentage (%)
  76. 76. 76 16. Over all Calculation Organization Stress TABLE-16 Sr. No Particulars Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 10% 2 Disagree 23% 3 Neutral 21% 4 Agree 32% 5 Strongly Agree 14% Total 100% Interpretation: From the above table 10% respondent strongly disagree that organization stress, 23% respondent disagree that organization stress, 21% respondent Neutral that organization stress, 32% respondent agree that organization stress, while 14% respondent strongly agree that organization stress. 10% 23% 21% 32% 14% Percentage (%) Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree
  77. 77. 77 C. Group Stress 1. Some of my colleagues and subordinates try to defame and malign me as unsuccessful TABLE-1 Sr.No Particulars Frequency Percentage (%) 1 Strongly Disagree 5 10% 2 Disagree 17 34% 3 Neutral 7 14% 4 Agree 12 24% 5 Strongly Agree 9 18% Total 50 100% Interpretation: From the above table 10% respondent strongly disagree that Some of my colleagues and subordinates try to defame and malign me as unsuccessful, 34% of respondent disagree that Some of my colleagues and subordinates try to defame and malign me as unsuccessful, 14% respondent Neutral that Some of my colleagues and subordinates try to defame and malign me as unsuccessful, 24% respondent agree that Some of my colleagues and subordinates try to defame and malign me as unsuccessful, while 18% respondent are strongly agree that Some of my colleagues and subordinates try to defame and malign me as unsuccessful. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 5 17 7 12 910% 34% 14% 24% 18% Frequency Percentage (%)

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