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Urban Health Issues in India Slide 1 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 2 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 3 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 4 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 5 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 6 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 7 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 8 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 9 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 10 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 11 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 12 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 13 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 14 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 15 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 16 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 17 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 18 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 19 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 20 Urban Health Issues in India Slide 21
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Urban Health Issues in India

India is rapidly becoming urbanised. By 2030, around 40% of the country's population will live in urban areas. The extent to which India's health system can provide for this large and growing city-based population will determine the country's success in achieving universal health coverage and improved national health indices. In The Lancet Global Health, Sundeep Salvi and colleagues1 offer a glimpse into India's urban health situation by reporting on the medical symptoms and diagnoses and the characteristics of patients who sought treatment from qualified primary health-care practitioners across 880 cities and towns on one day in 2011.

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Urban Health Issues in India

  1. 1. Urban Health Issues PRESENTED BY – Ch. Shanmukha Priya GUIDE – Dr. V. Priya
  2. 2. Urbanization: Trends and Patterns • Movement of people from rural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration. • It’s a double edged sword • On one hand - Provides people with varied opportunities and scope for economic development • On the other- Exposes community to new threats • Unplanned urban growth is associated with • Environmental degradation • Population demands that go beyond the environmental service capacity, such as drinking water, sanitation, and waste disposal and treatment 2
  3. 3. Urbanization trends in India Year 1800 1950 2000 2008 2030 2% 30% 47% 50% 60% 3 Source: UN, Urbanization prospects, the 1999 revision Total population 360 1027 140 1160 In million Urban Population 2050
  4. 4. Health Issues due to Urbanization 4
  5. 5. Urban Vs Rural health Is urban health better than rural health? Almost all health indicators are better for urban when compared to rural When the urban slums are taken many are worse than rural !!! 5
  6. 6. Factors Affecting Health in Slums • Economic conditions • Social conditions • Living environment • Access and use of public health care services • Hidden/Unlisted slums • Rapid mobility 6* Agarwal S, Satyavada A, Kaushik S, Kumar R. Urbanization, Urban Poverty and Health of the Urban Poor: Status, Challenges and the Way Forward. Demography India. 2007; 36(1): 121-134
  7. 7. Urban poor - key elements of health • Marriage & Fertility • Maternal health • Child survival • Family planning • Environmental Conditions, Infectious Diseases and Access to Health Care 7
  8. 8. Double Burden of Diseases Overcrowding and related health issues • Rapid growth of urban centers has led to substandard housing on marginal land and overcrowding . • Outbreaks of diseases transmitted through respiratory route due to increased population density. • It increases the health risks related to insufficient and poor water supply and poor sanitation systems • Lack of privacy leading to depression, anxiety, stress etc. 8
  9. 9. Double Burden of Diseases Air pollution and its consequences • Increase in the numbers of motorized vehicles and industries in the cities of the developing world causes problems of noise and air pollution. • Air pollution can affect our health in many ways with both short-term and long-term effects. • Short-term air pollution can aggravate medical conditions like asthma. • Long-term health effects can include chronic respiratory diseases, lung cancer, heart diseases, and even damage to other vital organs. 9
  10. 10. Double Burden of Diseases Water and sanitation problems • Due to increasing urbanization coupled with existing un-sustainability factors and conventional urban water management, nearly 1.1 billion people worldwide do not have access to clean drinking water and 2.6 billion people i.e. over 400 million people, lack even a simple improved bathroom. • This problem can lead to increased episodes of diarrhea and economic burden. 10
  11. 11. Double Burden of Diseases Upsurge of Non-communicable diseases • The rising trends of non-communicable diseases are a consequence of the demographic and dietary transitions. • Urbanization is an example of social change that has a remarkable effect on diet in the developing world. • In India, chronic diseases are estimated to account for 53% of all deaths and 44% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in 2005. 11
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  17. 17. 17 Vs Which is better?
  18. 18. The Solutions • Ensure adequacy and reliability of health related data. For understanding the depth of situation and for planning purposes. • Need for inter - sectorial co-ordination. • Sharing of successful experiences and best practice models. Successful experiences from other countries can be adopted. These can be adopted with local adaptations to suit the need of the people and the current situation 18
  19. 19. The Solutions • Reducing the financial burden of health care through – Community health funds Health insurance Subsidized out patient care provision by private providers • Application of PURA (Provision of Urban amenities to Rural Areas) model to slums. • To improve the infrastructure • To increase community participation through SHGs • To enhance self reliability of the communities • Strengthening public private partnerships. • Strengthening public health care facilities 19
  20. 20. References •https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/04/these-are- the-challenges-faced-by-india-s-urban-poor-and-how- we-can-solve-them/ PDFs : •Urban Health issues in India - Need of the day, Kantharia SL. •Urban health - the emerging social imperative for India in the new millenniums, Agarwal, K. Srivastava. •Why urban health matters – World Health Day - WHO 20
  21. 21. THANK YOU 21
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India is rapidly becoming urbanised. By 2030, around 40% of the country's population will live in urban areas. The extent to which India's health system can provide for this large and growing city-based population will determine the country's success in achieving universal health coverage and improved national health indices. In The Lancet Global Health, Sundeep Salvi and colleagues1 offer a glimpse into India's urban health situation by reporting on the medical symptoms and diagnoses and the characteristics of patients who sought treatment from qualified primary health-care practitioners across 880 cities and towns on one day in 2011.

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