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Visual communication

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Introduction given at Södertörns högskola on the 9 May on visual communication. Presented by Shaun West, written by Petra Müller.

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Visual communication

  1. 1. Visual'Codes'
  2. 2. Visual'Codes' •  Expression* •  Rhetorics* •  Semio1cs* •  Rhetorics*and*Semio1cs* •  Visualiza1on*
  3. 3. Typografie © Prof. Dipl.-Des. MfA Petra Müller 3
  4. 4. The*form*of*a*message*can*affect* its*interpreta1on.*There*is*an* infiltra1on*of*content*by*form.* (Hanno*Ehse)*
  5. 5. Expression' 1.*one* 2.*one*to*one*person* 3.*one*to*a*group*of*people*(3F15)** 4.*one*to*many*people*(up*to*hundred)* 5.*one*to*the*unknown* 6.*one*to*one*with*less*senses*available*(blind,*deaf...)* * * Comunica3on'always'uses'a'language:'verbal,'ges3cal,'visual,'...'sensual'
  6. 6. Rhetoric' Aristotle:** „Faculty*of*observing*in*any*given*case*the*available*means*of*persuasion.“* * •  All*people*have*a*share*in*rhetoric*because*they*all'a@empt'to'persuade' one*another*of*various*ideas*and*beliefs.** * •  For*rhetoric,*language*is*never*simply*a*form*of*expression:** it*is*a*func3onal'tool'that*is*manipulated*to*achieve*desired*ends.** * •  Rhetoric*has*been*concerned*with*imagina1on,*with*formFgiving,*and*with* the*appropriate*use*of*language*to*facilitate'human'affairs.** Design*Papers*5,*Hanno*Ehses,*Ellen*Lupton,*Halifax,*Nova*Sco1a,*Canada*
  7. 7. Rhetoric' Design*as*rhetoric*—*Basic*principles*for*design*research;*Gesche*Joost,*Arne*Scheuermann***
  8. 8. Rhetoric' Design*as*rhetoric*—*Basic*principles*for*design*research;*Gesche*Joost,*Arne*Scheuermann*** The*argument*for*the*subject*(inven1o)*is*organised*in*the*speech*(disposi1o)** and*the*speech*is*wri@en*(elocu1o).*The*speech*is*remembered*(memoria)* and*will*be*delivered*(ac1o).* * Five'phases:'Basic*workflow*to*shape*expression*...**
  9. 9. Rhetoric'–'Five'Phases'towards'Design'Process' The'rhetorical'process ' ' ' '' Inven3on' The*discovery*of*plausible*arguments*and** suppor1ng*material*relevant*to*the*situa1on.** Disposi3on' The*arrangement*of*arguments.*This*phase** was*also*called*disegno*during*the*Renaissance.** Elocu3on' The*fi_ng*of*proper*language*to*the*argument,*including*use** of*rhetorical*figures,*in*considera1on*of*the*following*criteria:** Appropriateness*(Aptum),** Correctness*(Puritas),* Comprehensibility*(Perspecuitas),** Deliberate5Adornment5(Ornatus)* Memory' Firm*grasp*and*understanding*of*the** material*to*be*presented.** Delivery' The*control*of*the*voice*and*body*in** the*actual*presenta1on*of*arguments.** * Design*Papers*5,*Hanno*Ehses,*Ellen*Lupton,*Halifax,*Nova*Sco1a,*Canada*
  10. 10. Rhetoric'–'Five'Phases'towards'Design'Process' The'rhetorical'process ' ' ' '' Inven3on' The*discovery*of*plausible*arguments*and** suppor1ng*material*relevant*to*the*situa1on.** Disposi3on' The*arrangement*of*arguments.*This*phase** was*also*called*disegno*during*the*Renaissance.** Elocu3on' The*fi_ng*of*proper*language*to*the*argument,*including*use** of*rhetorical*figures,*in*considera1on*of*the*following*criteria:** Appropriateness*(Aptum),** Correctness*(Puritas),* Comprehensibility*(Perspecuitas),** Deliberate5Adornment5(Ornatus)* Memory' Firm*grasp*and*understanding*of*the** material*to*be*presented.** Delivery' The*control*of*the*voice*and*body*in** the*actual*presenta1on*of*arguments.** * The'design'process ' ' ' '' '' Research,*development*of*a*concept.** * Organiza1on,*layout,*planning* * * * Stylis1c*choices,*visualiza1on*of*the*concept* * * Skill,*decisiveness*of*presenta1on* * Execu1on*and*choice*of*media* * Design*Papers*5,*Hanno*Ehses,*Ellen*Lupton,*Halifax,*Nova*Sco1a,*Canada*
  11. 11. Rhetoric' In'a'nutshell:'' * 1.  Rhetoric*is*a*method*which*helps*to*express*a*certain*argument* in*the*most*appropriate,*correct,*comprehensive*and* deliberately*decora1ve*way*to*achieve*persua1on.** 2.  The*approach*given*in*rhetoric*is*always*prac3cal*and*a*tool*for* describing*statements*as*well*as*for*crea1ng*new*ones.** 3.  It*is*not*a*fixed*recipe,*but*an*open*descrip1on*of*the*paberns* and*processes*of*communica3on.**
  12. 12. Rhetoric'–'Five'Phases'towards'Design'Process' The'rhetorical'process ' ' ' '' Inven3on' The*discovery*of*plausible*arguments*and** suppor1ng*material*relevant*to*the*situa1on.** Disposi3on' The*arrangement*of*arguments.*This*phase** was*also*called*disegno*during*the*Renaissance.** Elocu3on' The*fi_ng*of*proper*language*to*the*argument,*including*use** of*rhetorical*figures,*in*considera1on*of*the*following*criteria:** Appropriateness*(Aptum),** Correctness*(Puritas),* Comprehensibility*(Perspecuitas),** Deliberate5Adornment5(Ornatus)* Memory' Firm*grasp*and*understanding*of*the** material*to*be*presented.** Delivery' The*control*of*the*voice*and*body*in** the*actual*presenta1on*of*arguments.** * The'design'process ' ' ' '' '' Research,*development*of*a*concept.** * Organiza1on,*layout,*planning* * * * Stylis1c*choices,*visualiza1on*of*the*concept* * * Skill,*decisiveness*of*presenta1on* * Execu1on*and*choice*of*media* * Design*Papers*5,*Hanno*Ehses,*Ellen*Lupton,*Halifax,*Nova*Sco1a,*Canada*
  13. 13. Rhetoric'–'Modes'of'Appeal' Ra3onal'appeal' F Appeal*to*reason* F Aims*to*instruct* F Signs*of*intellectual*authority* F Sta1s1cs,*hard*edges,* scien1fic*drawings,*quota1ons* F Promote*something* Ethical'appeal' F Appeal*to*ethics* F Aims*to*delight* F Finer*emo1on*of*sensibility* F Philosophical*belief* F Aesthe1c*quali1es*of*a*design* F Tradi1onal*values** F Moral*and*aesthe1c** tendencies*of*an*audience* * * Emo3onal'appeal' F Appeal*to*emo1on* F Aims*to*move* F Provokes*the*nonFra1onal* F More*or*less*predictable* responses*from*the*audience* F Deeply*personal* F Shared*with*a*community* Link:'* Modes*of*appeal*are*used*in*marke1ng*to*provide*products*and*services** a*dis1nct*appeal*(Sinus*groups,*ZMET,*Limbic*map,*EuroFSocioFStyles).*
  14. 14. Rhetoric'–'Modes'of'Appeal' John*Knox,*Reformer,*Scobland,*1560* Christ5Preaching,5Rembrandt*Harmensz.*van*Rijn,*1652* Ra3onal'appeal' to*inform*...* Emo3onal'appeal' to*move...* Mar9n5Luther5King5Jr.,51965* Ethical'appeal' to*delight...* Design*Papers*5,*Hanno*Ehses,*Ellen*Lupton,*Halifax,*Nova*Sco1a,*Canada*
  15. 15. Rhetoric'–'Modes'of'Appeal'
  16. 16. Rhetoric'–'Modes'of'Appeal' Modes'of'appeal' ' ' 'Their'stylis3c'connota3ons' * Ethos*(Ethical*appeal)* * *morally*appropriate,*beau1ful,*ornate,*likeable* Aims*to*delight.** * Pathos*(Emo1onal*appeal)* *passionate,*vehement,*discordant* Aims*to*move.** * Logos*(Ra1onal*appeal) * *factual,*plain,*logical* Aims*to*inform.* Design*Papers*5,*Hanno*Ehses,*Ellen*Lupton,*Halifax,*Nova*Sco1a,*Canada*
  17. 17. Rhetoric'–'Deriva3on'of'Appeal'in'Products' Ra3onal'appeal' F Addresses*controlled,*logical*thinking* F Informa1on*can*have*stylis1c*cues,* such*as*hard*edges,*lines,*data,*...* F A_tude*towards*technology* Ethical'appeal' F Aesthe1c*quali1es*of*a*design* F Moral,*aesthe1c*values* F Invokes*trust*and*respect* F Asking*one*to*iden1fy*with*it* Emo3onal'appeal' F Provokes*passionate*response* F Becomes*a*symbol*for* glamorous*future*(sensual,* poli1cal,*spiritual)* Design*Papers*5,*Hanno*Ehses,*Ellen*Lupton,*Halifax,*Nova*Sco1a,*Canada*
  18. 18. Rhetoric*vs.*Semio1cs* * Rhetoric*plus*Semio1cs* * *
  19. 19. Semio3cs' Semio1cs*is*the*science*of*signs.*Semio1cs*has*an*allFembracing*character,*as* it*is*the*basis*for*plenty*fields*of*applica1on.*Fields*of*applica1on*can*be* language,*architecture,*fasion,*visual*imagery*and*more*–*in*applica1on*it*is* called*seman1cs.** * It*is*a*general*theory*of*signs*and*talks*about*the** interface*between*visual*and*verbal*discourse.* * One'main'principal:'' A*sign*is*not*an*autonomous*en1ty.** It*only*exists*in*rela1on*to*other*signs*(systems).** * Material*part*of*sign:*form5of5expression5 Its*meaning*is*called:*form5of5content5
  20. 20. Semio3cs' Expression:545°5rotated5square,5white5bordered5yellow5center,5outline5 Content:5rigth5of5way5 Expression:5given5illustra9on5of5the5hand5 Content:5this5way5 Expression:5these5gestures5 Content:5A,5B,5C,5D5
  21. 21. Semio3c'by'Pierce'and'Classifica3on'by'Eco' Signifikat' Interpreter' Designatum* Konnota1on* Referent' Object' Denotatum* Extension* Signifikant' Sign' Symbol* Expression* In*reference*to*Umberto*Eco*and*Charles*Sanders*Pierce* Semiosis'
  22. 22. Semio3c'by'Pierce'and'Classifica3on'by'Eco' Signifikat' Interpreter* Designatum* Konnota1on* Referent' Object* Denotatum* Extension* Signifikant' Sign* Symbol* Expression* In*reference*to*Umberto*Eco*and*Charles*Sanders*Pierce* Semiosis' „Tomato“* „Tomate“* „Pomodoro“*...*
  23. 23. Semio3c'–'Terminology'' Index' (something*used*to** code*something*else;*e.g.* metaphor,*metonomy)* Icon' (codes*by*imita1on*or* illustra1on*of*something;** e.g.*allegory)* Symbol'' (works*as*code*within*a* system,*elements*are* abstract;*e.g.*simile,*allu1on)*
  24. 24. Rhetoric'and'Semio3c'' Expression:5black52Odimensional5shape5of5an5open5facing5hand5 Intended5Content:5no5entry5 5 5 5 Possible5interpreta9on51:5Please5Wait555Minutes5 5 5 5 Possible5interpreta9on52:5Hello5 5 1. All*words*are*abstract!* 2. Hand*is*the*term*to*describe*a*part*of*the*body.* 3. Hand*as*a*sign*needs*to*be*placed*into*context.* 5
  25. 25. Rhetoric'and'Semio3c'–'Just'Some'Rhetorical'Figures' Archaism *Use*of*an*older*form* Simile *An*explicit*comparison*between*two*things* Paradox *A*statement*that*appears*at*first*glance*unbelievable*but*may*be*found*to*be*true'* Amplifica3on *Arrangement*in*an*order*of*ascending'power'* Irony *Literal*meaning*of*the*opposite*intended'* Synchysis *unnecessary*clustering*of*synonymous*words* Pleonasm *Use*of*redundant*words* Periphrasis *Communica1ng*in*a*round'about'way' Hyperbole *Exaggera3on*for*emphasis*or*for*rhetorical*effect* Allitera3on *Repe33on*of*same*sound*in*words*close*together'* Pun *Humorous*use*of*a*word*to*emphasize'different'meanings' Paraleipsis *Omission*for*rhetorical*effect* Metaphor 'Implied*comparison* An3thesis *The*juxtaposi3on*of*contras1ng*ideas* Irony *The*expression*of*something*which*is*contrary'to'the'intended'message' Synecdoche *Understanding*one*thing*with*another,*replacing*the*word*with*another*with*close'meaning' Metonymy *Subs3tu3on*of*one*word*for*another*which*it*suggests* Tautology *Repe33on*of*an*idea*in*a*different*form* Personifica3on *Abribu1ng*a*personality*to*an*impersonal'thing'
  26. 26. Rhetoric'and'Semio3c'–'Some'Rhetorical'Figures'as'Visuals'Using'the'Hand' Amplifica1on* Pun* Metonymy* An1thesis* Don’t*bite*the*hand*that*feeds*you.* Metaphor* My*hands*are*1ed.** Hyperbole* A*handful*of*students.* Metonymy* Design*Papers*5,*Hanno*Ehses,*Ellen*Lupton,*Halifax,*Nova*Sco1a,*Canada*
  27. 27. Rhetorical'Opera3ons'
  28. 28. Rhetorical'Opera3ons'
  29. 29. Rhetoric'and'Semio3c'–'Rhetorical'Opera3ons' In*rhetorical*opera1ons*we*use*addi3on,*suppression,*subs3tu3on* and*exchange.*How*rhetorical*figures*are*operated*is*defined*by*two* approaches:*schemes*and*tropes.** * Schemes:*alter*the*normal*oder*of*elements*in*an*expression.** Tropes:*alter*the*normal*reference*of*the*elements.** * Tropes*more*commonly*occur*in*picures,*therefore*this*approach* may*help*us*towards*understanding*the*process*of*visualiza1on.**
  30. 30. Comunica1on*always*uses*a*language:*verbal,*ges1cal,*visual,*...*sensual.* * The*rehtorical*phases*can*be*transfered*towards*the*design*process.** (Research,'planning,'visualiza3on,'presenta3on,'media)* * Rhetoric*is*prac1cal*and*an*open*descrip1on*of*the*processes'of'communica3on.** * Ethos,*Pathos*and*Logos*can*be*applied*as*stylis1c*connota1ons.** * Main*principal*of*semio1cs*is,*that*a*sign*only*exists'in'rela3on'to'others'(systems).** * Differen1ate*the*material*form5of5expression5from*its*meaning*form5of5content.5 5 Rhetoric'figures'(tropes*and*opera1ons)*help*us*to*conciously*visualize*a*topic.* Conclusion'
  31. 31. Visualiza3on'of'Informa3on' Ikonogramm*und*Piktogramm* Kartogramm*und*Diagramm* Ideogramm*und*Logogramm* Typogramm*und*Phonogramm* Folie*32,*Mai*9,*2016*
  32. 32. Ikonogramm'und'Piktogramm' Folie*33,*Mai*9,*2016* Iconogram*is*an*image.*An*iconic* sign,*which*highlights*the*iden1ty*of* sign*and*object.** Pictogram*is*a*picture,*similar*as*in* Isotype.*An*iconic*sign,*which*highlights* the*general*aspects*of*the*object.*
  33. 33. Kartogramm'und'Diagramm' Folie*34,*Mai*9,*2016* Cartogram*is*a*topographic** representa1on*including*func1onal* elements*such*as*sta1s1c*data.* Diagram*is*a*func1onal* representa1on,*which*visualizes*facts,* sta1s1cs,*processes*and*rela1onships* between*objects.**
  34. 34. Types'of'Diagrams' Tables'and'Time'Series'(1F2*Scales)* * Sta3s3c'Diagrams'(2F3*Scales)* Curve*Chart,*Polar*Chart,*Pie*Chart,** Bar*Chart,*Area*Diagram,*Volume*Diagram,* Frequency*Scale,*Profile*Diagram* * Reference'Diagrams' Map,*Cartogram,*Organiza1onal*Chart* (Connec1on*Diagram,*Corporate*Structure),** NetF/Stereogram* * Illustra3ve'Diagrams' Func1onal*Diagrams** (Exploded*View,*Flow*Chart)* * Graphische*Semiologie.*Diagramme,*Netze,*Karten.*Jacques*Ber1n.*Berlin,*de*Gruyter*
  35. 35. Bar'Chart' Folie*36,*Mai*9,*2016*
  36. 36. Bar'Chart' Folie*37,*Mai*9,*2016*
  37. 37. Cartogram' Folie*42,*Mai*9,*2016*
  38. 38. Cartogram'–'Charles'Joseph'Minard'(1781Z1870)' Folie*43,*Mai*9,*2016*
  39. 39. Folie*44,*Mai*9,*2016* Cartogram'–'Charles'Joseph'Minard'(1781Z1870)'
  40. 40. Mai 9, 2016 Informationen Gestalten 46
  41. 41. Illustra3ve'Diagram' Folie*47,*Mai*9,*2016*
  42. 42. Illustra3ve'Diagram' Folie*48,*Mai*9,*2016*
  43. 43. Illustra3ve'Diagram' Folie*49,*Mai*9,*2016*
  44. 44. Pictogram'–'ISOZTYPE' Folie*50,*Mai*9,*2016* 1936*ISOFTYPE*by*Obo*Neurath*and*Gerd*Arntz* (Interna1onal*System*of*Typographic*Picture*Educa1on)*
  45. 45. Pictogram'–'ISOZTYPE' Folie*51,*Mai*9,*2016*
  46. 46. Pictogram'–'ISOZTYPE' Folie*52,*Mai*9,*2016*
  47. 47. Pictogram'–'Pippo'Lionni' Folie*53,*Mai*9,*2016*
  48. 48. Informa3on'Design'–'The'Power'of'Visualiza3on'in'Other'Professions' •  Today*we*read*and*understand*via*mental*models.** •  The*use*of*visual*elements*to*channel*thinking*and*to*challenge*conclusions.** •  These*elements*get*coded*as*they*are*used*in*a*certain*environment.** •  Areas*create*a*virtual*room*for*thinking.** •  Connec1ng*these*areas*creates*a*process*and*logic.** •  Indica1on*of*scale*to*visualize*the*process.* •  We*need*to*simplify*and*use*visual*elements*to*connect*them*to*complex*data.** •  Illustra1ons*help*to*create*iden1fica1on.*
  49. 49. Crea3ng'Quality'of'Informa3on'–'Value'...'

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