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Description of everything necessary for startup

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This doc comprises all important points that you must focus to elevate your fyp or startup. Like about project reports, proposals, leaflets, handbooks, brochures, thesis an much more. I recommend all the entrepreneurs to follow this doc in order to turn their small business into a vast one.

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Description of everything necessary for startup

  1. 1. 1) Progress Report What is progress report? A progress report is a document that itemizes the relative status or progress of a project, or group of projects, against some sort of measurable outcome such as specific completion goals. Note: The project can be:  The study or research of a problem or question  The gathering of information on a technical subject.  A business letter  A memo It is a report that you have to write to inform about the progress you are making on your work (Any of the above mentioned projects). It describes and evaluates a project as the work is being done. It is an ongoing project. It is an official and legal record of work. Why we write this report? You write a progress report to inform a supervisor, associate, or customer about progress you've made on a project over a certain period of time.You write progress reports when it takes well over three or four months to complete a project. In the progress report, you explain any or all of the following:  How much of the work is complete  What part of the work is currently in progress  What work remains to be done  What problems or unexpected things, if any, have arisen  How the project is going in general Who writes this report to whom?  Student writes it to teacher.  Employee writes to supervisor/manager. Progress reports have several important functions:  Reassure recipients that you are making progress, that the project is going smoothly, and that it will be complete by the expected date.  Provide recipients with a brief look at some of the findings or some of the work of the project.  Give recipients a chance to evaluate your work on the project and to request changes.  Give you a chance to discuss problems in the project and thus to forewarn recipients.
  2. 2.  Force you to establish a work schedule so that you'll complete the project on time.  Project a sense of professionalism to your work and your organization. Time Periods of Progress Report A progress report usually summarizes work within each of the following:  Work accomplished in the preceding period(s)  Work currently being performed  Work planned for the next period(s) 2) Leaflets What is Leaflet? A leaflet is a small sheet, flat or folded, of printed material meant to provide information or advertisement. It contains information about a particular subject. Leaflets are a type of open letter which is designed to be handed out to the people, either by hand, by post, inserted in local newspapers for distribution, to grab their attention. Example: What are characteristics of Leaflets? Characteristics of Leaflets are the following:  Leaflet production is affected by the physical characteristics of paper, such as shape, texture, quality, size, weight, Legibility and color. Quality also affects
  3. 3. durability. The major factors involved in selection of paper weights and leaflet sizes are:  Message length.  Artwork required.  Delivery system to be used. O Press capabilities.  Purpose of the leaflet. Why to Write a Leaflet?  To advertise a product  To provide information about important issues and events  To draw attention to any organization, cause or event. It spurs someone to take an action How to Design a Leaflet? Structural Features:  Title & Slogan  Introduction  Subheadings  Attractive illustrations and photographs  Include contact information, and where to get further details  Title & Slogan GET ATTENTION Grab the reader’s attention Start with a catchy heading, or Rhetorical questions Catchy Slogans likr: ‘Saving you money every day.’ ‘Every little helps!’ ‘Try something new every day.’ Fancy a great holiday break? Are you interested in our maritime history?  Introduction Write the history, mission or vision of the organisation here. Example: “The Acme Corporation offers a rapid it postal order service, and we deliver to even the most remote parts of the desert so you can be certain that you will have your flightless bird-catching devices as and when you need them.”
  4. 4.  Subheadings Give informative heading for different sections. Sections provide information and facts about the topic. Be Lucid: Give a clear idea of what the reader is expected to do Keep that idea in the reader's mind Persuade the reader to take action. Be Persuasive: Give a solution to the problem Be specific, state the benefit clearly in the leaflet Use compelling language that makes people think Tell people why this event is good for them Be clear what the promotion is about, stating what the event is, when and where it is taking place and how much it costs. If it’s free, say so!
  5. 5.  Designing a Leaflet Grammatical Features: A range of different tenses: They are usually written in the present tense, employing emotive language and often using metaphors and similes. Simple and direct language Use of positive words Use of non- discriminatory language Use Superlatives Biggest, brightest, tastiest, creamiest, freshest, quickest etc. Use Imperative ‘You must buy this...’ ‘Don’t miss this great offer...’ ‘Don’t delay, buy today!’
  6. 6.  Contact Information Include contact information, and where to get further details ( phone/ cell number, email address etc.)
  7. 7. 3) Brochures Wha is a Brochure? A brochure is the same as a leaflet, except it's likely more extensive and can be several pages long. Brochures are also known as pamphlets; they are more expensive in comparison to flyers and are generally made for a specific company with particular information in it. A brochure is generally a standard size of single paper in multiple folds each denoted to a specific type of information. Brochures are expected to be retained by the receivers as opposed to flyers. They also need to be appealing in their look and this work is done effortlessly by many Brochure and Logo Designing Company in the country. Brochures are promotional documents or advertising pieces, primarily used to introduce acompany, organization, products or services and inform prospective customers or members of the public of the benefits. They are designed and used for:  A marketing tool to advertise a service or product  As an information providing tool Brochure Types: Why is it important to plan your brochure layout?  First impressions are lasting!  The way you layout your information will grab readers’ attention Important Points Regarding Brochure  Cover page should be attractive and should include the name of organization/place/company  In addition, a photo or graphic should be on the cover page  Keep your sentence short and to the point
  8. 8.  Use powerful words such as new, results or guarantee  Avoid spelling and grammar mistakes  The heading should stand out, by having a bigger font and color What To Include in your Brochure?  Decide on a purpose or theme for your brochure with the questions like:  Is the brochure focusing on an event, telling about a company or providing information about a social program?  Choose information to go in the brochure. Include only the absolute main points. Remember that a brochure is pretty small in size so you won’t be able to fit everything. And, stay focused on the theme.  Be concise. After you’ve decided what to include, think about how to say it. Even if you think your text is concise, most likely you will still need to cut information to make it fit.  Use bulleted lists as an easy-to-read way of presenting information. Brochure Features  Booklet brochures are made of multiple sheets most often saddle stitched (stapled on the creased edge) or "perfect bound" like a paperback book, and result in eight panels or more.  Brochures are often printed using four color process on thick gloss paper to give an initial impression of quality.  Compared with a flyer or a handbill, a brochure usually uses higher-quality paper, more colour, and is folded.
  9. 9. 4) Hand Books A handbook is a type of reference work, or other collection of instructions, that is intended to provide ready reference. The term originally applied to a small or portable book containing information useful for its owner, but the Oxford English Dictionary defines the current sense as "any book...giving information such as facts on a particular subject, guidance in some art or occupation, instructions for operating a machine, or information for tourists." Reference Work: A reference work is a book or periodical to which one can refer forinformation. The information is intended to be found quickly when needed.A handbook is sometimes referred to as a vade mecum (Latin, word with English meaning: "go with me") or pocket reference.Handbooks may deal with any topic, and are generally compendiums of information in a particular field or about a particular technique. They are designed to be easily consulted and provide quick answers in a certain area.
  10. 10. 5)Magazines What is a magazine? A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine). Magazines have never been static entities, and the history of magazines is basically the story of how the magazine format has been reinvented time and time again to serve different readers at different points in time. “Magazine” derived from___? The word“magazine”is derived from Arabic word makhazin, or“storehouse,”and was generally meant to mean a collection of somehow-related stuff all bundled together in one package. Magazines as Advertising Media Magazines are the best means of press publicity or print media. Magazines are truly a way of life to most of the literate people. They have a general and wide appeal. They are best source of Market information. Magazines are published on weekly or fortnightly or monthly basis. They are very common method of publicity. Importance Magazines are flexible and timely. Magazines are one way communication.They are the colorful silent form of advertisement. Magazines are the more suitable medium for long and complex messages. Magazines have longer life. Also, they can approach particular market segment only. Categorizing Magazines There are several ways to categorize magazines. One way is to categorize them functionally, for example, as entertainment! escape, news/information, or advocacy/opinion. We can also consider the relation between content and audience. Some magazines carry no advertisements and others, called controlled circulation, are given away free. Finally, there are the business press and company magazines, which represent a burgeoning(growing) area of magazine publishing. Types of Magazines Read Most Often
  11. 11. 6) Articles What is an article? An article:  is a piece of writing usually intended for publication in a newspaper, magazine or journal  is written for a wide audience, so it is essential to attract and retain the readers’ attention  may include amusing stories, reported speech and descriptions  can be formal or informal, depending on the target audience  should be written in an interesting or entertaining manner  should give opinions and thoughts, as well as facts  is in a less formal style than a report An article can:  describe an experience, event, person or place  present an opinion or balanced argument  compare and contrast  provide information  offer suggestions  offer advice A realistic article should consist of the following:  an eye-catching title which attracts the readers ’ attention and suggests the theme of the article. (Think about why you read a magazine or newspaper article recently - what made you read it?) Articles can also have subheadings before each paragraph.  an introduction which clearly defines the topic to be covered and keeps the reader’s attention.  the main body of two to five paragraphs in which the topic is further developed in detail.  the conclusion summarizing the topic or a final opinion, recommendation or comment.
  12. 12. 7) Research Papers What is a Research Paper? A research paper is the culmination and final product of an involved process consisting of:  Research  Critical Thinking  Source Evaluation  Organization, and Composition  Research paper is a living thing, which grows and changes as the student explores, interprets, and evaluates sources related to a specific topic.  Primary and secondary sources are the heart of a research paper, and provide its nourishment.  The research paper serves not only to further the field in which it is written, but also to provide the student with an exceptional opportunity to increase his or her knowledge in that field. What is not a Research Paper? A research paper is not simply an informed summary of a topic by means of primary and secondary sources. It is neither a book report nor an opinion piece nor an expository essay consisting solely of ones interpretation of a text nor an overview of a particular topic.
  13. 13. Instead, it is a genre that requires one to spend time investigating and evaluating sources with the intent to offer interpretations of the texts, and not just compilation of sources. The goal of a research paper is not to inform the reader what others have to say about a topic, but to draw on what others have to say about a topic and engage the sources in order to thoughtfully offer a unique perspective on the issue at hand. 8) Feasibility Report What is feasibility study? A feasibility study is an analysis of the viability of an idea through a disciplined and documented process of thinking through the idea from its logical beginning to its logical end. Feasibility study is carried out in order to assess the viability of a new project. It is primary and most important thing in development of a project. Reasons to Do a Study  Gives focus to the project.  Narrows the business alternatives.  Identifies new opportunities.  Identifies reasons not to proceed.  Provides valuable information for “go/no go” decision.  Increases probability of business success by identifying weaknesses early.  Provides documentation that the idea was thoroughly investigated.
  14. 14. Types of Feasibility  Operational Feasibility  Useful for identifying operational problems to be solved, and their urgency  The “PIECES” framework:  P-Performance  I-Information  E-Economy  C-Control  E-Efficiency  S-Services  Market Feasibility  Determine facility needs.  Suitability of production technology.  Availability and suitability of site.  Raw materials.  Other inputs.  Financial/Economic Feasibility  Estimate the total capital requirements.  Estimate equity and credit needs.  Estimate equity and credit needs.  Organizational/Managerial Feasibility  Business Structure  Business Founders  Environmental feasibility  Environmental impact and their assessment.  Legal feasibility  Is the project legally feasible?  Legal requirements. Feasibility Report A feasibility report is the results of a feasibility study. This report details whether or not a project should be undertaken and the reasons for that decision. Report Content  Introduction/Executive Summary  Background  Outline of project
  15. 15.  Methodology/method of analysis  Overview of alternatives  Conclusion  Recommendation 9) Project Report What is a project report? The project report is a document, which gives an account of the project proposal to ascertain the prospects of the proposed plan/activity. What does it contain? The project report contains detailed information about:  Land & building required  Manufacturing Capacity per annum  Manufacturing Process  Machinery & equipment along with their prices and specifications  Requirements of raw materials  Power & Water required.  Manpower needs  Marketing  Cost of the project and production.  Financial analyses & economic viability of the project. How is a Project Report Prepared? A project report is prepared with the help of prescribed guidelines available. Information about prices of machinery & equipment, raw material and other various inputs required for setting up an enterprise need to be collected from the market. Purpose The purpose of a project report is to present your answer to the project problem(s) and to communicate the mathematical ideas and methods used to obtain your answer. This information should be a concisely worded and well-organized paper that is understandable to any other student in this course. Format The format of a typical project report is described below. This format is quite general, but is not always applicable. If you do not follow this outline, be sure that your report does provide all of the relevant information.
  16. 16. Regardless of the organization you use, your report must:  clearly state the problem  explain the methods used, including significant intermediate results  answer all questions posed in the problem. The typical report will be at least one of the following:  page but not more than three  pages of a Word document in 12-point font, including figures. The report should contain each of the following elements:  Title  Introduction  Analysis and Discussion  Conclusion 10) Technical Research Reports What is it? A research report is:  A` written document or oral presentation based on a written document that communicates the purpose, scope, objective(s), hypotheses, methodology, findings, limitations and finally, recommendations of a research project to others.  The last stage of a marketing research process.  It is more than a summary of findings; rather it is a record of the research process.  The researcher has to convince the client [and others who may read the report] that the research findings can be acted on for their own benefit. Types of Research Report Any research report contains:  Descriptions on methodology.  Results obtained.  Recommendations made. The basic orientation of a research report depends on its audience. Before writing the report:  The researcher must know his or her audience  He/she may have to make assumptions about the composition, background and interests of the target readers.
  17. 17. 11) Manuals and Documentation Manual A manual is a book full of instructions and procedures that tells mostly what to do in making an object or a machine. Procedure-A procedure is a set of guidelines that present how to do or make something by series of actions. Unlike procedures, the manual is being packed and compiled in a book or in handouts. The manual has everything in need to meet the needs of the readers. Usage Manuals are used in machinery. Each machine you bought has an instruction guide or the manual that tells the description of an object and how will you make and form it. Writing of Manual Writing a manual is not an easy task. You have to undergo various tests to enumerate the steps and elaborate descriptions in doing or making something else. You must follow the principles to make your manual effective and satisfies the needs of your readers. What Are The Principles Of A Good Manual?  Organization  You should organize the information properly in a logical order to list and arrange all the details based on the information given.  Introductory Explanation  You should explain the main purpose or the objective of the manual to help the readers understand the object being discussed in the manual procedure.  Good Overview  A manual should state the overview or the preface of the topic. This way, it could capture the essence of enthusiasts and readers.  Clear Operating Instructions  A manual has procedural steps to describe the making of an object. What Are The Types Of A Manual? Here are some types of a manual:  Policy manuals  Document the rules governing an organization. It can be set out at the board, organization, departments and other levels.  Procedure manuals  Document how things are made. Step by step procedures and flow diagrams are frequently used.  Standard manuals
  18. 18.  Set standards for products, services and other work activities. It is commonly used in engineering, manufacturing, and construction where to specify materials or manufacturing standards.  Guidebooks  Give readers more latitude than standard manuals. It contain guidelines for dealing with different situations.  User manuals  Contain instructions for installing and using software or hardware and should be organized around user tasks.  Reference manuals  Usually provide detailed information on hardware or software organized for quick reference. Information such as contact number and code list are also included in reference manuals.  Training manuals  Basically designed to teach readers something new. It may be self- paced or designed for use with a training course.  Operator manuals  Provide detailed instructions for operating instruments or equipment and may include installation and troubleshooting instructions.  Service manuals  It is used by service technicians or engineers to perform routine maintenance or to troubleshoot and fix problems or breakdowns.  Field guides  They are designed for use away from desk, often outdoors. They are commonly used to identify plants or animals, or to describe field tests. Here are the following steps in making a manual:  Decide on your subject.  Decide what audience you are writing for.  Define exactly what are you going to talk about in the manual.  Decide upon a logical order to present your manual.  If the manual is going to use a technical terminology or jargon, prepare a glossary.  Decide what subjects are you going to need for further research.  Decide on an organization for each section you are going to write.  Organize each section and subsection in a logical order, narrowing the range of the topic.  Start writing and use your organization as your guide. Alter if it doesn’t work. 10. Don’t plagiarize someone else’ writing.  Add appropriate illustrations.
  19. 19.  Proofread and verify your work. Documentation It is defined as written evidence of the interactions between and among health professionals, patients, and their families; the administration of procedures, treatments, and diagnostic tests; the patient’s response to them and education of the family support unit. Documentation is a tangible asset.  Capturing Intellectual Capital.  Improving Clarity  Increasing Momentum  Changing Behaviors Documentation Improves Human Behavior Want to lose weight? Write down what you eat. Want to save money? Write down what you buy. Want career success? Write down a plan and track your progress. 12) Thesis What is a Thesis? A thesis is a long essay or dissertation involving personal research, written by a candidate for a university degree. The thesis is the point, your paper or an essay is trying to prove. It is also known as a claim or argument. Everything in a persuasive essay relates to the thesis, either as evidence, explanation, elaboration or rebuttal of alternative claims. Think of the thesis as the spine of human paper.
  20. 20. Thesis-a Spine of your Essay Just as all the parts of a body are connected to the spine, and without the spine body could not stand, so is here, in your essay all parts must be connected to the thesis, and without the thesis the essay cannot stand. Parts that are not connected must be revised so that they do connect, or else eliminated. Thesis is not same as thesis statement A thesis, in other words, is not the same as the thesis statement, which is a sentence or two in your introduction that tells the reader what the thesis is. The thesis is not limited to one spot in your essay; it runs through the whole thing, from start to finish. A thesis can be expressed as a statement Because the thesis is what you’re trying to prove, it must be possible to express it in the form of a statement or assertion (e.g., “the sky is blue”). It is not a question (“what color is the sky?”) or a topic (“the color of the sky”). Parts of a Thesis Initial Pages:  Title Page  Approval Sheet  Abstract  Acknowledgment  Dedication  Table of Contents  List of Tables  List of Figures  Title Page The following information needs to be on the title page:  The title (and possibly the subtitle) of your thesis.  First name and surname of the author(s).  Whether it is a ‘Bachelor’s thesis’ or a ‘Master’s thesis’.  Faculty and department• Place and date of completion.  Approval Sheet  This is to prove that the authors have passed the requirements needed for the thesis.  This is signed by the thesis/FS adviser, panel and the Dean.  This also states the grade obtained by the author/s.  Abstract  An abstract presents a brief summary of your thesis.  The aim of the abstract is to briefly provide the reader with the most important information from the entire text.
  21. 21.  An abstract never contains new information.  This summary is no longer than 2 pages of A4.  Acknowledgment  This is a page focused on expressing gratitude to organizations, agencies or individuals who, in one way or another, have aided the researchers in finishing the thesis.  Dedication  This is the page for dedicating the thesis to certain people or groups who have inspired the researchers while doing the thesis.  Table of Contents  The table of contents is essentially a topic outline of the thesis.  It is compiled by listing the headings in the thesis down to whichever level you choose.  List Of Tables / List Of Figures  Include a list of figures (illustrations) and a list of tables if you have one or more items in these categories.• Use a separate page for each list.  List the number, caption, and page number of every figure and table in the body of the thesis. Title Of Chapters: Chapter 1) Problem and Its Background Chapter 2) Review of Related Literature and Studies Chapter 3) Methodology of the Study Chapter 4) Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data Chapter 5) Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations Attributes of a Good Thesis  It should be contestable, proposing an arguable point with which people could reasonably disagree.  A strong thesis is provocative; it takes a stand and justifies the discussion you will present.  It tackles a subject that could be adequately covered in the format of the project assigned.  It is specific and focused. A strong thesis proves a point without discussing “everything about …” It clearly asserts your own conclusion based on evidence. Note: Be flexible. The evidence may lead you to a conclusion you didn't think you'd reach. It is perfectly okay to change your thesis!  It provides the reader with a map to guide him/her through your work.  It anticipates and refutes the counter-arguments
  22. 22.  It avoids vague language (like "it seems").  It avoids the first person. ("I believe," "In my opinion")  It should pass the So what? or Who cares? test (Would your most honest friend ask why he should care or respond with "but everyone knows that"?) For instance, "people should avoid driving under the influence of alcohol," would be unlikely to evoke any opposition. Sample Title Page of a Thesis:

This doc comprises all important points that you must focus to elevate your fyp or startup. Like about project reports, proposals, leaflets, handbooks, brochures, thesis an much more. I recommend all the entrepreneurs to follow this doc in order to turn their small business into a vast one.

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