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Role of women in livestock management, their constraints and training need-Punjab, Pakistan

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Role of Women in Livestock Management, their Constraints and Training Need.
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Role of women in livestock management, their constraints and training need-Punjab, Pakistan

  1. 1. Role of Women in Livestock Management, Constraints and Training Needs-Punjab, Pakistan Shifa Ul Haq
  2. 2. Agriculture & Livestock  The agriculture is leading sector. Absorbs 44% of the country‟s labor force.  Livestock plays a vital role in the agriculture economy of Pakistan.  150 million heads of livestock  35.6 million cattle, 31.7 million buffaloes  28.1 million sheep, 61.5 million goats (Government of Pakistan, 2012-13).
  3. 3. Agro-livestock  Livestock 55.1% of the agriculture value added and 11.6 % of the national GDP.  Still a huge source of traction power for cultivation and transportation.  Livestock production is an important source of income for the rural poor in developing countries.  Livestock and poultry provide the food products of high nutritional values such as milk, beef, mutton, poultry meat and eggs.  Livestock consumes many crop byproducts that would otherwise become waste.  The role of livestock sector in the rural economy of Pakistan is very critical as 35 million rural population is engaged in livestock raising.  Pakistan faces major problem and not doing best but is the 6th largest producer of milk in the world.
  4. 4. Women‟s Role  Women represent half of the world‟s population and one third of the official labor force, but they receive only 1% of the world income and own less than 1% of the world property (ILO, 2006)  63% of country population is rural and majority involved in agriculture. (S.B Pakistan, 2012)  Among rural women, about 79.4% of rural women in agriculture in comparison with 60.8 percent of the rural men (UNDP, 1997).  Generally, it is perceived that women living in the rural areas of Pakistan are not involved in so called „Gainful Employment‟.  According to the FAO (FAO, 1995) survey, women as paid or unpaid worker often spends up to 19 h/day in carrying out different assignments at farms and house.
  5. 5. Women‟s Role  The women‟s participation in agriculture and livestock has a tradition worldwide, especially in Asian & African countries where domestic animals have been an integral part of the family - farming system.  Women take part actively in various agricultural activities, for example seed bed preparation, tilling, sowing, fertilizer application, fodder cutting, weeding, inter- culturing, husking, threshing, drying, storing cereals and fodder, and harvesting of crops, fruits and vegetables (Ahmed & Hussain, 2004).
  6. 6. Women‟s Role  In comparison to agriculture crop sector, the role of rural women in livestock is much more significant. In many cases, they are involved in watering and cleaning and maintenance of animals and their sheds, preparing dung cakes as fuel, as well as milking animals and processing of milk products.  Bringing water, firewood, cooking food, sewing clothes and taking care of the child and family matters.
  7. 7. Activities performed by Rural Women
  8. 8. Women‟s Role  According to a recent study in Pakistan, the rural women usually spend about 7-8 h for household work while 6-7 h in performing livestock (Jamali, 2009).  Roles can vary among different societies with regard to religious, culture, classes, values and beliefs  There may be an 'ideal' division of labor in livestock, as prescribed by cultural norms, it is not always practiced. Economic considerations, settlement patterns, general labor availability and other factors can cause people to adopt other labor divisions. In some societies, women may even slaughter cattle and small ruminants, although this is considered men's exclusive responsibility
  9. 9. Women‟s Role  Despite the essential economic and care giving roles women perform, they have significantly less access to financial, physical and social assets than men do; fewer opportunities to improve their knowledge and skills; and less voice in public decision- making.  Women own less than 2 per cent of all land and receive only 5 percent of extension services worldwide.  Presently, women are not only conferred with all important issues of livestock.  Livestock is a gender activity so disadvantaged women further decrease the production.  This problem is exacerbated in Muslim.
  10. 10. Pilot Study Results
  11. 11. Two-thirds of the world's 880 million illiterate adults are women. Girls are more than 70 percent of the 125 million children who don't have a school to attend. Similar finding in the study; majority were illiterate. Punjabi families. 56 14 6.5 23.5 Illiterate Primary MiddleMatriculation and above Education Level of the Respondents Percentage
  12. 12. Age Distribution 40 38.5 21.5 Up to 35 years 46-50 years 51 and above Age Distribution of the Respondents Percentage Majority were middle-ages, young & unmarried women were less involved in livestock management and production
  13. 13. 19% 81% Family Type of the Respondents Nuclear Joint 72% 7% 21% House Type Kacha Pacca Semi-pacca
  14. 14. 72% 12% 16% Tenancy Status Owner Owner-cum-Tenant Tenant 74% 26% Major occupation Agriculture Non-agriculture
  15. 15. 80% 3% 17% Nature of Livestock Farming Domestic Commercial Both 40.5 36 23.5 Small (1-12) Medium (12-25) Large (25- 50) Size of Land Holding Percentage
  16. 16. Time Spent for Livestock Activities 5 14 28 30.5 17.5 5 3 Hours 4 Hours 5 Hours 6 Hours 7 Hours 8 Hours Time Spent for Livestock Activities Percentage
  17. 17. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Cutting and collecting fodder Feeding fodder/forage Making concentrates Cleaning animal's shed, bedding Milking Milk Processing Bathing animals Grazing of animals Watering the animals Manuring/Dung cake making Taking animals in and out Pregnancy and birth care Construction/Maintenance Who treats the sick animals Poultry Production The Roles Performed By Women Never Sometimes Often
  18. 18. 37.5 43 19.5 Goat Sheep Both (goat & sheep) Preference for Care of Small Animals Percentage
  19. 19. 47% 53% Professional Training can Enhance Yes No Yes 23% No 77% Women Are Skillful Enough to Manage the Livestock Activities
  20. 20. Majority (90%) of the women had no access to credit facility Not credit worthy or allowed by male members, lack of confidence or process. Yisehak (2008) access to credit and capital will increase the participation of women and their efficiency in livestock production. Yes 10% No 90% Access to Microfinance
  21. 21.  Where CVH or other institute is near and have staff are satisfied. Govt. departments lack outreach so people don‟t get support from them. 19% 81% Satisfaction With the Government of Pakistan Support Yes No
  22. 22. 98% 2% 0% To Great extent To some Extent Not at All Livestock for Fulfilling the Food Requirement Percentage 30% 63.50 % 6.50% To Great extent To some Extent Not at All Thinking That the Livestock is Best Small Business Percentage
  23. 23. Livestock Productivity Problems 28 16.5 27 19.5 9 Marketing problems Cleaning problems Lack of awareness about dairy farms Lack of veterinary services Lot of problems Women Perception on Livestock Productivity Problems Percentage
  24. 24. Constraints  Constraint‟ here refers to economic and technological problems that limit the growth and development of farm women.  The low productivity is explained by both biological and socioeconomic constraints.  Constraints such as unavailability and high cost of exotic breeds and commercial feed, lack of market access and unstable livestock and livestock product prices, and access to veterinary services and drugs are gender neutral.  Studies in the field indicate that there are some obstacles like lack of capital and access to institutional credit, workload and lack of technical skills and access to extension services that may affect women more than men.
  25. 25. Constraints Faced by the Women 16.15% 15.07% 13.06% 14.13% 18.17% 8.88% 14.54% Preoccupation with household chores Dominance by spouses Involvement in non farm activities Cultural/religious belief Inadequate capital Inadequate know-how Involvement in crop production for the family Constraints Faced by the Women
  26. 26. Training Needs  Training refers to the “acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills”  Training is mostly directed at improving the ability of individuals to make their vocation more effectively and efficiently.
  27. 27. Training Needs  Official livestock services are often controlled by men and extension personnel are primarily men who are not accustomed or trained to teach technical subjects to women.  Extension programs and educational materials are mainly designed by and oriented towards men.  Compared to women; men have easier access to technology and training, mainly due to their strong position as head of the household and greater access to off-farm mobility.
  28. 28. Training Needs of Rural Women 68.50% 51.50% 48% 40.50% 33.50% 28% Health Care Management and Disease Prevention Feeding and Nutrition Poultry Production Breeding Management Housing and Cleaning Marketing and Finance Ranking of Training Needs of Rural Women
  29. 29. Pillars for Women’s Empowerment in Livestock
  30. 30. Recommendations
  31. 31. Microcredit for Women
  32. 32. Girl’s Education Universal Primary Education
  33. 33. Women Training
  34. 34. Recommendations  Degree ,Diploma, and Certificate courses  Female dairy cooperatives should be introduced at the district level.  They must be provided employment opportunities to work for rural women guide regarding livestock.  There is a need of new research agenda which should take into account the dynamic role of women in the livestock sector.  Value addition to agriculture and livestock products, modern high-tech farming, commerce.  Women are largely absent from the state structures and decision-making bodies that have the potential to introduce structural changes.  Educated women in pastoral areas must be provided scholarships for the education in livestock.

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