Basic Civil and Environmental Engineering (BCEE)_Unit 5_SPPU_Planning for the built environment_by S R Kate
Basic Civil and Environmental Engineering (BCEE)_Unit 5_Planning for the built environment_by S R Kate
Unit : V Planning for the Built Environment (6 Hrs)
Concept of an integrated built environment-natural and manmade
Principles of planning, viz. Aspect, Prospect, Roominess, Grouping, Privacy, Circulation, Sanitation, Orientation, Economy
Use of various eco-friendly materials in construction
Concept of green buildings
Role of by-laws in regulating the environment
concept of built up area, carpet area, plinth area, plot area, FSI.
Basic Civil and Environmental Engineering (BCEE)_Unit 5_SPPU_Planning for the built environment_by S R Kate
Unit - V
Planning For The Built
Mr. Shrikant R Kate
B.E. (Civil) M. Tech. (CM)
Concept of an Integrated environment :-
Natural and Man-made
o Civil engineering projects need inputs from various experts, right from its
conceptualization to completion
o The civil project use lot of natural resources such as stones, bricks
manufactured out of soil, cement etc. as well as huge land for
o Thus, various agencies involved such as Architect, Contractor, Coordinating
agency, landscape designers, government agencies, suppliers etc. have to
work in proper coordination with each other for the effective
implementation of the project.
o Tokeep harmony with the nature is perhaps the first step that shall be
practiced in all over development projects . This can be achieved by
proper coordination between various agencies involved in construction…
Roles of the various agencies :
* The basic role is planning of the entire projects.
* He should take into consideration the availability of local materials,
local environmental conditions, climatic conditions, overall objective of
the project for creating better environment than the existing conditions.
Civil Engineer :
* The civil engineer as Project Management Consultant has to work in various
capacities for the project, right from conception to completion.
* He as to coordinate various activities of all the agencies to make sure that the
project is completed as per schedule.
Structural Engineer :
The civil engineer with expertise in the knowledge of structural design of the
project components looks after their safely through designs.
Environmental Engineer has to play a major role in managing the water
supply and treatment for the project, management of the waste water
generated, solid waste management etc. for achieving better environmental
Other Services :
Apart from these major consultants working in the project, various
other agencies and consultants such as Landscape architects, Interior
Designers , Plumbing Consultants etc. play a major role in the success of the
Principles of Planning
• These are the guidelines for planning the buildings to
suit their functional requirements.
• Various principles of planning:-
• It is the positioning of different rooms in the house according to
their functional requirements.
• Aspect of any room is decided by following sun diagram
• It can be seen that eastern aspect will be most suitable for
kitchen i.e. a room receiving light from a particular direction is
said to have that aspect.
• Similarly with climate point of view, and as per the requirement
of light, air, etc decides the position of the room.
• Aspects for various types of rooms are enlisted in following
• It is the arrangement of windows in the external walls of the
buildings so as to reveal certain desired views and conceal
undesired views from inside.
• This can be done by putting inclined brackets or by providing
• The prospect can be achieved by projecting windows as
•Privacy can be of a part or all parts
of a building from another building
or one room from another room.
•Privacy of the building can be
achieved by providing windows at
higher level than the adjoining road
or ground as well as by growing
plants and trees around the
building for example privacy for
•Privacy inside a room can be
achieved by providing door on one
side of the longer wall so that
minimum portion of the room is
• It is the “feel of speciousness” obtained in the room when one
• This is achieved by adjusting length to breadth ratio between 1.2 to
• Light colors and also different colors on each wall depending on
light direction can also improve the roominess.
•It can be defined as the arrangement of various rooms to coordinate functions
of rooms and movement of users.
•For example kitchen and dining room should be adjacent ,the stair should
have approach from maximum rooms.
• In case of industries, hospitals, schools, the rooms are to be arranged
according to their sequence of operations
• It is the movement inside the building in horizontal or
• Horizontal circulation can be provided by passages. The
passages should be short, wide and well illuminated. The
doors should not open in corridor, as it will obstruct the
• For vertical circulation, centrally located staircases, ramps,
lifts, escalators are most suitable. Following fig. shows
good and bad circulation.
• It is the effect produced by the elevation. It depends upon proportion
of width and height of the building and choice of material and colour
• Elegance can also be achieved by using proper cladding material to
the face of the building. It can also be improved.
• The beautification process need not be costly.
• It includes provision of light, ventilation, cleanliness, water supply and
• The minimum window area should not be less than 1/10th of floor
area to allow maximum sunlight to enter the room , which destroys
• The doors and windows should be positioned in such a way that hot
air, foul odours are removed from the room and fresh cool air is
admitted in the room.
• This is achieved by providing ventilators near the roof in addition to
windows. Cross ventilation should be employed for proper circulation
• The sanitary units should be provided with non-absorbent flooring
materials with proper slopes and continuous water supply.
9. Orientation :
• It means fixing major axis of the building to achieve maximum natural
• In India, the long walls should be provided towards North and South
and short walls in East and West direction to reduce the area exposed
• In hot climate verandahs, chajjas and sun breakers should be provided
to protect the building from sunrays. Rooms occupied through out the
day should be placed on north.
10. Economy :
• It is the last but not the least principle of planning. All efforts are in vein
if the cost is not considered.
• In any case aspect and circulation . On the other hand, prospect can be
sacrificed for aspect.
• Simple building plans along with minimum doors and windows with
simple designs will reduce the cost.
• In any case, functional utility, structural stability of the construction
should never be sacrificed.
• Economy can also achieved by making maximum use of locally available
materials to suit the local environmental conditions and use of locally
Role of Byelaws in Regulating
What is meant bye ‘Building bye-laws’?
1. These are the restrictions laid down by the municipal,town
planning or revenue authorities on construction and planning
of different types of buildings.
2. Building byelaws differ from place to place . For example
building byelaws for Mumbai will not be same as that of some
district or taluka place having municipality or a village having
3. The above mentioned authorities sanction the building plans
only after scrutinizing them regarding the byelaws.
Necessity of Building Byelaws
1. Tocurb the haphazard growth of towns or cities.
2. Tofacilitate future use of land, widening of streets, controlling the
ribbon development in an area.
3. Toreduce pollution in area by restricting population density in an area
there by providing hygienic environment
4. Toensure that every citizen will receive facilities like water supply,
sanitation, ventilation, electric supply, parking and safety.
Some Important Building Byelaws are as follows :-
1) For Open space requirement :
oThe open space around the building is required to be provided to meet
requirements regarding lighting , ventilations , future expansion , and approach.
oOpen space for front , rear and side yards depend upon height of building and
can be calculated by the formula
W = 3 + (h/10)/3 where W = width of the open space in .m
h = height of the building in. m < 25 m
o Open space for rear yard for the building of height less than 10m . Should be
3m average but in no case less than 1.8 m.
2) For height of the building :
Sr.no. Width of the road Height of Building
1. Upto 8 m. No more than 1 ½ times road width
2. 8m to 12 m. No more than 12m
3. >12m. No more than road- width and 21m
o The height of the building is governed by the width of the road which is
in front of the building or the minimum width of the rear space.
o In city areas, the construction is allowed on fall areas without provision
of margins on any side . For this, a light plane is marked at a suitable
angle from the edge or road on other side and the height of building is
suitably curtailed off to allow he light plant to pass so as not to make
adjacent property lack, from natural ventilation.
Relationship exists between road width of building height
• The height of a building is suitably curtailed
off to allow the light plane to pass as shown
3) For various forms of building coverage :
Following definitions explain various forms building coverage:
i. Covered area :
It is the ground covered above plinth. Area occupied by compound wall, is not
included in the covered area.
ii. Plinth area :
It is the built up covered area measured at the floor level of a building .
Following areas shall be included:
Areas of walls at floor level excluding plinth offsets, projection beyond clouding
when building consists of columns.
Internal shafts of sanitary installations less than 2 m^2 in area, air conditioning
Porches and other cantilevers provided.
Area of barsats at terrace.
Following areas shall not be included:
Internal shafts of sanitary installations greater than 2 m^2 in area.
Towers , turrets and domes unless they from a storey.
Architectural buns , cornices.
Vertical sub breakers .
iii. Floor area :
It is the usable covered area of the building at any floor level.
Thus, Floor area = Plinth area – Walls
Following areas shall be included :
Doors and other openings
Internals pillar and supports
Plaster along the wall exceeding 300 m^2.
Following areas shall not be included:
Plaster along the wall less than 300 m^2.
Fire places projecting beyond face of walls.
iv. Built up area :
o It is the area covered by all floor in the building.
o It includes everything covered under roof. Area occupied by balcony, staircase is
excluded from the built up area.
v. Carpet area :
o It is defined as actual area of usable room at any floor level.
o It does not include sanitary accommodation , verandahs , corridors and passages
, stores in domestic building , stair cases and shafts from lifts , garages , air
condition ducts and plant .
vi. F S I :
It is also called as Floor Area Ratio (FAR) is defined as, “ It is the ratio of Total
built up area for the building ( taken together) to the total plot area.”
The FSI is different for different area. E.g. FSI for various parts of the same city
may vary. The permitted FSI is governed by the Development Control (DC ) rules ,
prevailing in that area.
4) Set Back Distance :
o It is the distance measured from centerline of road up to which plinth of building
o It is provided to facilitate future road widening , parking of vehicles , free
circulation of air etc .
o Set back distance is about 1.5 to 1.67 times more for theaters , commercial
complexes , factories than residential building.
Set back distance
Type of Roads Minimum set back
Ratio of column 3 to
Village Road 9 m. 15m. 1.67
Major district road 15 m 24 m 1.60
National or state highway 30 m 45 m 1.50
Environmental Protection Act 1986
o Rapid urbanization and industrialization in haphazard manner has
led to degradation of the environment.
o The concern over environment protection and sustainable
development has grown tremendously especially in the developed
countries since late sixties.
o This law was introduced mainly to cover the loopholes present in
the earlier that took care of the specific pollution problem.
The main objectives of this act are as follows:
o Implementing nationwide programs for preventing, controlling and
abating the environmental pollution.
o Laying down safety measures for prevention of accidents and their
o Training the people by conducting workshops, seminars related to
o Preparation of standards, codes, manuals for abating environmental
o Establishing and recognizing various laboratories and institutes to
carry testing and monitoring work under this act………
Concept of Green Buildings
What is ‘ Green Building’ ?
It is a new concept in the design approach right from planning which
reduces the adverse impacts of buildings on the environment .
Integral parts of green buildings are as follows:
* Use of clean and renewable forms of energy such as solar energy.
* Efficient use of water.
* Use of eco friendly materials for construction.
* Hygienic conditions in the premises. Etc.
Advantages of Green Buildings
* Energy saving in such buildings could be as high as 30 to 40 %.
* Comfort and safety to the occupants.
* Use of natural resources such as air , light etc. thus reducing the burden on
the conventional resources .
Guidelines for Achieving “ Green Building”
Some of the guidelines for achieving Green Building are as
1. Building Shape and Orientation
*Choose the building shape such that it meets the work requirements w.r.t. day
lighting , solar heating and cooling etc.
*The shape and orientation shall be such that the maximum utilization of natural
resources is made .
2. Construction process
*The site disturbance can be reduced markedly by adopting environmentally
conscious construction practices.
* The process adopted shall be such that it uses and conserves the natural
resources like vegetation, natural drainage system etc.
* Potential improvements during construction process include :
i. Efficient use of temporary power and water requirements.
ii. Reuse of building debris to reuse waste produced.
iii. Developing overall efficiency guidelines.
iv. Use of energy efficient lighting systems.
3. Use of solar energy in building planning and design
*Building designed for passive solar energy and day-lighting use
peculiar features such as large south-facing windows and materials
that absorb and slowly release the sun’s heat.
* Passive solar designs can reduce heating bills by as much as 50%.
4. Water Harvesting
* Water harvesting means collecting runoff from the soil’s surface,
paved surfaces and other sources, and storing it for future use
such as irrigation .
* Water harvesting can also be achieved through-
i. Rain water harvesting
ii. Indoor water conservation
iii. Use of part of wastewater for non-portable uses
As far as possible native trees and plants shall be planted . These
require less water and are suitable for local conditions of water
availability and soil type.
Factors of selecting site for Residential Building :
1) It must be clear title and in residential zone.
2) As far as possible rectangular plot should be selected.
3) It must be near to market, school, hospital, commercial area,
4) The plot should have a separate approach road.
5) The land should be such that hard strata shall be available at
6) If the plot is in the vicinity of river then it must be above the high
7) Plot in low-lying areas should be avoided as rainwater may get
accumulated in the plot.
Factors of selecting site for educational building:
1) Site plot must be of clear title.
2) As far as possible rectangular plot should be selected because the maximum
area of plot can be used for construction.
3) The plot should have separate approach road.
4) Site should be near to the bus stop or well connected to the nearby area by
train or other transport system.
5) The land should have hard strata at minimum depth.
6) Site should be free from air pollution..
Factors of selecting site for factory :
1) Plot from proper zone must be selected as industrial estates are developed for
a specific type of industry. For example chemical zone , electronic industry
2) The plot should have a separate approach road .
3) The factory site should be near to the rail or road junction in view of
4) Uninterrupted and adequate electricity and water supply should be available
5) The land should be such that hard strata will be available after minimum
6) If the plot is in the vicinity of river then it must be above the high flood level.
Use of Eco-Friendly materials for
From the various materials those materials which causes minimum
damage to the environment, right from their raw materials usage
upto final product, are considered to be ‘Eco-Friendly’.
Properties of eco-friendly materials :
1. These materials causes minimum damage to the environment, right
from the manufacturing to final product.
2. Require minimum energy during manufacturing.
3. They do not emit harmful gases/fumes during manufacturing.
4. These are locally available and can be extracted from nature very
5. At the end of the useful life, there is a possibility recycle and reuse.
Various eco-friendly materials are categorized as
1) Naturally available eco-friendly materials or product developed
using eco-friendly raw materials method .
a) Bamboo , timber.
b) Sun dried bricks.
c) Mud uses for houses, wall plastering etc.
2) Eco-friendly materials developed using waste product :
a) Fly ash bricks:
These are waste products of the thermal power plant viz.
fly-ash for manufacturing the bricks.
b) Ply wood Manufactured from bagasse:
Bagasse is a solid waste product of sugar industry . It is
used in manufacturing ply-wood boards and panels.