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Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 1 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 2 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 3 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 4 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 5 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 6 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 7 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 8 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 9 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 10 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 11 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 12 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 13 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 14 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 15 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 16 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 17 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 18 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 19 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 20 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 21 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 22 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 23 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 24 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 25 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 26 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 27 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 28 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 29 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 30 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 31 Interpretation in report writing in RM Slide 32
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Interpretation in report writing in RM

A short and crisp description of Interpretation in Report Writing in Research Methodology.

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Interpretation in report writing in RM

  1. 1. INTERPRETATION AND REPORT WRITING IN RESEARCH METHODOLOGY By- SHUBHAM SHARMA Shubh arts
  2. 2. OVERVIEW INTERPRETATION Meaning Objective Importance Purpose Process Technic Precautions  REPORT WRITING  Meaning  Objective  Parts of report writing  Sections of a report  Steps  Requirements  Process  Precautions
  3. 3. INTERPRETATION
  4. 4. MEANING • The process of making in the sense of numerical data that has been collected, analysed and presented. • A common method of assessing numerical data is known as statistical data analysis and the activity of analysing and interpreting data in order to make prediction is known as inferential statistics.
  5. 5. •  INTERPRETATAION refers to the task of drawing inferences from the collected facts after an analytical and or experimental study. •  The task of interpretation has two major aspects. • Continuity • Explaflat concepts
  6. 6. OBJECTIVE-1 • Reports communicate information which has been compiled as a result of research and analysis of data and of issues. Reports can cover a wide range of topics, but usually focus on transmitting information with a clear purpose, to a specific audience. Good reports are documents that are accurate, objective and complete. They should also be well-written, clearly structured and expressed in a way that holds the reader's attention and meets their expectations. The true value of the research may be assessed through a report since the written report may be the "only tangible product of hundreds of hours of work.
  7. 7. OBJECTIVE-2  Usefulness and utility of research findings lie in proper interpretation  To understand the abstract principle that works beneath the finding  Establishment of explanatory concepts  To explain the real significance i.e. why his findings are what they are.  Interpretation is required for hypothesis results.
  8. 8. IMPORTANCE • Explanation helps to highlight that data does not stand on its own, but rather always requires interpretation. • Research is embedded in a complex system and as a result, findings are not always as black and white as we would like to think
  9. 9. PURPOSE • It is through interpretation that the researcher can well under- stand the abstract principle that works beneath his findings. Interpretation leads to the establishment of explanatory concepts that can serve as a guide for future research studies; it opens new avenues of intellectual adventure and stimulates the quest for more knowledge. Researcher can better appreciate only through interpretation why his findings are what they are and can make others to under- stand the real significance of his research findings.
  10. 10. PROCESS OF INTERPRETATION  Review of statistical data (graphs, pie charts etc.)  Using spreadsheets and statistical software. (excel sheets, tabular forms etc.)  Interpreting Qualitative data. (numerical data, surveyed data etc.)  Interpreting Quantitative data. (Surveyed data, Interview methods etc.)
  11. 11. TECHNICS OF INTERPRETATION  EXPLAINATIONS  EXTRANEOUS INFORMATIONS  GUIDANCE  RELEVANT FACTORS
  12. 12. EXPLAINANTIONS • A pragmatic-rhetorical notion of explanation may help us to solve some methodological disputes within the philosophy of the social sciences.
  13. 13. EXTRANEOUS INFORMATION • FOR THE SAKE OF GOOD RESULTS, AND PROPER DATA HANDLING, EXTRANEOUS INFORMATION MUST BE CONSIDERED.
  14. 14. GUIDANCE • Guidance of an expert for the purpose of interpretation in research is must. You must ensure the quality and path of your research with a field expert.. Sometimes also known as RESEARCH GUIDE.
  15. 15. RELEVANT FACTORS • A literature review should be more than a rote recitation of research studies. It must also contain analysis and synthesis. • The linkage of study with the topic is must.
  16. 16. PRECAUTIONS Precautions in Interpretation Researcher must pay attention to the following points for correct interpretation: (a ) The data are appropriate, trustworthy and adequate for drawing inferences. (b) The data reflect good homogeneity and that (c) Proper analysis has been done through statistical methods. (d) The researcher must remain cautious about the errors that can possibly arise in the process of interpreting results. He should be well equipped with and must know the correct use of statistical measures for drawing inferences concerning his study.
  17. 17. REPORT WRITING
  18. 18. MEANING • Latin Word ‘Portare’ means ‘to carry’. • RE+PORT =to carry information again. • Document giving summarised and interpretative information of research done based on factual data, opinions and about procedure used by the individual or group.
  19. 19. OBJECTIVE OF REPORT WRITING• to enable us to keep records; • to inform all interested people to tell about failures and successes • for ourselves, to keep on knowing what we are doing • to communicate to donors and funders (how the project progresses) • so donors could be encouraged knowing what happened with their donations • to let other people know about the developments of a project • so other people can be encouraged to do their own projects • so community members would be encouraged and informed • so other people can learn what we did • to help researchers to do their work • to determine further actions • to use for evaluation.
  20. 20. PARTS OF REPORT WRITING THE PRELIMINARY (PREFATORY PAGES) THE TEXT (MAIN BODY OF REPORT) THE REFERENCE MATERIAL
  21. 21. STRUCTURE OF REPORT
  22. 22. SECTIONS OF REPORT WRITINGSECTION PURPOSE Title page Title of report Student name/student number Course/subject Date due Table of contents Show the section of report Executive summary Gives a summary of the whole report Outlines -purpose, research method, findings, main conclusions and recommendations. Mainly past tense Written last Introduction Outlines context, background and purpose Defines terms and sets limits of the research The reader/audience can easily identify what, how, why (Mainly uses past tense and can be written later although presented first)
  23. 23. SECTIONS OF REPORT WRITING SECTION PURPOSE Methodology Explains how research was done and outlines how the data was collected Results/Findings Presents findings of the research Facts only - no interpretation Uses graphic form (eg. tables & graphs) Discussion Presents an interpretation and evaluation of the results. Analyses results - draws together different aspects of the findings, findings of other studies and refers to literature Conclusions Brief statement of what was found Recommendation Suggest suitable changes/solutions Appendix Attachments of additional information (e.g.. surveys, questionnaires, glossary etc.) Reference All references used
  24. 24. STEPS OF REPORT WRITING Logical analysis of subject matter  Preparation of the Final outline  Preparation of the Rough Draft  Rewriting and Polishing  Preparation of the final bibliography Writing the final Draft
  25. 25. REQUIREMENTS  1.A Title Page with:  a. The paper title  b. Your name, the course, and the date  c. The professor's name  d. A 1 paragraph abstract  2. A Table of Contents with:  a. Subheadings that appear in the text  b. Page number of these headings  3. A Research Paper with:  a. Begins with an Introduction  b. Has a well organized Body divided into Section and Subsections  c. Ends with a Conclusion or Summary  4. A Reference or Bibliography  5. If needed, an Appendix with the data used to construct the map or other information not cited in the text.
  26. 26. PROCESS OF REPORT WRITING I. Decide on the 'Terms of reference’ II. Decide on the procedure III. Find the information IV. Decide on the structure V. Draft the first part of your report VI. Analyse your findings and draw conclusions VII. Make recommendations VIII. Draft the executive summary and table of contents IX. Compile a reference list X. Revise your draft report XI. Presentation
  27. 27. PRECAUTIONS IN REPORT WRITING  The length of the report should be kept keeping in view the fact that it should cover the subject in length but it should be short enough to maintain the interest of readers.  The report should not be dull. it should be such as to sustain one’s interest.  The report should possess the features of simplicity and avoiding vagueness.  Logical analysis should be the very basis of preparing a research report.  8. The report should also suggest the policy implication relating to the problem under consideration and should help us in future forecasting.  9. All the technical data should be appended in the report.
  28. 28. CASE STUDY • A case study on HOW COLOUR AFFECTS ONE’S MOOD..??? • http://www.readwritethink.org/files /resources/lesson_images/lesson1 155/example_paper.pdf
  29. 29. REFERENCES • GOOGLE.COM • SCRIBD.COM • EXPLORABLE.COM • READWRITETHINK.ORG • WISDOMJOBS.COM • SHAREYOURESSAYS.COM • WEBSPACE.SHIP.EDU • BETTERREVOLUTION.ORG ………. And many more..!!
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A short and crisp description of Interpretation in Report Writing in Research Methodology.

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