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Direct & indirect speech

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Direct speech and indirect speech

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Direct & indirect speech

  1. 1. DIRECT & INDIRECT SPEECH SIMRAN KAUR
  2. 2. DIRECT SPEECH • Direct speech is also known as “Quoted Speech”. • It is saying or reporting exactly what the person has said. • It uses quotation marks. • Here, the verb tenses don’t change since we just copy, what the person had said. Sentence 1: I am 12 years old. Direct Speech(1): She said, ”I am 12 years old.” Direct Speech(2): “I am 12 years old”, she said.
  3. 3. DIRECT SPEECH Sentence 2:Can you give me some food? Direct Speech(1):He said, ”Can you give me some food?” Direct Speech(2):”Can you give me some food?”, he said. Sentence 3:Get out! Direct Speech(1):Mr.Mehta said,”Get out!” Direct Speech(2):”Get out!”, Mr.Mehta said. Sentence 4:We shall go out of city this summer. Direct Speech(1):She said, ”We shall go out of city this summer.” Direct Speech(2):”We shall go out of city this summer.”
  4. 4. DIRECT SPEECH • The Quoted/ Direct speech is put within commas. • The first word of the reported speech begins with a capital letter. • In the reported speech, we may use any tense required by the sense of the sentence.
  5. 5. INDIRECT SPEECH • Indirect speech is also known as the Reported speech. • It doesn’t use quotation marks. • What the person said doesn’t need to be changed word to word. Here, the verb tenses change. Sentence 1:”I am hungry”, she said. Indirect Speech(1):She said that she was hungry. Indirect Speech(2):She said she was hungry.
  6. 6. INDIRECT SPEECH Sentence 2:Mary said, ”I am going to the bank.” Indirect Speech: Mary said (that) she was going to the bank. Sentence 3:Rahul said, “My teacher told me to study harder.” Indirect Speech: Rahul said (that) his teacher had told him to study harder. Sentence 4:Simon said, ”My mom can’t attend my graduation.” Indirect Speech: Simon said that his mom couldn’t attend his graduation.
  7. 7. INDIRECT SPEECH • No inverted commas are there. • Reported speech is introduced by a conjunction: that, if, whether, etc. • Reporting verb changes according to the sense. • Tense of reporting verb is never changed. • All kinds of sentences change into assertive ones.
  8. 8. REPORTING VERBS DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH Say Say Says Says Say to Tell Says to Tells Will say Will say Will say to Will tell to Said Said Said to Told/Asked
  9. 9. RULES OF CHANGING DIRECT SPEECH INTO INDIRECT SPEECH • If the reporting verb is in Present or Future Tense, then the tense of the reported speech remains unchanged. Direct Speech(1): Rajesh says, “She has brought a fair name for her family.” Indirect Speech(1):Rajesh says that she has brought a fair name for her family. Direct Speech(2):I shall say, “I went to Agra on Monday.” Indirect Speech(2):I shall say that I went to Agra on Monday.
  10. 10. RULES OF CHANGING DIRECT SPEECH INTO INDIRECT SPEECH • If the reporting verb is in the past tense, the tense of the reported speech must change into the corresponding past tense. Direct Speech(1):I said, ”I am speaking the truth.” Indirect Speech(1):I said that I was speaking the truth. Direct Speech(2):We said, “They can’t cross the river unless the boatmen help them.” Indirect Speech(2):We said that they couldn’t cross the river unless the boatmen helped them.
  11. 11. RULES OF CHANGING DIRECT SPEECH INTO INDIRECT SPEECH • If the reported speech contains universal truth, habitual act, proverb, mathematical fact, historical fact, expression of morality, an unchanged fact, then the tense of the reported speech will not change. Direct Speech(1):He said, “The sun sets in the west.” Indirect Speech(1):He said that the sun sets in the west. Direct Speech(2):She said to me, ”Honesty is the best policy.” Indirect Speech(2):She told me that honesty is the best policy.
  12. 12. RULES OF CHANGING DIRECT SPEECH INTO INDIRECT SPEECH • If two such actions are given in the reported speech which take place at the same time, the past indefinite or continuous tense does not change. Direct Speech(1):He said, “Mohan was singing a song while Gopal was playing on a flute.” Indirect Speech(2):He said that Mohan was singing a song while Gopal was playing on a flute.
  13. 13. RULES OF CHANGING DIRECT SPEECH INTO INDIRECT SPEECH • If the reported speech contains some improbable or hypothetical condition, then the past indefinite tense doesn’t change. Direct Speech(1):He said to me, “If I were there, I would snub him”. Indirect Speech(1):He told me that if I were there, he would snub him. Direct Speech(2):He said to me, “If I were the PM, I would remove poverty first.” Indirect Speech(2):He told me that if he were the PM, he would remove poverty first.
  14. 14. RULES OF CHANGING DIRECT SPEECH INTO INDIRECT SPEECH DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Present Continuous Past Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Past Indefinite Past Perfect Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect No change Past Perfect Continuous No change
  15. 15. RULES OF CHANGING DIRECT SPEECH INTO INDIRECT SPEECH Changes in FutureTense sentences Direct Speech Indirect Speech Will/Shall Would/Should Will be Would be Will have Will have Can Could May Might Must Had to/ Must Could/Should/Would/Might No change
  16. 16. RULES OF CHANGING DIRECT SPEECH INTO INDIRECT SPEECH Direct Speech Indirect Speech This That These Those Here There Hence Thence Hither Thither Now Then Ago Before Thus So Today That day Yesterday The previous day Tomorrow The following day/The next day Last week/month/year The previous week/month/year The last fortnight The previous fortnight The day before yesterday The day before the previous day
  17. 17. PRESENT INDEFINITE TO PAST INDEFINITE Direct Speech(1):He said to me, “I never eat sweets.” Indirect Speech(1):He told me that he never ate sweets. Direct Speech(2):He said to Hina, “I hate you.” Indirect speech(2):He told Hina that he hates her.
  18. 18. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TO PAST CONTINUOUS Direct Speech(1):Ram said to Shyam, “I am watchingTV.” Indirect Speech(1):Ram told Shyam that he was watchingTV. Direct Speech(2):They said to Rahim, “They are playing football.” Indirect Speech(2):They told Rahim that they were playing football.
  19. 19. PRESENT PERFECT TO PAST PERFECT Direct Speech(1):Sita said, “I have already cooked.” Indirect Speech(1):Sita said that she had already cooked. Direct Speech(2):Ram said to Shyam, “I have seen her today.” Indirect Speech(2):Ram told Shyam that he had seen her that day.
  20. 20. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TO PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Direct Speech(1):Sonu said to me, “I have been reading book for an hour.” Indirect Speech(1):Sonu told me that she had been reading for an hour. Direct Speech(2):Monu said to Sonu, “Geeta has been playing since morning.” Indirect Speech(2):Monu told Sonu that Geeta had been playing since morning.
  21. 21. PAST INDEFINITE TO PAST PERFECT Direct Speech(1):She said to Raj, “I went to Jaipur last week.” Indirect Speech(1):She told Raj that she had gone to Jaipur the previous week. Direct Speech(2):Ramesh said to me, “I telephoned you yesterday.” Indirect Speech(2):Ramesh told me that he had telephoned me the previous day.
  22. 22. PAST CONTINUOUS TO PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Direct Speech(1):She said to me, “I was waiting for you.” Indirect Speech(1):She told me that she had been waiting for me.
  23. 23. PAST PERFECT NO CHANGE Direct Speech(1):He said to me, “I had completed my project.” Indirect Speech(1):He told me that he had completed his project. Direct Speech(2):She said to Meena, “Ram had already visitedJaipur.” Indirect Speech(2):She told Meena that Ram had already visitedJaipur.
  24. 24. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS NO CHANGE Direct Speech(1):He said, “I had been playing chess for two hours.” Indirect Speech(1):He said that he had been playing chess for two hours. Direct Speech(2):I said to you, “Ravi had been waiting for you since 2 o’clock.” Indirect Speech(2):I told you that Ravi had been waiting for you since 2 o’clock.
  25. 25. FUTURE INDEFINITE Direct Speech(1):Rahul said to Meena, “I shall write a letter.” Indirect Speech(1):Rahul told Meena that he should write a letter. Direct Speech(2):Rita said to Karan, “You will attend the party tomorrow” Indirect Speech(2):Rita told Karan that he would attend the party the next day.
  26. 26. FUTURE CONTINUOUS Direct Speech(1):Shashi said to Shyam, “Sheena will be waiting for you.” Indirect Speech(1):Shashi told Shyam that Sheena would be waiting for him. Direct Speech(2):I said to her, “I shall be writing an essay.” Indirect Speech(2):I told her that I should be writing an essay.
  27. 27. FUTURE PERFECT Direct Speech(1):Sudha said to Raj, “I will have completed my work.” Indirect Speech(1):Sudha told Raj that she would have completed her work.
  28. 28. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS Direct Speech(1):Nisha said to me, “I shall have been reading the book.” Indirect Speech(1):Nisha told me that she should have been reading the book. Direct Speech(2):Chanchal said to Ekta, “We shall have been visiting the fair tomorrow.” Indirect Speech(2):Chanchal told Ekta that they should have been visiting the fair next day.
  29. 29. THANK YOU!!!
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Direct speech and indirect speech

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