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How did I get into your office? - Disobey 2020 presentation

How to get into buildings without social engineering?Different vulnerabilities and tricks that can be used to bypass the access controls, without social engineering.

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How did I get into your office? - Disobey 2020 presentation

  1. 1. Get inside! Without social engineering Twitter: @Anakondantti 2020
  2. 2. Our focus today • Bypassing the access control or lock • Without social engineering prowess • (Preferably) without damaging the lock / door • (Preferably) without leaving any evidence • Mitigations and risk management • Not covered: • Bypassing alarm systems. • Traditional lock picking • Buildings and companies. Some things are ”unpatched”.
  3. 3. Trick 0: Bypass the lock (latch attack) My childhood adventures.. Abloy lock, year 1990 unpickable for a 12 year old? Ice cream: 1 mk Access granted: priceless J Why did they remove the security patch?
  4. 4. Who am I now? • Security chief at Solita 2019 - • Hacker at Team ROT • Red-teaming hobbyist, not pro! • Still bad at social engineering. • Twitter: @Anakondantti
  5. 5. Legal disclaimer
  6. 6. Don’t get into trouble • Never ”pentest” access controls without a permission! • Even with the permission, agree on the rules • If you break something, who will pay for it? • If you copy the keys, what happens? • Can you ever talk about it, NDA? • Physical access without a permission = quickly a police matter.
  7. 7. Attack!
  8. 8. Preparations • Recon • Around the building, all backdoors etc. • Model and type of access control system • Who has access to different parts of the building? • Where are the valuable assets? • The alarm system? When does it automatically switch on? • Are some employees prone to ask for id cards and some never ask? (tailgating) • Get proper tools and software • Proxmark, Keysy, Chameleon • Magnets, screwdrivers etc.
  9. 9. Let’s get physical!
  10. 10. Trick 1, the oldest trick: Just walk in? • I did this accidentally last autumn. • Tailgating is not the only game plan. • Follow the dress code, don’t look nervous. • You don’t need props. • Props = not an accident or honest mistake. Prisma shopping center 2019, Probably nothing interesting there.
  11. 11. Trick 2: Bypass the door • Just go around the door. • This might be enough • big objects can’t be stolen. • I did this a lot when I was a kid.
  12. 12. Trick 3: Bypass the lock • Hook, film,wire.. – 10-50 usd • Reach the door handle inside • The doors are rarely airtight • Leaves no trace My finger can fit here… J
  13. 13. Trick 4: Lock tampering Privesc. • Force the bolt on the lock to stay unlocked. • The door will close and it looks like it’s locked. • Authorized access leads to unauthorized access. • Done this for fun, but others use it for profit too.. Excert from a notice, 2019
  14. 14. Trick 5: Obscure path leads to profit • I got inside a restricted hospital area through a path like this.. • (extremely stimulating!)
  15. 15. Digital access control.. Part 1: Technology
  16. 16. It works roughly like this 1. Reader -> Tag: “Who are you?” 2. Tag -> Reader: “I’m 123456XYZ” 3. Reader -> Server: “Can 123456XYZ get in?” 4. Server -> Reader: “Yes” 5. Control box -> Lock: Open sesame! Door Reader Tag Lock Server Control box
  17. 17. It’s 2020 … that communication surely is.. • Encrypted • Authenticated • Signed with a master key • After all, it’s 2020. We use HTTPS and all. Right?
  18. 18. Reality: That communication.. • Is often not encrypted! • Is often not authenticated • The tag talks to hacker’s reader as well • Is often not signed • (Google “Wiegand”. It was a great idea, decades ago.)
  19. 19. How difficult is it to copy / read a tag? • Depends. Some can’t be copied! • You need to get close to a tag. • Reading takes seconds, leaves no traces anywhere. No magic inside
  20. 20. Zero hacker magic required! • Phone + 0 eur • Distance 1-2 cm • Mifare Classic • Keysy, 50 eur • Distance 1-2 cm • 125KHz legacy tags • Cloner, 15 eur • Distance 1-2 cm • 125KHz legacy tags • Cloning-As-A-Service • Very trustworthy J
  21. 21. Professional tools • Proxmark, 380 eur • Distance 1-8 cm • Multi-standard, multi-freq • Not a duplicator! Real hacking J • 100-200 eur • Long-range antenna • Distance 10cm - 1m! • Rebadge Enterprise, 3500 eur • ”autopwn” for police etc.
  22. 22. Your office is safe? • Tampere, bus card: DESFire, safe • Tampere, Ratina center : DESFire, safe • Your office? Don’t count on it! • How to check? • Ask • This tag says “Indala”. Google “Indala tag cloning”. • Check with Proxmark. • Reverse image search for tag or reader if no labels.
  23. 23. That was Trick 6: Copy an access tag • No need to panic J • The biggest risk: You don’t know what is possible. • Demo: video (thank you Jarkko Vesiluoma)
  24. 24. Bonus variations • You can also attack the reader. • Or the communication between server and the reader. • Capture tags as they are used.. • Wiegand protocol sniffer, 30 USD • Requires physical access to building • Requires skills
  25. 25. Trick 7: Exit sensors • The door opens automatically when somebody goes out. • How does the sensor know that? • Not very prevalent in Finland, but possible. • Sensor will trigger from heat change. • Slip in some smoke, suitable sprays, heat bags.. • The door is not airtight. Exit sensor door in a Finnish building
  26. 26. Digital access control.. Part 2: Process
  27. 27. Lobby in a big office building (multiple organisations) • The lobby/info desk has access keys and may be able to program them • They hand out keys to different companies and visitors • They will not destroy (usually) the key tags, but will redistribute them with updated access permissions for the next user. • They have a master key. • What could possibly go wrong? • (apart from obvious social engineering plays)
  28. 28. Trick 8: Steal from the lobby • The master key often is in a simple drawer, rarely in a safe. • The access tags are often within reach • You don’t need to touch them to copy the tags • The access tags are returned off-hours to a simple box, unsupervised. • Get in when doors are open, visit the lobby after 17.00 -> Profit.
  29. 29. Trick 9: Evil visitor • Get a tag as a visitor to organisation A. Copy the access tag (go to a toilet and use Keysy) • Return the tag at the end of the day. • Come back later… • the lobby has updated the permissions • you can get access to other parts of the building. • Or don’t return the tag? It might still work and you could wander around unsupervised..
  30. 30. Trick 10: Illogical area permissions • The access control software is door-oriented, not area-oriented. • Complex topology leads to mistakes. • The software could check these things, but it often doesn’t. • (Apparently graph coloring algorithms are too fancy?)
  31. 31. Digital access control.. Part 3: installation issues
  32. 32. Trick 11: Wank the door handle (Special thanks to Tapio Vuorinen) • Video • Rough handling may break the lock or the door handle! • Why did that even work?
  33. 33. Trick 12: Power the motor • Access the wiring between lock and the control box • Apply voltage to the motor, bypassing the reader completely • This should not happen if everything is installed properly.
  34. 34. Variation: cut the power • Will the lock fail open? Or fail closed? • For safety reasons, people need to be able to get out if power is lost. • If there is no mechanical backup, the lock will almost certainly fail open • -> fail open lock will open if you cut the power somehow.
  35. 35. The locked office The public space Trick 13: Control box on the wrong side (2019) • This really really surprised me! • Encryption, heavy locks or doors can’t help.. • Do they check this in audits? Did you check? Door Reader Lock Control box Iifting the panel: 10 seconds Screwdriver: 1 euro My face: priceless J
  36. 36. Mitigations
  37. 37. Mitigations • PIN codes – copied key not enough • Proper implementation (control box properly etc.) • Proper standards (MIFARE DESFire, encryption) • Tamper resistant stuff ($$$) • Proper doors, windows etc. • Alarm system (separate from access control if vulnerable to key replays) • Check, don’t assume! • Proper administrative controls
  38. 38. Risk management
  39. 39. Risk management and audits (Thank you Heikki Stark & Nixu for the Awesome sticker J ) • Security costs money. Some of the mitigations are not free. • Do you know the risks? I didn’t. • Who made the trade-off? Did you or the owner of the building? • I can’t tell you what is an acceptable risk to you. • Most security audits are not thorough • Katakri or other auditors don’t care about copied tags. • They don’t check the control box locations and such.
  40. 40. Thank you Let’s be careful out there J