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Chemistry class 12th investigatory Project

This is my investigatory project of class 12th chemistry.
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Chemistry class 12th investigatory Project

  1. 1. Submitted by: Dheeraj Singh Class:XIth‘A Roll No.:18 Under the Guidence of: Mr.Sudhir Maingi PGT(Chemistry) Department of Chemistry Kendriya Vidyalaya No. 1, Pathankot Punjab
  2. 2. This is to certify that RAHUL KUSHWAHA, a student of class XII-A has successfully completed the project entitled “Quantity of casein in milk”under the guidance of Mr. Sudhir Maingi during the year 2015- 16.The project is found worthy of acceptance as final project for the subject Chemistry of class 12th. He has prepared the project under my guidance. (Signature of external examiner) (Mr. Sudhir Maingi) PGT (Chem) (Department of Chemistry)
  3. 3. Every organized report requires a lot of hard work and seeks a lot of helping hands. Up to the completion of this project report, I was not so far from this strategy or rule. Apart from the efforts of an individual, the success of any project depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project. First of all, I would like to show my greatest appreciation to our respected teacher Mr. Sudhir Maingi for his proper guidance and moderation during my class. I feel motivated and encouraged every time I attend their lectures. Without their encouragement and guidance, this project would not have materialized. Then I would like to give thanks to our respected principal Mr. J.D Guru. I would like to thank him for his tremendous support and help. Plus, I would also like to thank to my dear friends and my dear parents for their continuous support and help on the completion of my project work. The guidance and support received from all the members who contributed and who are contributing to this project, was vital for the success of the project. At last, I would like to remember and thank every individual who helped me to complete my project report successfully.
  5. 5. AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT  To study the quantity of casein present in different samples of milk
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION: Milk is a complete diet as it contains in its Minerals, Vitamins, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats and Water. Average Composition of milk from different sources are given below: Source of Milk Water (%) Mineral (%) Protein (%) Fats (%) Carbohydrates (%) Cow 87.1 0.7 3.4 3.9 4.9 Goat 87.0 0.7 3.3 4.2 4.8 Sheep 82.6 0.9 5.5 6.5 4.5 Casein is a major protein constituent in milk and is a mixed phosphor-protein. Casein has isoelectric pH of about 4.7 and can be easily separated around this isoelectric pH. It readily dissolves in dilute acids and alkalis. Casein is present in milk as calcium caseinate in the form of micelles. These micelles have negative charge and on adding acid to milk the negative charges are neutralized.
  7. 7. THEORY: Natural milk is an opaque white fluid Secreted by the mammary glands of Female mammal. The main constituent of natural milk are Protein, Carbohydrate, Minerals, Vitamins, Fats and Water and is a complete balanced diet. Fresh milk is sweetish in taste. However, when it is kept for long time at a temperature of 5 degree it become sour in taste because of bacteria present in air. These bacteria convert lactose of milk into lactic acid which is sour in taste. In acidic condition casein of milk starts separating out as a precipitate. When the acidity in milk is sufficient and temperature is around 36 degree, it forms semi-solid mass, called curd.
  8. 8. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Beakers (250 ml)  Filter-Paper  Glass Rod  Weight box  Filtration Flask  Buchner funnel  Test Tubes  Porcelain Dish  Different samples of Milk  1% acetic acid solution  Ammonium Sulphate solution
  9. 9. PROCEDURE: 1. A Clean dry beaker has been taken, followed by putting 20 ml of cow’s milk into it and adding 20 ml of saturated ammonium sulphate solution slowly and with stirring. Fat along with Casein was precipitated out. 2.The solution was filtered and transferred the precipitates in another beaker. Added about 30 ml of water to the precipitate. Only Casein dissolves in water forming milky solution leaving fat undissolved. 3. The milky solution was heated to about 40 degree Celsius and add 1% of acetic acid solution drop- wise, when Casein got precipitated. 4.Filtered the precipitate, washed with water and the precipitate was allowed to dry. 5.Weighed the dry solid mass in a previously weighed watch glass. 6. The experiment was repeated with other samples of milk.
  10. 10. OBSERVATION: Volume of the milk taken in each case = 20 ml Name of milk: Percentage of Casein Cow Milk 2.5-3.6 Goat Milk 2.5-3.3 Sheep Milk 4.3-4.6
  11. 11. Conclusion: Different samples of milk contains the different percentage of casein.
  12. 12. BIBLIOGRAPHY: oHelp From Internet oInformation from Library
  13. 13. oHelp From Teachers