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Serving the Equity Imperative 7_1

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Serving the Equity Imperative 7_1

  1. 1. Serving the Equity Imperative: Intentional Action Toward Greater Student Success 2016 Serving the Equity Imperative: Intentional Action Toward Greater Student Success Katie Zaback, Andrew Carlson, Sophia Laderman and Sharmila Mann State Higher Education Executive Officers and Complete College America July 13, 2016
  2. 2. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 2 | P a g e Introduction If statesare to achieve theirpostsecondaryeducationattainmentgoals,itisbecomingincreasinglyclear that theymusttake directand immediate actiontoaddressthe equitygapsinpostsecondaryeducation betweenunderservedpopulationsandthe more likelytosucceedwhite andAsianstudents.Notonlyis earninga postsecondarycredential essential forindividualeconomicvitality,butitisnecessarytothe economicvitalityof ourstatesandour nation.AsSteve Murdock, demographerand formerdirectorof the U.S. CensusBureau,hassaid,the economicprosperityof the entire nationhingesonreducingthese gaps,since reducingthemisthe single greatestwayforusto drive economicgrowth1 . Unfortunately,thesestudentsare disproportionatelyimpactedbycomponentsof the educationsystem that consistentlyfail all students. Underserved studentsare overrepresentedinaremedial education systemfromwhich fewstudentseveremerge.Theyare more likelytoattendunder-resourced institutionswithfewerstructuresknowntosupportstudentsuccessand, asa result,accumulate fewer creditsintheirfirstyear.All these factorscontribute tothe gapin completionrates. The data presentedinthispolicybrief supportthe notionthattime is,infact,the enemy andthat for manyunderservedstudentsahighereducationcredentialunnecessarilytakestoolongtocomplete and costs toomuch, ultimatelydrivingdowncompletionratesforthese students.Thesedatashow thatfew gaps existacrossrace/ethnicityforstudentswhosuccessfullycompletethe educationpipeline.Infact, studentswhograduate take aboutthe same amountof time andthe same numberof creditsto geta degree regardlessof theirrace or ethnicstatus.We must addresseachstage of the educationpipeline to make real progressinaddressingthe equitygap. 1 Murdock, Ph.D., Steve, Professor of Sociology,RiceUniversity. Population Changein the United States: Implicationsfor Education and Socioeconomic Development. Presentation at SHEEO Higher Education Policy Conference. August 5, 2015
  3. 3. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 3 | P a g e Background Establishedin2009, Complete College Americaisanational nonprofit agency withasingle mission:to workwithstatesto significantlyincreasethe numberof Americanswithqualitycareercertificatesor college degreesandtoclose attainmentgapsfortraditionallyunderrepresentedpopulations. As the national associationof statewidegoverning,policy,andcoordinatingboardsforpostsecondary education,the State HigherEducationExecutive Officers Association(SHEEO) isfocusedonincreasing postsecondaryeducationattainment.SHEEO’svisionstatementfocusesonstudentsuccessandsetsan ambitiousgoal of at least60 percentof adultsfromeverysocioeconomicanddemographiccategory completingapostsecondarydegreeorcredential of quality. Both organizationsworkdirectlywiththeirstate membersand,since 2011, have collaboratedtocollect the CCA commoncompletionmetrics.These dataprovide studentsuccesspointsthroughoutthe postsecondaryeducationpipeline.Unlike the federalIntegratedPostsecondaryEducationDataSystem (IPEDS),the CCA datasetincludes informationonremedialeducationandgatewaymathandEnglish courses;student,first-yearcreditaccumulation;andthe time andcreditstodegree.Further,CCA data can be disaggregatedbyrace/ethnicityinadditiontofull-time,part-time andtransferstatus.These data provide apowerful tool forstatesinunderstandingtheirequitygapsandtheyprovide aunique opportunitytolookat these trendsfromanational perspective.
  4. 4. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 4 | P a g e Equity Challenges and Opportunities through the Postsecondary Education Pipeline Equity Challenge 1: Underserved groups are Over Represented at Less Selective Colleges with Lower Graduation Rates While,asa nation,we are startingto close accessgapsthrough increasing overall college enrollmentsof Hispanic/Latinoandblack/AfricanAmerican students,these studentsare more likelytoenroll inless selectiveinstitutionsdespitedatathatsuggestsmanymore are capable of attendinghighresearch institutions.2 Infactfully60 percentof blackstudents enrolledin2-yearinstitutions whileonly8percent enrolledinhighresearch4-yearinstitutions.Conversely,amuchhigherproportionof Asianstudents enroll inhighresearchinstitutions thananyothergroup. Figure 1. Notes: Bars to not add up to 100% becausethe percent for each sector uses an individual median of state means. AI/PI/NA: American Indian,Native Hawaiian or PacificIslander,NativeAlaskan. 2 Carnevale,Anthony P. and Strohl, J. Separate & Unequal: How Higher Education Reinforces the Intergenerational Reproduction of White Racial Privilege.Georgetown Public Policy InstituteCenter on Education and the Workforce. Retrieved onlineMarch 3, 2016 from https://cew.georgetown.edu/wp- content/uploads/2014/11/SeparateUnequal.FR_.pdf 56% 43% 60% 54% 54% 31% 25% 27% 27% 31% 13% 34% 8% 18% 19% AI/PI/NA Asian Black Hispanic White Distributionof StudentEnrollmentAcross InstitutionSectors Two Year Four Year Four Year Research
  5. 5. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 5 | P a g e Figure 2. Note: AI: American Indian,Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander,NativeAlaskan A: Asian B: Black or African American H: Hispanic or Latino W: White At all institution types, Black,HispanicandAmericanIndian,Native HawaiianorPacificIslander,Native Alaskanstudentshave lowergraduationrates andthese differencesare especiallypronouncedatthe typesof institutions whichminoritystudentsare more likelytoattend—community collegesandnon- researchfour-yearinstitutions. Asnotedabove blackstudents are farmore likelyto enroll ina communitycollege andof those whoentered full timeseekingadegree onlysevenpercentgraduated withan associate degree within three years.Another13 to 16 percentgo on totransferto a four-year institutionbefore receivingtheirdegree butonlyaportionof those studentsgoonto complete a degree. Figure 3. Note: Bars to not add up to 100%because the percent for each sector uses an individual median of state means. AI/PI/NA: American Indian,Native Hawaiian or PacificIslander,NativeAlaskan. 9% 38% 61% 16% 50% 72% 7% 31% 57% 12% 41% 63% 15% 50% 72% 0% 50% 100% Associates Bachelors Bachelors Research Graduation Rate in 150% Time (Full Time Students) 12% 5% 7% 6% 4% 39% 23% 36% 39% 32% 55% 73% 59% 57% 63% AI/PI/NA Asian Black Hispanic White Distributionof StudentCompletionsby Degree Type Certificate Associates Bachelors AI A B H WAI A B H WAI A B H W
  6. 6. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 6 | P a g e Thisdisproportionate enrollment of minoritystudentsinlessselective institutions describedabove,and lack of successat those institutions alsocontributestodisproportionate attainment.The datashowa much smallerproportionof black,Hispanic,andAmericanIndian,Native HawaiianorPacificIslander, Native Alaskan studentsreceive bachelor’sdegreesincomparisonwithAsianandwhite students.While the completionof anypostsecondarycredential providesaboostinearningpotential overhighschool graduationalone,national averagesshow that bachelor’sdegrees,onaverage,conferhigherlifetime earningsthanassociate degreesjustasassociate degreesconferahigherboostthan certificates. If statesare to improve the postsecondaryattainmentratesforunderservedpopulationsitiscritical for themto focus theireffortsonequippingthe openaccessinstitutionsthese studentsattendwith promisingprogramreformstobetterserve all students.Todate,manyeffortshave focusedon improvingstudentchoice andmatching,butthisignoresthe factthatlocationandcost are the primary driversof student’scollege decisions andthatselectiveinstitutionswill neverhave asufficientnumber of seatsto serve all students. Giventhe growingdiversityinthe U.S. population,the equityimperative is clear:We mustclose the gaps inenrollment,completion,andattainment all studentgroups if we wish to have the workforce,wealth,andcivicparticipationwe needfromourcountryinthe 21st century. Thankfully,thereare policiesandpracticesemergingthatshow greatpromise forincreasingattainment ratesfor all students andimprovingoutcomesforunderservedminoritypopulations.Complete College Americacallsthese strategiesthatGame Changersbecause institutionsandstatesimplementingthese reformsare seeing promisinginitial improvementsinstudentsuccess. The Game Changer: Creatingincentivesfor studentsuccessthrough outcomes-basedfunding The firststep to ensuringthatall studentshave the opportunitytosucceedisensuringthatstudent successisthe primarygoal of postsecondaryinstitutions.Formany years,statesfundedinstitutions basedon the numberof studentstheyenrolledbut32 stateshave now shiftedtofundinginstitutions,at leastpartially,oncompletionoutcomesratherthanmerelyenrollmentinputs3 .A well-designed outcomes-basedfundingpolicytiedtoa state’sstrategicplancanhelpcreate the internal conditions necessaryfora state to focuson completionandincreasingattainment.Outcomes-basedfunding programs encourage participatinginstitutionstofocusoncompletionandthe stepsnecessarytoget studentsthere. Thoughoutcomes-basedfundingalone cannotincrease completion,thisinterventionprovidesa financial incentiveforinstitutionstoimproveoutcomes. A growingbodyof researchshowsthese modelsoftenleadtoinstitution-levelimprovementsinaligningwithstate goalstoimprove educational outcomes4 .Stateswhodistributeall ora significantportionof theirstate appropriationsbasedon outcomesratherthan enrollment,suchas TennesseeandOhio, are alsohighly involvedin institution- level reformsthatfocusoninterventions thatshow promise in improvingcompletionandclosing 3 National Conference of State Legislatures onlinePerformanceBased Fundingdashboard.Retrieved February 26, 2016 at: http://www.ncsl.org/research/education/performance-funding.aspx 4 Hearn, James C. (2015). Outcomes-Based Fundingin Historical and ComparativeContext. The Lumina Foundation. Retrieved May 25, 2016 at: https://www.luminafoundation.org/files/resources/hearn-obf-full.pdf
  7. 7. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 7 | P a g e achievementgaps.Additionally,bothstates includeweightingforbetterservingunderserved populations,includingstudentswhoare older,low income, minority(inOhioonly) andotherwise at-risk. A well-designedfundingformulathatprovidesincentive fundingforcredentialsearnedby blackand Hispanicstudents mayhelpclose equitygapsinpostsecondaryeducation. The U.S. will notachieve itsattainmentgoalsif we merelyavoidincreasingthe equitygapsthatexist betweenstudentsubgroups—we mustclose those gaps.Asstatescontinue toexperimentwith outcomes-basedfunding,we will learnhow touse thislever more effectively tobothclose equitygaps and increase attainmentforall students.Bytrackingthe resultsof various outcomes-basedfunding initiativesinthe states withclose attentionpaidto the equityimperative,we have the opportunityto shape outcomes-basedfundingintoatrue game changerfor highereducationattainmentANDequity. Equity Challenge 2: Far too many students of color are lost in the traditional remediation system Most studentswhoenternon-selectivefour-yearinstitutionsandcommunitycolleges musttake placementtestsinmathandEnglishpriorto registeringforclasses.Thesetestsdetermine if astudent will startincollege level workorbe placedintoremedial ordevelopmental education.Traditionally, studentswhotestbelowcollege levelhave tocomplete aseries of courses,overmultiple semesters that do notcount towarda degree before theycanevenenroll incollege level credit-bearingcourses.For manystudents,these remedial classesare theirfirstandlastexperience incollege.Eventhose who successfullycomplete the remedial sequence fartoooftenfail toevenenroll inthe associatedgateway course5 .It isessential forstudentstocompletethese gatewaycourses earlyintheircareersince they are oftenprerequisiterequirementsforothercoursesrequiredforadegree.What’smore,datasuggest that manyof the studentsplacedinremediationcouldhave successfullycompletedcollege level courseworkif they hadstartedthere,andmany more couldcomplete if providedwithadditional supplemental support6 . While remedialplacementburdensstudentsof all races,the effectsare particularlydire forstudents fromhistoricallyunderservedpopulations. Attwo-yearinstitutions,more than70 percent of black studentsand 60 percentof Hispanicstudentsenroll inatleast one remedialcourse compared tojust over50 percentof white andAsianstudents.Atfour-yearinstitutions,the gapsare evenmore pronounced.Infact, blackstudentsare more than twice as likelytoenroll in remediation.Additionally, bothblack andHispanicstudentsare more likelytoneedremediationin bothmathandEnglish. 5 Bailey,Thomas R., Jeong, Dong W. and Cho, Sung-Woo (2009). Referral, Enrollment and Completion in Developmental Education Sequences in Community Colleges. Economics of Education Review. Volume 29, Issue2. 6 Scott-Clayton, Judith. (2012). Do High-Stakes Placement Exams Predictcollege Success? CCRC WorkingPaper No. 41. Retrieved May 25, 2016 at: http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/high-stakes-predict-success.pdf
  8. 8. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 8 | P a g e Figure 4. Note: Four Year Research institutions arenotincluded sincethese institutions offer very littleremediation. Successinthe firstcollege levelgatewaycourse forthose studentswhocompletethe remedial sequence alsovariesdramaticallybyrace.Inparticular,farfewerblackstudentsgoonto complete the gatewaycourse (orcoursesassociatedwiththeirremedial needs) withintwoyears,whileAsianstudents are highlylikelytocompletethe gatewaycourse.The gapsare lesspronouncedforwhite andHispanic students.Acrossbothrace and subject,fartoo few studentsof nearlyanybackgroundcomplete their associatedgatewaycourseswithintwoyearsof entry,whichsignificantlyimpactstheirabilityto complete adegree ontime. Figure 5. Note: N/A = Sample sizeis too small. Math 17% 20% 25% 27% 11% 24% 20% 15% English 13% 12% 9% 7% 8% 8% 7% 4% Both 22% 39% 30% 20% 6% 19% 12% 5% 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Asian Black Hispanic White Asian Black Hispanic White Perventof First Time StudentsWho Enroll in Remedial Courses FourYearTwoYear 38% 52% 26% 50% N/A N/A 14% 22% 7% 25% 39% 17% 23% 35% 18% 31% 51% 25%27% 34% 16% 37% 57% 28% 0% 50% 100% Math English Math & English Math English Math & English Percentof Remedial StudentsWhoComplete an AssociatedGateway Course in Two Years Two Year Four Year A B H W A B H WA B H W A B H W B H W B H W
  9. 9. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 9 | P a g e While these datagive usan overall sense of inequityacrossstudentsubgroups, Figure6highlightsthe overall impactof these trends more clearly.Forevery100 studentsenrollingin college, approximately the same numberof studentswill be successfulinremediation ineachrace/ethnicitycategory. However,since somanymore blackstudentsenroll inremedial educationandsofew completethe associated gateway;twice asmanyblackstudentsfail tocomplete gateway courses aswhite students. Althoughthe successratesfor white andHispanicstudentsare somewhatsimilar, manymore Hispanic students are lostinthe pipeline because so manymore enroll inremedial courses.Asianstudents are not onlylesslikelytoenroll inremedialcourses, theyare more likelytosucceedinremedial courses, meaningthat,unlike foranyothergroup,almostas many Asianstudentswill succeedaswill dropoutof the pipeline. Figure 6. Note: Total length of bars (green + red) represents the number of students who startin remediation These data confirmwhatthe empirical research hasbeenshowingforsome time:the traditional approach to remedial education isnotservingstudents well.These dataalsounderscore the importance of disaggregatingoutcomes byrace and ethnicity.Implicationsformaintainingthe currentsystemare greaterfor blackand Hispanicstudents whoare more likelytoenrollinremedial educationandless likelytosucceed inthe current,statusquo,system. The Game Changer: Corequisite remediation Addressingthisissuemeansabandoningthe systemthatdoesnotworkforsomethingthat continuesto show far betterresults—corequisiteremediation. Withthisapproach,studentsare enrolleddirectlyinto a college level course withadditionalcorequisite supportsystems. Remedial supportsare providedas withcollege courseworkasa corequisite ratherthanbefore collegecourseworkasa prerequisite. Colorado,Indiana,Georgia,Tennessee,andWestVirginiaare seeingdramaticincreasesingateway completionrateswithin one semester(nottwoyears) forstudentsenrolledincorequisite models. -16 -52 -35 -26 10 9 11 9 Asian Black Hispanic White First Year Pipeline for100 EnteringStudentsof Each Race Fail to Complete Gateway Course Complete Gateway Course
  10. 10. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 10 | P a g e Figure 7. The resultsin Figure 8 come fromthe Tennessee Boardof RegentsCorequisite RemediationPilotStudy7 and showthat minoritystudentssawsimilargainsinoutcomesunderthe corequisitemodelacrossall levelsof preparationandforstudentswithlowerACTscoresgainsare perhapsmore dramatic. Figure 8. 7 Retrieved May 25 at: http://completecollege.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/TBR-CoRequisite-Study-Update- Fall-2015-pages-2.pdf 31% 16% 37% 31% 37% 20% 29% 12% 14% 64% 71% 55% 64% 68% 63% 64% 61% 62% 0% 50% 100% Colorado Georgia Indiana Tennessee West Virginia Colorado Georgia Indiana Tennessee West Virginia Percentof Remedial StudentsWhoComplete an AssociatedGateway Course Prerequisite Corequisite English Math N/A
  11. 11. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 11 | P a g e In lightof these results,six highereducationpolicyorganizationshave endorsedcore principlesfor transformingremediation8 designedtohelpstatesfocusonthe keyelementsneededtoachieve results. Reformingplacementtoinclude multiple measuresandcareerpathways,enrollingstudentsdirectlyinto college-level courseswithadditional support,servingasmall numberof studentswhomaynotsucceed inthe gatewaycourse rightaway,aligninggatewaycourseswithaprogramof study,and trackingdata are the essential principlesthatprovidearoad map forimplementingnew modelsof remediation. Equity Challenge 3: Underserved Students don’t start out on trackfor on time graduation Most Americansbelieve itshouldtake twoyearstocomplete anassociate degree andfouryearsto complete abachelor’sdegree asthisishow these degreesare marketedanddescribed.Still,fartoofew studentscomplete two-yearorfour-yeardegreesontime.9 One reasonforthis issimple math:most associate degreesconsistof 60 credits;most bachelor’sdegreesconsistof 120 credits.To be on track to graduate on time, studentsmustcomplete 30credits peryear. Far toofew studentsmeetthisthreshold. Figure 9. The numberof studentswhocomplete30 or more credits inthe firstyear differsmateriallyacrossraces and institutiontypes.Again,Asianandwhite studentsare more likelytostartoff on-trackthan their blackand Hispaniccounterparts.The difference isespeciallypronouncedattwo-yearand four-yearnon- researchinstitutions,the institutionsthat blackandHispanicstudentsare more likelytoattend.Across the board, toofewstudentsstartout theircollege careerbycompletingthe 30 credithours inthe first 8 www.core-principles.org 9 Complete CollegeAmerica. (2014). The Four-Year Myth. Retrieved OnlineJune 1, 2016 from http://completecollege.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/4-Year-Myth.pdf
  12. 12. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 12 | P a g e yearthat theyneedtobe on track foran on-time degree.Evenatfour-yearresearchinstitutions,almost a full 20 percentof studentsdonotstart out on time,andthe data are worse forblack andHispanic students. It isimportantto note that the acceptedstandardfor full time is24 credits peryear,rather than30, in part due to federal financialaid parameters.Attwo-yearinstitutions,fewerthan40 percentof students whostart full time intheirfirstsemestercompleteafull-time loadintheirfirstyearandfewerthan20 percentof blackstudentscomplete 24creditsintheirfirstyear.Pairthese data withthe fact that 62 percentof blackstudentsare attendingtwo-yearinstitutionsanditisclearthat we needtodo more to encourage full-timeenrollment. The Game Changer: Set the Standard: 15 is Full Time and 30 is On Time Lookingat theirstate level dataatthe 2010 CCA Convening, representativesfromthe UniversitySystem of Hawaii were surprised tosee howfew creditsstudentswereaccumulating.Hawaii looked furtherinto theirdata and foundthat studentswhoenrolledin15 credithoursin theirfirstsemesterwere more successful onmultiple measures. Many students were notencouraged toenroll in15 credits;however these studentsassumedtheywouldgraduate ontime. The Systemmovedforwardwithapublic awarenesscampaigntitled “15to Finish”tohelpbothstudentsandadvisorsunderstandthe importance of enrollingin15 creditsa semester.Todaythe systemhasseennotonlyagrowth increditcompletion but alsoimprovedoutcomesforthe growingnumberof studentsenrollinginmore credits. There are manythingsstatescan do to define full time as15 credits persemesteror30 creditsperyear. As part of a LuminaFoundation-fundedproject,SHEEOinterviewedstaff atthe Universityof Hawaii to understandhowthe programwas implementedsuccessfully.Twokeyfindingarose fromthisinterview. First,institutionswithbandedtuitionpoliciessaw betterresultswithmore studentsattemptingand succeedingin15 credits perterm.These tuitionpoliciesessentiallymade the extracourse (credits13 – 15) free aspart of a tuitionwindow.Those institutionswithlineartuitionstructureschargingforeach credithour saw fewerpositivegains.Second,buy-infrominstitutional leadership—andmore importantly,staff—wascritical tothe successof the implementation;specifically,shiftingthe default definitionof 12 creditsequalsfull timethatalignswiththe federalPelldefinitionto15 for Hawaii’s financial aidcounselors10 . Complete CollegeAmericahasdrawnon thiswork,making “Full time is15” a key game changer, and has workedwithstates (e.g.,Utah, Nevada, KentuckyandIndiana) toimplementtheirownpublic service campaigns andidentifyotherwayspolicymakerscan reduce barriersforstudentstocomplete on time by:  Making the vastmajorityof theirdegrees60 or 120 credits  Encouragingall institutions—notjustselective ones—toadoptbandedtuitionpoliciestomake it more cost effectiveforstudentstoenroll in15 credits persemester  Making 15 credits pertermor 30 credits peryearthe defaultnumberof creditsstudentsare encouragedtoenroll in ratherthan 12 or 24 10 Carlson,Andy, Zaback,Katie. (2014) Moving the Needle: How Financial Aid Policies Can Help States Meet Student Completion Goals.SHEEO Projectwith Lumina Foundation Support.
  13. 13. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 13 | P a g e  Urging statesas well asthe federal governmenttoprovide bonusesthatallow studentswiththe mostfinancial needtoenroll fulltime These policiesare yielding initial positive resultsintheirfirstyearof implementation.Between2011 and 2012, the Universityof Hawaii Systemsaw the numberof studentsattempting15or more creditsin theirfirstyearrise from 36 percentto 52 percentat four-yearinstitutions.These resultshave remained consistentacrossadditional years withpromisingimprovementsinfactorslike retention,withachange from9 percentto 11 percent.11 These dataalsoshow that underrepresentedminoritypopulations actuallyexperiencedlargergains. Figure 10. By takinga comprehensive approach Indianasaw similartrends.Inadditiontooffering15to Finish campaignresourcestocampuses,the IndianaCommissionof HigherEducation tiedstate financial aid policiesto30 credits peryear byprovidingbonusestostudentswhoenrollinorcomplete 30 credits. Afterthischange,studentsinthe O’Bannonneed-basedaidprogramcompleting30 creditsintheirfirst yearincreasedfrom51 percentto63 percent. The approach doesnothave to be “all or nothing.” Indianahasmaintained24 creditsasthe baseline foritsO’Bannonneed-basedgrantprogram, butoffers bonuspaymentsforstudentscompleting30creditsduringan academicyear. Finally,anumberof institutionsinIndianahave startedtoofferorconsiderofferingbandedtuitiontofurtherfacilitatecredit accumulation,ineffect,making15 creditsa termcost the same as 12. If we are to close the equitygapsinthe highereducationsystemwe mustcreate systemsthatput students ona path to on-time graduationthe momenttheywalkoncampus. 15 to Finishcan be 11 Retrieved May 25, 2016 at: http://15tofinish.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/15_to_Finish_4- Yr_Combined_Report-September_2013.pdf and http://15tofinish.com/wordpress/ftf- content/uploads/2015/07/15toFinish_Summary_Fall2014_v1.pdf
  14. 14. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 14 | P a g e complementedwithotherstructural changessuchas corequisite remediationandelementsof guided pathwaysthathelpensure creditscount. Equity Challenge 4: More students are enrolled part-time and fewer part-time students succeed Studentswhoenroll fulltime are more likelytograduate than are part-time ormixedenrollment students. Studentswhoenroll fulltime completemore credits more quickly,therebydecreasingtheir time to degree andincreasingtheirlikelihoodof success.Students whoenroll full time notonlyhave a clearerpathto success,theyalsohave more access to supportservices suchasfaculty office hours,lab hours,tutoring,counseling,andpeerstudygroups. Finally,full-time enrollmentmaximizesthe returnon investmentbecause the economicbenefitsof the credentialare realizedsooner. Datafromthe National StudentClearinghouseSignature Reports,whichcantrackdata across both institutionsandstates, regularlyshowthatsix-yearcompletionratesare dramaticallyhigherforstudentswhoenroll fulltime all the time.Unfortunately,only40 percentof studentsenroll full time all the time. Data collectedfromCompleteCollegeAmericaAlliance of Statesshow thatthere are few differences withinsectorsacrossrace groups.Onaverage,a little lessthan40 percentof studentsenrolledin communitycollege are enrolledfulltime,70percentof studentsatfour-yearnon-researchinstitutions are enrolledfull time,andclose to85 percentof studentsatresearchinstitutionsare enrolledfull time. The one notable exceptionisthatAsianstudentsenrolledattwo-yearandblackstudentsatfour-year researchinstitutionsare lesslikelytobe enrolledfull time thanstudentsfromothergroups.When combinedwithenrollmentdatafromsectionone thatshows blackand Hispanicstudentsare much more likelytobe enrolledintwo-yearinstitutionsandnon-researchfour-yearinstitutionsitisclearthat to addressthe needsof these studentswe musthelpimprove outcomesforpart-time andmixed enrollmentstudents. Figure 10. 35% 68% 85% 39% 70% 78% 40% 72% 84% 41% 73% 86% 0% 50% 100% Two Year Four Year Four Year Research Percentof StudentsEnrolledFull Time A B H WA B H WA B H W
  15. 15. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 15 | P a g e The Game Changer: We must provide more structure and clearer pathways for studentsnot enrolledfull time For all studentstobe successful,theyneedanexpectationandpathwayforcompletion.Institutionsand systemsinIndiana,Tennessee,andNew Yorkhave implementedstructuredschedulingwithpromising initial results. Structuredschedulingcreatesclassesofferedinablockduringa specifictime period throughouta degree program.Manyfor-profitandprivate,nonprofitinstitutionsalreadyoffercourses inthisway. The collegesof appliedtechnologyinTennessee have streamlinedthe pathtocompletionby enrollingstudentsinwholeacademicprograms, andhave managedtoattainan average completionrate of 75 percent12 .Atthe CityUniversityof New York(CUNY) StellaandCharlesGuttmanCommunity College studentsparticipateinastructured,cohort-basedprogram.Atthisinstitutionjust under30 percentthe firsttwocohorts have graduatedcomparedtojustover 6 percentfor otherCUNY institutions.13 In2015, the Texaslegislaturepassedabill requiring some healthdegreesandcareerand technical programstoimplementstructuredschedules withhopes theywill yieldsimilaroutcomes. In additiontoincreasingpredictabilityanddecreasingtimetodegree,structuredschedulingwithin degree programsallowsinstitutionstobuildcohortsof studentsworkingtowardacredential together. Providingstudentswithapeergroupas theyprogressthroughtheireducationisone of the highimpact practices measuredbythe National Surveyof StudentEngagementandshowntohave positive outcomes.These practiceshelpall students andearlyresultsindicate thattheyhelpunderserved studentpopulationsmore. Equity Challenge 5: Reaching the End Goal (Time and Credits to Degree) In 2011, Complete College Americareleaseditsreport, Timeis theEnemy, whichhighlighted evidence that studentsare takingfar toolongto graduate,and that those whodograduate have far more credits than theyneedtogettheirdegree.Studentsfromall race groups take more time andearn excess creditsthanwhat is requiredfortheirdegree orcredential. Onaverage,ittakesassociate degree studentswhoenterfull time almosttwice aslongtocomplete andalmostas longas a bachelor’sdegree requires.Forbachelor’sdegreestudents, ittakesstudentsatnon-researchfour-yearinstitutionsan extrayearto complete,andat researchinstitutions,anextrasemestertocomplete. Thoughthere are manyreasonsthat studentstake extratime,excesscreditsare likelyone culprit. Over the time takento earnthe credential,associate degree recipientsearn,onaverage,30percentmore creditsthantheyneed.Bachelor’sdegreerecipientsgraduate withanaverage of 12 percentmore creditsthantheyneed. 12 Based on calculations of data submitted in 2014 to Complete College America. 13 Brown, J. and Kurzweil,M. (20016). Student Success by Design CUNY’s Guttman Community College. Retrieved OnlineJune 28,2016 at: http://www.sr.ithaka.org/wp- content/uploads/2016/02/SR_Case_Study_Student_Success_by_Design_Guttman020416.pdf
  16. 16. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 16 | P a g e Figure 11. Figure 12. These data are perhapsmostinterestingwhenlookedat throughan equitylens.Inthiscase,whatis mostinterestingisthe lackofdifference across race categories. Infact,Asianstudents are mostlikelyto geta degree butalsotendto stayin the systemthe longerandaccumulate slightlymore credits. In contrast, black students andlesslikelytograduate butforthose whodo so fasterandin manycases withfewercredits.These similaritiessuggestthat,ingeneral,studentsare capable of completingcollege withsimilaroutcomes andtheyoftendo. The Game Changer: Studentsneedto be put on direct pathways from day one We are losingfar toomany students,particularlyblackand Hispanicstudents, inaneducationpipeline that doesnotmeet theirneeds.The systemsandstructuresinourexistinghighereducation system simplydo notmeetthe needsof today’sstudent. If we wantmore studentstocomplete,theymusthave 4.3 5.1 4.8 3.8 4.8 4.4 3.9 4.9 4.5 3.9 5.1 4.5 0 2 4 6 Associates Bachelors Bachelors Research Average Time to Degree for Full Time Students 79 135 135 78 134 134 82 138 138 78 134 136 0 60 120 Associates Bachelors Bachelors Research Average Creditsto Degree for Full Time Students A B H WA B H WA B H W A B H WA B H WA B H W
  17. 17. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 17 | P a g e the supporttheyneedtokeepthemenrolledandonaclear pathto graduation. We must addressequity by rethinkingandredesigninghighereducationdelivery inwaysthatwill helpclose achievementgaps that clearly exist. Studentsneedsupportstochoose the rightpathwaysandtheyneedtobe put directly on those pathways.Evenif theycannotcomplete on time,theyneedaclearexpectationabouthow much time itwill take, andwhatthey will needtodoto accomplishit. There are manyexamplesof institutions thathave implementedcomprehensive guidedpathwayssystems whichhave yielded unprecedentedresults. For example,overtenyears,FloridaState Universitywasable touse degree mapsandtechnology solutionstoimplementthosemapstoincrease graduationratesto74 percentforall students,77 percentforblack students, and70 percentforHispanicstudents.GeorgiaState hasuseddegree maps, intrusive advisingandotherstrategiestobecome the U.S.Universitythatconfersthe mostdegreesto blackstudentsandtheyhave a 57 percentgraduationrate forAfricanAmericansand66 percentfor Hispanicstudents14 .Strategieslike defaultpathways,informedchoice,meta-majors,academicmaps, milestonecourses,andintrusive advisingcanstandalone or togetherwithothergame changerslike corequisite remediation, fulltime is 15-strategies, andstructured schedules askeycomponentsof a comprehensive guidedpathwaysapproach. 14 Complete CollegeAmerica. (2012) Guided Pathways to Success:Boosting College Completion. Retrieved online May 25, 2016 at: http://www.completecollege.org/docs/GPS_Summary_FINAL.pdf
  18. 18. SHEEO-CCA Equity Brief - DRAFT 18 | P a g e Conclusion The CCA datasetallowsusto examine successbyrace/ethnicitycategoryandinstitutiontype throughouteachstepof the postsecondaryeducationfromenrollmentthroughcompletion.Thislevel of detail haspreviouslynotbeenavailable andallowsustodrill downintothe “blackbox”between enrollmentandcompletion/non-completiontoreallyunderstandwhere equitygapsdeveloporgrow. Nationally,the datapresentedhere show thatateachstage of the postsecondarypipeline,blackand Hispanicstudentsare lesslikelytosucceedthantheirwhite andAsianpeers. Overthe course of the pipeline,these effectscompounduponthemselvesandbecome cumulative;the endresultof whichis that blackand Hispanicstudentsare lesslikelytoearna postsecondarycredential. If we are to addressthiscountry’sattainmentgapswe mustaddressourequitygapsat the root.We can no longeraffordtolose studentsinaneducationsystemthatdoes notmeettheirneeds.The game changerscontinue to show promisinginitial resultsinclosingequitygapsthroughoutthe postsecondary educationpipelineand inhelpingstudentscompletetheirdegree orcredential. These earlyresults in pilotstatesare positive and,asthese studentsmove forwardthroughtheircourse of study,the CCA datasetwill provide amore complete picture of the effectof these programs. It isimportantto recognize andacceptthat the earlyresultsfromstatesandinstitutionsimplementing these game changersdidnothappenovernight.Theyare the resultof intentional andcommittedaction to change howstudentsupportsare deliveredandimprove successfortheirunderservedstudent populations.Otherstatesandinstitutionscanrealize similarresultsonce theycommittoimprovingthe likelihoodof successforunderservedpopulations.

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