Dimensions of health
Concepts of health
Components of wellness
Models of health and illness
● Traditionally health has been defined in the terms of the
Presence or absence of disease.
● The conditions of being sound in body, mind or spirit and
especially free from physical disease or pain (Webster).
According to the WHO "Health is a state of complete physical, mental,
and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease"
Dimentions of health
These are four aspects or dimensions are (a) Physical (b) Mental (c) Social and
● Physical well-being means having the physical strength, endurance
and energy to work towards your goals.
● Mental well-being is ability to cope with the world in a way that brings
● Social well-being means development of relationships with others –
both with people in your immediate surroundings and with the larger
community through cultural, spiritual and political activities.
Concepts of health
1. Biomedical concept
2. Ecological concept
3. Psychosocial concept
● Traditionally health has been viewed as "absence of disease" if one person
is free from disease, s/he is considered as healthy. This concept is known
as "Biomedical Concept", it has basis in germ theory of disease.
● The medical profession viewed the human body as a machine, disease
because of the breakdown of the machine and one of the Doctor's tasks as
repair of machine.
● The limitation of this concept is that, it has minimized the role of
environmental, social, psychological and cultural determinants of health.
● The ecologist put forward another hypothesis, which viewed health
as a dynamic equilibrium between man and his environment, and
disease as a maladjustment of the human organisms to the
● Ecological and cultural adaptations determine not only the
occurrence of disease but also the availability of food and the
● The concept supports the need for clean air, safe water, ozonic
layer in the atmosphere, etc. to protect us from exposure to
Psychosocial well being
Contemporary developments in social sciences
revealed that health is not only a biomedical
phenomenon, but also one, which is in the need by
social psychological, cultural, economic and
political factors of the people concerned. Health is
both a biological and social phenomenon.
● Holism means viewing a person's health as a balance of body,
mind, and spirit. Treating only the body will not necessarily
restore optimal health. In addition to physical needs, nurses
must also consider clients' psychological, sociocultural,
developmental, and spiritual needs.
● Holistic model is a synthesis of biomedical & ecological model
& psychosocial concept. It recognizes the strength of social,
economic, political and environmental influence on health.
Wellness is a state of well-being. It is an active
process by which an individual progresses
towards maximum potential possible,
regardless of current state of health.