Evolution of Medicine and
Evolution of medicine
· Plants were used for medicinal purposes(herbalism)
· Use of plants ,clay's and soil in ancient time.
· Developed larger, varied fruitful medical tradition.
Herodotus describes robed the Egyptians as " the healthiest of all men"
· Imphotep in the 3rd dynasty is credited for being the founder of ancient Egyptian medicine.
· Earliest women physician “peseshet”.
There is a diagnostic handbook written by “umnanu “or chief scholar. It includes various ways of
inspection, examination of symptoms and treating with bandages, herbs etc
· ‘Atharvana Veda” from early iron age is one of the first Indian text dealing
· Ayurveda- meaning of complete language of long life is another system of
India. "Charaka" and "Susrutha" writes most famous texts related to medicine and
· Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita.
· Another alternative form is Unani during the Muhal period.
19th century: rise of modern medicine
It is changed in the face of rapid advance in science and new approaches by physicians
• More systematic
• Anesthesia techniques
• Antiseptic and aseptic principles
• Advances in epidemiology
• Bacteriology and virology
• Women as nurses and physicians
• Large scale multi specialty hospitals
• Mobile hospitals
• Public health awareness programs
• Post second world war ii
• Modern surgeries and Equipments and advanced diagnostic procedures
Period of intuitive nursing:
· In period of olden days, nursing was untaught. Nursing was performed of their
own wish to help others
· Nursing was a profession that belonged to women. She is expected to take
care of children, sick and aged
· No care giving training is evident. It was based on experience and
· Primitive man believed that illness was caused by the invasion of the evil
spirits in to the victim;s body and doctor has the power to heal it by using magic
Period of Apprentice Nursing:
• In this period also nursing was performed without any formal education. But the people were
directed to more experience
• This kind of nursing was developed by Christian Church
• Nursing went down to the lowest level
• There was acute shortage of nurses to take care for the sick and so many hospitals closed
• Nursing became the work of undesirable women like prostitutes and prisoners
• 1st formal training school for nurses started in Germany
Period of Educated Nursing / Nightingale Era- 19th
and 20th century
• During this period development of nursing was strongly influenced by
Crimean war and civil war
• Arousal of social consciousness
• Increased educational opportunities
• Florence Nightingale recruited female nurses to provide care for sick and injured
in the Crimean war.
• In 1860 the Nightingale training school of nurses opened in St. Thomas Hospital London.
• The school served a as a model for other training school
• The school provided both the theory based knowledge and clinical skills
Period of Contemporary Nursing /20th century
• During this period nursing field much developed and nurse can work only with her license
• Started specialty hospitals
• Advanced training for nurses in diploma programs
• Development of Baccalaureate and advanced training programme
• Nursing involvement in community area
• Technological advancement and disposable supplies
• Establishment of WHO by USA
• Expanded roles of nurses
• Computer were used in data collection, diagnosis, inventory and patient records
• Use of sophisticated equipments for diagnostic therapy