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Product: Power Factor & Harmonics: StacoSine: MGE filter presentation

Product: Power Factor & Harmonics: StacoSine: MGE filter presentation

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Product: Power Factor & Harmonics: StacoSine: MGE filter presentation

  1. 1. Product:PowerFactor& Harmonics: StacoSine: MGE
  2. 2. Now the learning… oWhy is Power quality important? oCauses of Harmonics oEffects of Harmonics oStandards Governing Harmonics INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC OF HARMONICS
  3. 3. WHY IS POWER QUALITY IMPORTANT? o Increasingly Sensitive Loads o Increasing use of power electronics in equipment o Increasing emphasis on power system efficiency and maximum utilization
  4. 4. DEFINITION OF A POWER QUALITY PROBLEM o UPS Alone o UPS & MBPS  2 Piece Shipping Split o Ambidextrous Side Car o Standard Kick Plates o Easy Transport & Installation o Single Hole or NEMA 2 Hole Landing o Standard UVR For Battery Cabinet  Can Be Configured For Shunt Trip A power quality problem is- “Any occurrence that manifests itself in voltage, current or frequency deviations that results in failure or miss-operation of end-user equipment” …a very broad problem
  5. 5. TYPES OF POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS o UPS Alone o UPS & MBPS  2 Piece Shipping Split o Ambidextrous Side Car o Standard Kick Plates o Easy Transport & Installation o Single Hole or NEMA 2 Hole Landing o Standard UVR For Battery Cabinet  Can Be Configured For Shunt Trip o Harmonics o Impulses o Transients o Excessive Neutral Currents o Wiring and Earthing Problems o Interruptions o Sags/Surges
  6. 6. WHERE DO WE FIT IN? o UPS Alone o UPS & MBPS  2 Piece Shipping Split o Ambidextrous Side Car o Standard Kick Plates o Easy Transport & Installation o Single Hole or NEMA 2 Hole Landing o Standard UVR For Battery Cabinet  Can Be Configured For Shunt Trip o Our specialties include: • Harmonic Reduction • Neutral Current Reduction • Sag Reduction o These all contribute to an increase in Reliability
  7. 7. WHAT WILL WE DISCUSS? o UPS Alone o UPS & MBPS  2 Piece Shipping Split o Ambidextrous Side Car o Standard Kick Plates o Easy Transport & Installation o Single Hole or NEMA 2 Hole Landing o Standard UVR For Battery Cabinet  Can Be Configured For Shunt Trip o This presentation will deal specifically with: • Harmonics  3rd (150 Hz)  Others • Neutral Currents • Drives Harmonics
  8. 8. READY?
  9. 9. WHY ARE HARMONICS SEEN TODAY? o UPS Alone o UPS & MBPS  2 Piece Shipping Split o Ambidextrous Side Car o Standard Kick Plates o Easy Transport & Installation o Single Hole or NEMA 2 Hole Landing o Standard UVR For Battery Cabinet  Can Be Configured For Shunt Trip v i Until recently, most electrical equipment drew current in a “linear” fashion: • Current (i) is periodic, but not “sinusoidal” v i • Current (i) & Voltage (v) are both “Sinusoidal” Today, many electrical loads draw current in a “non-linear” fashion:
  10. 10. THE CAUSE OF HARMONIC CURRENTS F undamental & all harmo nics The “Choppy”, non-linear current drawn by electronic loads is actually a “fundamental” (50hz) component plus many integer multiples of that fundamental frequency: These “integer multiples of the fundamental frequency” are just higher frequency currents & they cause the problem
  11. 11. WHAT PRODUCES “NON- LINEAR” CURRENT? • Computers • Fax Machines • Copiers M • Variable Speed Drives • Electronic Ballasts • Almost anything electronic
  12. 12. THE SOURCE OF HARMONIC CURRENTS: Single Phase Loads: Phase to Neutral • Switch Mode Power Supplies •PC’s, Electronic Lighting, Fax’s, Copiers, etc • generate high 3rd harmonic • primarily responsible for ‘Neutral Currents’ 3-phase loads: • Rectifiers / Chargers • controlled Graetz bridges •Drives, UPS • generate high harmonic • currents of orders 5, 7, 11, 13, … Ph N FL Is L1 Z CL2 L3 e1 e2 e3 iIIs
  13. 13. THE SOURCE OF HARMONIC CURRENTS: Single Phase Loads: Phase to Phase •Eg. Welders, HID lighting •generate high 3rd harmonic • Those 3rd harmonics flow only in the phase conductors •lasts between 20 and 50 cycles ! v L R C U r D
  14. 14. HARMONIC “SIGNATURES”: o Each type of load draws current in a unique way which produces a “signature” which determines the frequency of the harmonics present: Typical 1 Phase Load 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 Typical 3 Phase Load 1 3 5 7 9 11 13
  15. 15. TYPICAL SINGLE LOAD SPECTRA’S Predominant harmonic spectrums for common loads Load Load Type 3rd 5th 7th 9th 11th 13th Distorted Composite Waveform Personal Computer Single Phase Office equipment Single Phase Electronic Lighting Single Phase High-bay Lighting Single Phase Main frame computer Three Phase UPS Three Phase 6-pulse VFD Three Phase 12-pulse VFD Three Phase Note: loads shown above produce smaller amounts of harmonics not specifically highlighted
  16. 16. HARMONIC “SIGNATURES”: oWhat this means is • We can predict which type of harmonic will be dominant dependant upon the load profile • Knowing that, we know what the likely problems will be • Knowing that, we know what the likely solutions will be.
  17. 17. HARMONIC PROBLEMS CAN BE TRACED TO TWO PHENOMENA: oCurrent Distortion oVoltage Distortion o Note: current distortion causes voltage distortion
  18. 18. TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION: CURRENT • A measure of the amount by which a composite current waveform deviates from an ideal sine wave • Caused by the manner in which electronic loads draw current for only a part of a complete sine wave • Measured as THD:            I I I I I I I THD h h2 2 3 2 4 2 1 2 2 1 100% 100%  Causes additional heating in conductors and transformers, and leads to Voltage Distortion
  19. 19. EFFECTS OF CURRENT DISTORTION o Overheating of conductors and insulation degradation o Neutral overload * o Increased transformer losses (need to over-size) o Nuisance tripping of circuit breakers o Neutral-earth potential * o Significant voltage distortion on networks with generators o Overheating and possible resonance with capacitors o Lighting ballast failures o PC monitor stroboscopic effect * o Improper operation of microprocessor-based equipment * o Re-injection of harmonic currents into the utility network. * Caused by third or triple-n (triplen) harmonics
  20. 20. VOLTAGE DISTORTION oAs those harmonic currents flow across the network impedance, they create a voltage drop at the same frequency as the harmonic current. This cause voltage distortion. Network Z Ih Vh   V I Zh h h +-
  21. 21. TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION: VOLTAGE oA measure of the amount by which a composite voltage waveform deviates from an ideal sine wave oCaused by harmonic currents flowing across system impedance's oCauses erratic behaviour or failure of equipment sensitive to voltage waveform oMeasured as THD:           V V V V V V V THD h h2 2 3 2 4 2 1 2 2 1 100 100  % %
  22. 22. EFFECTS OF VOLTAGE DISTORTION o Causes linear devices to draw non-linear current (resulting in current distortion effects) o Torque pulsation in motors o Capacitor dielectric failure o Insulation breakdown o PC monitor and power supply failure o Electronic lighting failure.
  23. 23. SEQUENCE COMPONENTS o Any complex sinusoidal can be described by a series of positive, negative or zero sequence components. o The fundamental plus all harmonics have a sequence (rotation) associated with them. o Positive sequence voltages cause rotation in the positive direction o Negative sequence voltages cause rotation in the negative direction o Zero sequence voltages result in no rotation o Note that all even harmonics cancel (due to symmetry) o Note that 5th & 11th (etc) harmonics cause a negative rotation (this causes torque pulsation in motors). o Note zero sequence components won’t cancel & don’t rotate Sequence Components: Harmonic: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Rotation: + - 0 + - 0 + - 0 + - 0 + - 0 + - 0 + - 0
  24. 24. 3RD HARMONIC ISSUE oThird (triple-n) harmonics in the phase conductors add in the neutral o Neutral current can be up to 172% of phase currents oThird harmonics circulate in the delta winding, causing overheating of the Tx oNeutral conductors must be oversized oEddy current losses cause excessive heating in the transformer: De-rating required oStandard transformers DO NOT cancel harmonics
  25. 25. 200% RATED NEUTRAL ISSUES Note! Note! Note! Note!
  26. 26. TRANSFORMER DE-RATING o Standard transformers experience excessive heating from harmonics: o Increased Eddy current losses o Increased I2R losses o If the neutral conductors are 200% rated, so must the transformer have a 200% rated neutral internally. Problem: no such “standard” transformer exists! o In order to get 200% rated neutrals inside the transformer, you must specify K- Rated transformers OR o Standard transformers should be de-rated o if over-sized standard transformers are used, circuit protection must be suitably under rated- this may cause nuisance tripping from transformer inrush. Either option is expensive!
  27. 27. TRANSFORMER DE-RATING FOR NL LOADS % Transformer Capacity vs % Non-linear load 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% % Non-linear Load %TransformerCapacity % Tx Capacity A Transformer carrying 2/3 non-linear load needs to be doubled in size Sources: (1) BSRIA (2) ANSI/IEEE Std C57.110
  28. 28. 3RD HARMONIC PHENOMENON - BREAKERS NUISANCE TRIPPING CAN OCCUR FOR SEVERAL REASONS: o Residual current circuit breakers are electromechanical devices. They do not sum high frequency components and therefore can trip spuriously o The current flowing in the circuit will be higher than expected due to the presence of harmonic currents. The trip settings may therefore be incorrect. o Peak sensing breakers may trip needlessly since the crest factor of distorted waveform may be high (Crest Factor = Peak/RMS)
  29. 29. BREAKERS WITH 200% RATED NEUTRALS oMany specifier’s are calling for 200% rated switched-neutral breakers o THEY DON’T EXIST oThis forces manufacturers to supply double sized breakers (e.g. 200A for 80A phase current) In order to protect neutrals oWhen large incoming breakers are involved, it may require PARALLEL breakers to meet the specification. o You cannot adequately co-ordinate parallel breakers. One will ALWAYS beat the other under a fault condition. o This in turn causes problems of co-ordination with downstream breakers
  30. 30. MOTOR DE-RATING CURVE 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1.0 Harmonic Voltage Factor % (HVF) De-rating Factor
  31. 31. U.K. LIMITS FOR THD: oG5/3 is considered the standard across the UK for acceptable levels of THD oStage 2 for Current Limits oStage 3 for Voltage limits o Maximum 5% THD in voltage for LV systems o Maximum 4% THD for 11kV systems HARMONIC 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 thd G5/3 LEVEL STAGE 2 (A) 34 56 40 19 16 6 6 - G5/3 LEVEL STAGE 3 (%V) 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5
  32. 32. SO HOW DO WE RID A NETWORK OF HARMONIC CURRENTS AND VOLTAGE?
  33. 33. THEORY OF HARMONIC MITIGATION: oAvailable Options: A) Bracing B) Blocking C) Filtering D) Phase shifting
  34. 34. A) BRACING Examples include: o Oversized neutrals o Conductor spacing/ sizing o Specifying maximum harmonic levels for equipment o Isolation of harmonic loads o Grouping o Non-linear (NL) transformers o Non-linear (NL) panelboards Good practice anyway
  35. 35. B) BLOCKING Examples include: o Line Reactors o Isolation Transformers o Employ magnetics to trap or impede the flow of harmonic currents  DIAGRAM (with reactors) C e1 e2 e3 M iIIs
  36. 36. C) FILTERING o Passive Filters o Capacitor/Reactor combinations can be tuned to provide a low impedance path to specific frequencies o Harmonic currents normally flow from source to utility. Filtering provides a low impedance path for the harmonics so that they don’t flow to the utility. M Reducing the amount of harmonic current that flows through the transformer reduces the voltage distortion
  37. 37. D) PHASE SHIFTING o Destructive interference of specific frequencies Composite + 180o Phase Shifted harmonics =Fundamental
  38. 38. HARMONIC MITIGATION o Available Equipment: A) K-Rated Txs; NL Panels B) Line reactors, Isolation Transformers C) De-tuned Capacitor/Reactor Systems D) Active filter technology, Harmonic reducing transformers Phase Shifting Blocking Bracing Filtering
  39. 39. Designed to handle harmonic currents without overheating, or de-rating Relatively low cost Little chance of misapplication Disadvantages of K-Rated Equipment Assumes neutral conductors also oversized Does not reduce or eliminate harmonics -other equipment will still be affected May still introduce voltage distortion Over sizing may worsen harmonics Advantages of K-Rated transformers
  40. 40. • Very effective at reducing specific harmonics • Very cost effective at 415V • Power Factor Correction (demand reduction) Disadvantages of Tuned L/C Filters • Requires detailed network study for proper design • Must not add additional capacitors without study: significant changes/ additions to network may change tuning point, lead to resonance • Only suitable for removing a single offending harmonic Advantages of Tuned L/C Filters
  41. 41. Advantages of line reactors • Line reactors are relatively inexpensive when only a few drives are in question or if there is relatively little (<30%) drive load and the goal is to minimise harmonic problems Disadvantages of line reactors & Isolation Tx’s • Blocking reactors are not effective enough to reduce the harmonic currents below the level of causing problems when large number of drives are present • Expensive when added to a large number of drives • Isolation transformers DO NOT remove 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, etc harmonics, the primary output of the drives they are applied to! • They will only block Triple-n harmonics (3rd, 9th, 15th)
  42. 42. COFFEE BREAK Toll Free: 866.261.1191 | sales@stacoenergy.com | www.stacoenergy.com
  43. 43. SineWave Active Harmonic Conditioner
  44. 44. THE PRODUCT o Sinewave was developed by MGE when they were wholly owned by Schneider o It is currently on its 2nd generation, having been in the market since 1994 o Employs digital electronics and IGBT switches (Drive Technology) to measure and create and equal amount of harmonic current which it injects anti-phase into the network, thus cancelling the harmonics o It negates the need for 200% rated neutrals, K-rated transformers, etc.
  45. 45. THE PRODUCT o Is a ‘plug n play’ black-box technology which is relatively easy to apply o Available in sizes from 20A RMS to 480 A RMS (60A to 1440A Neutral current) o Connects in parallel as any other load o Require three xxx:1 CT’s (placement is critical)
  46. 46. ACTIVE FILTER TECHNOLOGY Non- linear loads Linear loadsActive Filter
  47. 47. WHAT’S INSIDE? –POWER CIRCUIT PWM INVERTER (IGBT) DC ENERGY STORAGE PWM REACTORS OUTPUT FILTER LINE REACTOR + - L N
  48. 48. WHAT’S INSIDE? –SIGNAL PROCESSOR Supply Load Sinewave P N Extraction of Harmonics Regulation & Monitoring Control Signal Generation Ct1 Control Electronics Ct2
  49. 49. ACTIVE FILTER TOPOLOGY: M M M Final distribution enclosure feeder 1 feeder 2 feeder 3 Secondary sw itchboard Main LV Sw itchboard (MLVS) feeder 1 feeder 2 feeder ...n LV Active Filter Active Filter Active Filter Although Active Filters can be located in a variety of places, it’s best to locate as close to harmonic source as possible
  50. 50. ACTIVE FILTRATION • With the increase in variable speed drives and non linear loads, harmonic filtration is becoming essential. • Power Factor of such loads is improving with a VSD typically 0.93 power factor. • IT loads increasing the amount of 3rd harmonic on the system • Neutral filtration becoming the norm. • Conventional passive filtration methods becoming limited. • Mixing passive and active filters to get most cost effective solution for high power applications.
  51. 51. SINEWAVE ACTIVE FILTERS o Sinewave Active Filters are the best on the market for small/ medium installations. o Neutral filtration is an almost unique feature as others have no neutral connection. o The devices are plug and play and require little or no modelling
  52. 52. ACTIVE FILTER TECHNOLOGY o Sinewave is rated for filtration in the phase conductors, so is able to filter up to 3 times the phase output. For example a 20 amp active filter can filter up to 60 amps of 3rd harmonic in the neutral. o Filtration removes the cause of the problem not the effect. o The device is connected in parallel and as such does not add a potential point of failure as with a series connected device. Sinewave active filters have significant benefits for filtering triple-N (3rd) harmonic current:
  53. 53. ACTIVE FILTER TECHNOLOGY – 200% NEUTRALS: By introducing Sinewave active filters at source, 200% neutral can be avoided This has significant benefits: o No need for costly 200% rated neutral bus-bars (standard ratings can be used) o No need for costly 200% rated switchboards (standard ratings can be used) o No need for transformer de-rating (standard ratings can be used) Standard product means reduced prices and standard delivery
  54. 54. SINEWAVE INSTALLED BASE: Sinewave has been proven in the field with customers • Royal Opera House • Chelsea building Society (Office) • Sainsbury’s Homebase • South West Water • Land Registry (Office) • Mersey Tunnel • Manchester Airport • East of Scotland Water • North Devon Hospital • Buchanan House (Office) • Seven Trent Water • Axis Resources (Office) • MOD • Carlton Television • Alsthom • ...
  55. 55. • Removes almost 100% of harmonic current, Including neutral currents! • Highly effective • Can not be misapplied: plug & play • Simple operation • No danger of resonance • Can not be over-loaded • Can filter 3rd harmonic (phase - neutral) Disadvantages of Active Filters • Expensive for large power applications • Specialist maintenance Advantages of Active Filters For hi power applications, we have the hybrid filter
  56. 56. HYBRID FILTER BENEFITS Hybrid filters combine the best attributes of both Active and Passive filters. By combining those two elements within one enclosure, they provide benefits over either element alone: • Cost-effective high power filtering of one specific harmonic via the passive elements means a smaller, thus lower cost, active element • Broadband filtering of all other harmonics via the active element • 3rd harmonic filtration via the active element • Low cost power factor correction via the passive element • Greater reliability than either element alone
  57. 57. HYBRID FILTER BENEFITS Reliability Cost Capability Passive Hybrid Active 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
  58. 58. POINTS OF CONNECTION • As with PFC, dependant on where the problem is • Main Incomer • Sub board feeder • Individual motors/ equipment • Golden Rule: The Sinewave CT must not see the AF output M
  59. 59. CT POSITIONING A BWhich position is correct, A or B ?
  60. 60. CT POSITIONING cont… Sinewave CT’s AF Breaker Main ACB Bus Bars MCCB MCCB MCCB MCCB MCCB MCCB MCCB MCCB MCCB MCCB
  61. 61. CT POSITIONING cont… Bus Bars Sinewave CT’s AF Breaker Main ACB MCCB MCCB MCCB MCCB MCCB MCCB MCCB MCCB MCCB MCCB
  62. 62. ALTERNATIVE CONNECTION-UP TO 6 LOADS • Each Ct sized for total load • (I.e. total = 1000amp each ct should be 1000/1) • All CT’s in same direction • P1P2 etc • S1s connected together • S2s connected together • Not Summated!!
  63. 63. SIZING SINEWAVE • Determine if the goal is to meet G5/3 (G5/4) or to reduce the requirement for 200% rated neutrals • The former is generally more expensive • For existing installations, take measurements • Contact PQc to arrange a harmonic survey • For new installations, supply a schedule of loads • Include primary transformer rating, % Impedance • Include a diversity factor • Rule of thumbs for budget purposes: • £200/Amp • 120A per 1000kVA Transformer (50% non-linear load) Remember, it can always be expanded! Use the survey form!
  64. 64. THE MARKET o Sinewave is sold via: • MGE direct (generally into the UPS market), • through =SE=, • though J&P (Delta) o MGE prefer not to promote the product themselves, but rather leave it to us (it’s a tiny portion of the UPS business and too specialized for their general sales force) o Delta are not effective; having only one person to market and promote o MGE are receptive to giving us exclusive channel rights in the UK.
  65. 65. THE COMPETITION o ABB offer an active filter that does not inject third harmonic and therefore does not reduce or remove neutral currents. As such it will not overlap with our push into the commercial building markets. o ABB do offer a separate THF (third harmonic filter) but it is ineffective and causes many problems. It is not accepted in the marketplace. o Seimens offers an active filter but only as a front end to their 6 pulse drives o Claude Lyons offers an active filter but it is more costly and less effective than Sinewave WE HAVE A DECIDED ADVANTAGE !
  66. 66. HOW DO WE MOVE FORWARD? o Mention or ask about the 200% rated issue and sell our solution to consultants and end users o To leave behind a brochure that explains the issues and the solution o To arrange seminars to gain awareness The key to success is awareness. It’s a relentless track that will get results.
  67. 67. THANK YOU Toll Free: 866.261.1191 | sales@stacoenergy.com | www.stacoenergy.com

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