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Introduction to LaTeX - Workshop Day 1

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LaTeX for Technical and Scientific Documents: Workshop at JNEC - Day 1 (January 12 - 16, 2015)

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Introduction to LaTeX - Workshop Day 1

  1. 1. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Introduction to LATEX Suddhasheel Ghosh Department of Civil Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College Aurangabad, Maharashtra 431003 LATEX for Technical and Scientific Documents January 12 - 16, 2015 Day I shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 1 / 31
  2. 2. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Outline 1 Why should we use LATEX Etymology 2 Parts of a LATEX document The Preamble The body Text styles 3 Mathematical typesetting 4 Graphics Tables shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 2 / 31
  3. 3. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Etymology Outline 1 Why should we use LATEX Etymology 2 Parts of a LATEX document The Preamble The body Text styles 3 Mathematical typesetting 4 Graphics Tables shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 3 / 31
  4. 4. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Etymology Why should we use LATEX Motivation Free Software (I do not have to worry about viruses and software piracy) Rendering mathematics is easier No worries about setting the font size and styles again and again Because I am tired of figures and tables jumping from here and there Because I want my sections and subsections autonumbered Because my fingers are tired with a click-find-click approach What all do I have to do? Remember the basic structure of a document Remember a few macros shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 4 / 31
  5. 5. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Etymology Etymology of LATEX ... the origins Initially TEX was developed by Donald Knuth Leslie Lamport extended the software to LATEX TEX is pronounced ‘Tech’ and was initially written as τ χ LATEX stands for Lamport TEX and is pronounced as ‘Lay-Tech’ However, many pronounce it as ‘Lateks’ (as in rubber) What can we do with LATEX? We can create research papers, reports, thesis, presentations, posters and leaflets. shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 5 / 31
  6. 6. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Etymology In this workshop: Day 1: Introduction to LATEX Day 2: Typesetting Mathematics Day 3: Writing your thesis / technical report Day 4: Make your presentations Day 5: Basics of science communication shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 6 / 31
  7. 7. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Etymology Where do I get LATEX? ...and use it LaTeX Software For Windows: www.miktex.org Download a complete DVD as torrent from www.texlive.org For Linux: Download a complete DVD as torrent from www.texlive.org Part of the Ubuntu Linux distribution (sudo apt-get install texlive) shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 7 / 31
  8. 8. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Etymology Writing files in LATEX ... and getting outputs The LATEX “code” is written in a .tex file LaTeX package compiles the file to produce PDF, DVI or PS files Windows editors (IDE) WinEdit TeXNicCenter LyX (What you see is what you get type) Linux editors (IDE) Texworks TeXStudio TeXMaker LyX shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 8 / 31
  9. 9. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Preamble Body Style Outline 1 Why should we use LATEX Etymology 2 Parts of a LATEX document The Preamble The body Text styles 3 Mathematical typesetting 4 Graphics Tables shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 9 / 31
  10. 10. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Preamble Body Style Parts of a LATEX document Preamble Style or class of a document Packages to be used Macro definitions Body Sections and subsections Tables and figures Body text shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 10 / 31
  11. 11. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Preamble Body Style Parts of a LATEX document The preamble Makes announcements Style of the document Packages to be used Definitions of macros shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 11 / 31
  12. 12. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Preamble Body Style Let us get our hands dirty! The Preamble We shall use the base class article documentclass{article} Want A4 paper size? Two-sided document? documentclass[a4paper,twoside]{article} What about setting the margins? usepackage[top=2cm,bottom=4cm,left=1.5cm, right=3cm,assymetric]{geometry} Therefore, overall settings for A4 size paper, and margins: documentclass[a4paper,twoside]{article} usepackage[top=2cm,bottom=4cm,left=1.5cm,right=3cm, asymmetric]{geometry} shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 12 / 31
  13. 13. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Preamble Body Style Let us get our hands dirty ...and let’s start writing papers Announce the title, the author and date title{My first LaTeX paper} author{Suddhasheel Ghosh} %write here or the date appears automatically date{} And then declare the contents of the document: begin{document} %this puts the title on top maketitle end{document} Here LaTeX, title, author, date, begin, end are all macros. Macros are like functions. Anything between the braces “{}”, is the argument to the function / macro. shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 13 / 31
  14. 14. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Preamble Body Style Let us get our hands dirty Bold, italics, slanted underline We can have {bf bold text}, {textit italicised text}, {sl slanted text} and underline{underlined text}. We can have bold text, italicised text, slanted text and underlined text. shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 14 / 31
  15. 15. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Preamble Body Style Let us get our hands dirty Subscripts and superscripts In your preamble, add the following line usepackage{fixltx2e} and inside the body write: It is found that heighttextsubscript{apple tree} is different than heighttextsubscript{orange tree} and we obtain: It is found that heightapple tree is different than heightorange tree shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 15 / 31
  16. 16. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Preamble Body Style Let us get our hands dirty Line spacing Line spacing can be set to single line, one and a half line, double line spacings, and any other customized spacings. In the preamble, use usepackage{setspace} ... and in the body write any one: singlespacing onehalfspacing doublspacing setstretch{1.1} shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 16 / 31
  17. 17. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Preamble Body Style Let us get our hands dirty Coloured text In your preamble, add the following line usepackage{color} %this gives about 16 colour options Alternatively, one can write: usepackage[usenames,dvipsnames,svgnames,table]{xcolor} %Gives about 16+64+150 colours Therefore, we can have red coloured text, and a blue coloured text, and back to the black colour, by Therefore, we can have {color{red}red coloured text}, and a {color{blue}blue coloured text}, and back to the black colour. shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 17 / 31
  18. 18. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Preamble Body Style Let us get our hands dirty Itemized and numbered lists begin{itemize} item Item 1 item Item 2 item Item 3 end{itemize} begin{enumerate} item Item 1 item Item 2 item Item 3 end{enumerate} Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 1 Item 1 2 Item 2 3 Item 3 Can you guess how we get multilevel lists? shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 18 / 31
  19. 19. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Preamble Body Style Let us get our hands dirty Typesetting environments LaTeX has various environments, which start and end with the begin and end commands. abstract equation center raggedright For example begin{abstract} Tomatoes have long been considered as the cause of kidney stones. Researches have been trying to eliminate this trait of the tomatoes through genetic engineering. end{abstract} shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 19 / 31
  20. 20. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Preamble Body Style Let us get our hands dirty Font sizes Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample tiny Sample scriptsize Sample footnotesize Sample small Sample normalsize Sample large Sample Large Sample LARGE Sample huge Sample Huge Sample shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 20 / 31
  21. 21. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Outline 1 Why should we use LATEX Etymology 2 Parts of a LATEX document The Preamble The body Text styles 3 Mathematical typesetting 4 Graphics Tables shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 21 / 31
  22. 22. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Playing with mathematics text Mathematics environments There are two kinds of math used in LATEX. Inline math Display math About any point $x$ in a metric space $M$ we define the open ball of radius $r > 0$ about $x$ as the set $$ B(x;r) = {y in M : d(x,y) < r}. $$ About any point x in a metric space M we define the open ball of radius r > 0 about x as the set B(x;r) = {y ∈ M : d(x,y) < r}. shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 22 / 31
  23. 23. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Typesetting equations Numbered equations Numbered equations can be typeset by using begin{equation} R(x,y) = frac{Ax^3+Bx^2+Cx+D}{Ey^3 + Fy + G} end{equation} R(x,y) = Ax3 +Bx2 +Cx+D Ey3 +Fy +G (1) shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 23 / 31
  24. 24. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Tables Outline 1 Why should we use LATEX Etymology 2 Parts of a LATEX document The Preamble The body Text styles 3 Mathematical typesetting 4 Graphics Tables shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 24 / 31
  25. 25. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Tables Inserting images To include a graphics file duck.jpg in a LATEX file, type in the preamble %in the preamble usepackage{graphicx} and in the body includegraphics{duck.jpg} And, here it is: shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 25 / 31
  26. 26. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Tables Inserting images ..and numbering them A paper would require numbering the images. begin{figure} centering includegraphics{duck.jpg} caption{A picture of a duck used at muggle homes as a toy} end{figure} Figure 1: A picture of a duck used at muggle homes as a toy shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 26 / 31
  27. 27. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Tables Inserting graphs in a LaTeX file A gnuplot and LATEX combo Start gnuplot, and write the following codes: set term tikz color solid size 4in,3in set output "sin.tex" set xr [-2*pi:2*pi] plot sin(x) with lines exit In your preamble, use the following usepackage{gnuplot-lua-tikz} and, in the body, wherever you wish to insert the figure, type input{sin} shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 27 / 31
  28. 28. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Tables Inserting graphs in a LaTeX file A gnuplot and LATEX combo -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 sin(x) shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 28 / 31
  29. 29. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Tables Inserting tables Tables require the tabular environment. begin{tabular}{lccc} {} &Judge 1 &Judge 2 &Judge 3 hline Katrina &7 &9 &10 Karishma &9 &10 &7 Kareena &10 &7 &9 hline end{tabular} will give: Judge 1 Judge 2 Judge 3 Katrina 7 9 10 Karishma 9 10 7 Kareena 10 7 9 shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 29 / 31
  30. 30. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Tables Inserting tables ... and numbering them begin{table} begin{tabular}{lccc} {} &Judge 1 &Judge 2 &Judge 3 hline Katrina &7 &9 &10 Karishma &9 &10 &7 Kareena &10 &7 &9 hline end{tabular} caption{Scores given by the judges for different participants in a beauty competition. end{table} Judge 1 Judge 2 Judge 3 Katrina 7 9 10 Karishma 9 10 7 Kareena 10 7 9 Table 1: Scores given by the judges for different participants in a beauty competition. Meanings: lccc: Left,centered,centered,centered hline: Horizontal line : Line break &: Tab character shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 30 / 31
  31. 31. SU D D H ASH EEL.CO M Motivation Parts Math Graphics Tables In the upcoming sessions Typesetting advanced mathematics Typesetting aligned and multiline equations Typesetting Matrices Vector notations: Cross product, dot product, bold vectors shudh@JNEC LATEX@ JNEC 31 / 31

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