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Culinary product of india notes

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MBA in Culinary Arts Elective Subject Notes

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Culinary product of india notes

  1. 1. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 1 | P a g e Culinary Product of India Notes Table of Contents Religious sweets of India................................................................................................................ 2 Religious Festive Sweets. ........................................................................................................... 3 Indian Food Rituals......................................................................................................................... 4 Historical Description of Food........................................................................................................ 5 Indian Food Festivals.................................................................................................................... 16 Importance of Food Fest ........................................................................................................... 17 Ayurvedic Food of India…........................................................................................................... 19 Ayurvedic Diet:......................................................................................................................... 20 Vedic Food.................................................................................................................................... 21 Different Food Products in Vedic Period.................................................................................. 22 The Golden Principles of Vedic Food Culture ......................................................................... 22 Ancient cooking equipment of India............................................................................................. 23 Introduction of Cooking Utensils.............................................................................................. 23 SPICES ......................................................................................................................................... 27 1. The Basic Spices................................................................................................................... 27 2. Complementary Spices ......................................................................................................... 28 3. Aromatics or Secondary Spices ............................................................................................ 29 Andhra Pradesh............................................................................................................................. 29 Assam............................................................................................................................................ 33 Assam Culinary Delight............................................................................................................ 41 West Bengal Culinary Delight...................................................................................................... 44 Street Food............................................................................................................................... 44 Culinary Delights of Chhattisgarh ................................................................................................ 52 Introduction............................................................................................................................... 52 Cuisine of Chhattisgarh –.......................................................................................................... 52 Bhajis of Chhattisgarh............................................................................................................... 54 Delights of the Chhattisgarh-.................................................................................................... 55 Delhi Food Delights...................................................................................................................... 61
  2. 2. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 2 | P a g e Haryanvi Food Delights:............................................................................................................... 66 Tamil Nadu Culinary Delight ....................................................................................................... 68 Malabar Parota...................................................................................................................... 69 Palada Payasam......................................................................................................................... 70 Thalassery Biryani .................................................................................................................... 70 Ada Pradhaman......................................................................................................................... 70 Erissery ..................................................................................................................................... 71 Lucknow Culinary Delight ........................................................................................................... 71 Rajasthan Culinary Delight........................................................................................................... 76 1. Dal Bati Churma: ........................................................................................................... 76 2. Mawa Kachori: ................................................................................................................. 77 4. Laal Maas:.......................................................................................................................... 77 UP Delights................................................................................................................................... 78 Religious sweets of India Introduction. - Indian food encompasses wide variety of religious cuisines native to India. - Due to range of diversity in soil, climate, occupation these cuisines vary. - It is also influenced by religious & cultural choices and tradition. - It consists of thousands of religious cuisines and was influenced by U.K. - Each family includes wide variety of dishes and techniques. - It has been influenced by 5000-year history of various groups and cultures. RELIGIOUS CONCEPT… - Religious is a social- cultural system. - It is a social cultural system of designated behaviours and practices. - It relates to Humanity. - System who belief in God. - Worship of something. - A set of values, beliefs, practices based on teachings of a spiritual leader. RELIGIONS OF INDIA. - Hinduism - Buddhism
  3. 3. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 3 | P a g e - Jainism - Sikhism Religious Importance of Sweets. - It talks about the religious dishes; it means cuisines or sweets related to sweets. - Indian sweets are synonymous with festive occasions. - No festival or ceremony is complete without sweets. - Diwali is one of the examples. - There is no particular time of having sweets in India. - Every good news is always accompanied with sweets - Sweets and religious ceremonies ‘go hand in hand’. For ex: Modak are commonly known as lord Ganesh as favourite sweet made on Ganesh Chaturthi. Religious Festive Sweets. (1.) LOHRI: Lohri is a Punjabi folk festival celebrated by Sikhs and Hindus in every year of January. It is a celebration of winter solstice. Many sweets are as: * Kheer * Revari * Til gajak (2.) HOLI: Holi is a festival of colours. It starts on nights before Holi with Holika dahan. Some religious sweets are as: * Gujia * Puran Poli * Malpua (3.) NEW YEAR: New year is celebrated in India under different names. Following are as: * Vishnu in Kerala: It is celebrated with payasam. * It is made on all Hindu festivals. * It is a ‘prasad’ offered in temples. (4.) JANAMASTHMI: It is the birthplace/ anniversary of Lord Krishna.
  4. 4. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 4 | P a g e * Also known as Gokulashami. * Various celebrations are Dahi handi. * Religious dishes are as: * Kheer * Nariyal ka ladoo * Khus or gond ki panjeeri (5.) GANESH CHATURTHI: It is the anniversary of Lord ganesha and is celebrated with great gusto in Maharashtra. * One of famous religious dessert is MODAK. * It is Indian sweet made with filling of grated coconut and jaggery and outside is rice flour. * It can be fried or steamed. Indian Food Rituals Start with spice and end with sweet Spices activates the digestive juices which are acidic in nature whereas sweets are basic and helps in cutting down spices. Sitting on the floor and eating Helps in improving digestion so that circulatory system can focus solely on digestion. Eating with hands Said to be sensory. Evokes emotions. Thumb – space Index finger – air Middle finger – fire Ring finger – water Little finger - earth Serving food on banana leaf Leaf contains large number of polyphenols – natural antioxidant.
  5. 5. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 5 | P a g e Offering food to god - Respect - Devotion - Considered as a sacrifice Use of copper vessels Copper destroys undesirable viruses. Kills E- coli bacteria. Indian thali system A wholesome meal. - Balanced meal. - E.g. South Indian thali, Rajasthani Thali, Gujrati Thali, North- Indian Thali. Fasting - Ancient Indian medical practice. - Regular cleansing of toxic materials in the body. Historical Description of Food Fusion and Food Today every very well-known Indian dish is the product of a long history of invasion and the fusion of different food traditions. The food that we Indians have been eating has been, over the millennia, steadily evolving both in variety and taste. The food habits and preferences of Indians have changed in stages over the last 4000 years, from the Indus Valley days through the Vedic times and after the influence of Buddhist and Jain thought, and their impact on the Dharma Sutras and Arthasastra of around 300 BC, to Mughals, Europeans and British. Indus Valley Civilization: At the various sites in Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa we have found wheat and barley. They were also familiar with chickpea, Masur dal and horsegram, Chana. They were also familiar with fruits like pomegranate, coconuts and banana. Wheat was used by making into stew, soup or flat bread called chappati.
  6. 6. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 6 | P a g e Food in Indus Valley Around 7000 BCE, sesame, eggplant and humped cattle had been domesticated in the Indus Valley. By 3000 BCE, turmeric, cardamom, black pepper and mustard were harvested in India. Coming of Aryans Coming of Aryans also did not change the food structure of India. Whereas the Harappan civilization was an essentially urban one, the Vedic was agricultural, pastoral and Philosophical, keenly alive to the forces within and without that effect human equanimity and comfort. A prayer from the Yajurveda, composed about 800 B.C. reads like this, “May for me prosper, through the sacrifice, milk, sap, ghee, honey, eating and drinking at the common table, ploughing, rains, conquest, victory, wealth, riches. May for me prosper, through the sacrifice, low grade food, freedom from hunger, rice, barley sesame, kidney beans, vetches, wheat, lentils, millets, panicum grains and wild rice. May for me prosper, through the sacrifice, trees, plants that which grows in ploughed land and that which grows in unploughed land” Cereals The Rig Veda mentions neither rice, nor wheat but only barley. The Yajurveda mentions all the three besides panicum cereal, oil seed and pulses such asmasha (urad), masura (masoor), mudga (mung) and Kalya (matar). Milk and Milk products Cattle were an integral part of the Vedic culture. There is a lot of reference to the milk of cows, though that of the buffalo and goat also finds mention. Dadhi (present dahi) or curds was eaten with rice, barley or Soma Juice. Curd folded into fresh milk constituted a popular drink, the solid portion being termed as amishka and the liquid portion as vajina. Shikarini, the modern Shrikhand, using strained curds, crystal sugar and fragrant herbas was used. The solid part of the cow ghee was called manda. Butter milk was in wide use and it was turned into seasoned dish called saga. The Aryans - Ancient Indians were good farmers. - They cultivated barley wheat rice, melons and cotton and kept their crops in a central storage in each city. - They kept cow, pigs, buffalo and sheep. - They lived in banks of rivers and fish were caught from river with fish hooks.
  7. 7. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 7 | P a g e Food till the period of Aryans They ate both vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods. Their main food was products of wheat served with barley or rice along with fish or meat. Vegetarian food (strictly excluding animal and fish meat) became the norm for as much as half of the population after the coming of Buddhism. Food Ethos Food to the Aryans was not simply a means of bodily sustenance, it was part of a cosmic moral cycle. The Taitttiriya Upanishad states, From earth sprang herbs, from herbs food, from food seed, from seed man……..Man thus consists of the essence of food….from food are all creatures produced, by food do they grow…The self consists of food, of breath, of mind, of understanding , of bliss.” The Bhagvad Gita also states, from food do all creatures come into being. Hence in the great Aryan cosmic cycle, the eater, the food he eats and the Universe must all be in harmony. Eating and cooking practices and rules of pollution It was during this period that the concept of pollution became intimately woven to the cooking and eating practice. It would be unthinkable for a cook or house wife to taste any dish during the course of its preparation. Water must never be sipped from a tumbler but poured into the mouth from above since one’s own saliva is polluting. Water used for rinsing the mouth must be caste out never swallowed. In many rituals sprinkling of water has a strong connotation of purification on the leaf before eating. The Buddhist Period Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism crystallized out of a Hindu matrix. In terms of food and food practices they had many features in common with the Hindu ethos but also some distinct elements. In the Lankavatra Sutra, Buddha is recorded as saying, I enjoy the taking of food made out of rice, barley, wheat, mudga, maha, masura and other grains, ghee,oil of seasum, honey, molassess, sugar, fish, eggs and others which are full of soul qualities but devoid of faults, they were consumed by the Aryans and by the rishis of yore”. Monks were advised to eat solid foods only between sunrise and noon and nothing between noon and sunrise the next day as this would subdue passion and lead to spiritual strength. Buddha himself favoured non injury and was strongly opposed to ritual sacrifice, yet even he permitted his followers animal flesh on occasions if the killing had been unintentional.
  8. 8. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 8 | P a g e Mauryans By 300 B.c. with the coming of Mauryan, many people became vegetarians though eating of meat not given up completely. Strong philosophy that animal sacrifices added to your karma and did not relieve you from cycle of reincarnation. The emperor Ashoka in his edicts not only preached non killing powerfully but himself practiced it. The Girnar stones in Gujarat state, no living being may be slaughtered for sacrifice, no festive gathering may be held. Formerly slaughtering in the Kings kitchen was great, now it has almost been stopped”. Guptas By 650 A.D. worship of mother goddess came into prevalence. Cow came to be worshipped. Hindus stopped eating beef completely. In the Gupta Empire, they mostly ate vegetables, cereals, fruits, breads, and drank milk. Philosophy of food According to the traditional Indian medical system Ayurveda, food is of three kinds. • satvic, • rajasic • tamasic depending on its character and effect upon the body and the mind. Satvic food Satvic food is most simple and easiest to digest type of food. The food contains most of its nutritional values as it is cooked by using minimal heat and modest processing. It provides the necessary energy to the body without taxing it. It is also considered as a foundation of higher states of consciousness, that is why saints and seers survive on satvic foods. Satvic food should be taken fresh or immediately after it is prepared. Fresh juicy fruits, vegetables (that are easily digestible), milk and milk products, whole soaked or also sprouted beans, grains and nuts, many herbs and spices consumed in their natural and near- natural forms are good examples of satvik food. Common spices like ginger, turmeric, coriander, cardamom, cinnamon, and aniseed are highly recommended in Satvic diet Rajasik food
  9. 9. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 9 | P a g e Rajasik food is rich in flavour but heavy to digest. It is suitable for people who do arduous physical work. Vegetables cooked in excess butter, with spicy and strong flavouring agents, are typical example of rajasic preparation. Cooked fresh, rajasic food is rich in nutrients with minimum dilution with water. Such food is heavy on salt and sugar and takes longer period to digest than sattvic food. It calls for extended sleeping hours and is sexually stimulating. Satvic foods that have been fried in oil or cooked too much or eaten in excess, specific foods and spices that are strongly exciting, bitter, pungent, hot and dry are examples of rajasic food. A rajasic food eater is usually aggressive and overflowing with energy as the rajasic food increase the speed and excitement of the human organism Tamasic food Tamasic food is considered the worst among all types of food. Dry, unnatural, overcooked, stale, decaying and processed food makes for a Tamasic diet. Tamasic diet consumes a large amount of energy while being digested. Refined food - be it cereals, oils or hydrogenated butter, stimulants and beverages like tea, coffee and soft drinks, fast and ready-to-cook food, canned or frozen food, precooked and warmed food items like burgers, pizzas, pastries, and chocolates, incompatible food as well as intoxicants like tobacco and alcohol are tamasic examples of tamasic food. Tamasic diet is foundation of ignorance, doubt, pessimism and leads a person to sick and painful life. A tamasic person always at serious discomfort with himself and forgets to lead healthy a happy life Food of Royalty We get a lot of information on food served to the royalty in the Sanskrit and regional literature from 1000 to 1500 A.D. King Somswara III the Western Chalukya king ruled from 1126 to 1138 A.D. To him is attributed the Sanskrit work, Abhla-sahitartha-chintamani better known as Manasollasa, meaning the refresher of mind. It consists of 100 chapters grouped in to 5 equal books. In the chapter on Annabhoga, it gives recipes, some fairly detailed others less for the preparation of a variety of dishes that are even now current in Kannada, Marathi and Tamil areas, such as idli, disai, vadai, dahi vada, poli, wadia, shrikhand, pheni and Laddu.
  10. 10. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 10 | P a g e However, the king pays much more attention to non vegetarian food preparation. He says even though food preparation served in earthen vessel tastes well, kings must be served in vessels made of gold. Meat Items In King Someswara’s book, meat items have a pride of place. Liver was carved in to a globular shape of beetle nuts, which were then roasted on charcoal and then fried with spices, eventually to be placed in curds, on a decoction of black mustard. Roasted tortoise, seasoned fish and fried crabs were other dishes relished. In one recipe pieces of meat are mixed with a paste of gram pounded with spics and fried. To this were added tender hyacinth beans, certain berries, onions and garlic and the whole mass was taken up in some sour juice and flavoured. Tastes of a Royal meal Many tastes in a royal meal. These are madhura (sweet), amla (sour), lavana (salty), kata (pungent), tikta (bitter) and kasaya (astringent), as prescribed earlier on by Sushruta (around 600 AD). The Bhavissayattakaha (of AD 1000) describes the royal meal of King Shrenika thus. First were served fruits that could be chewed (grape, pomegranate, ber), then fruits to be sucked (sugarcane, oranges, mangoes). Food that could be licked came next and in the fourth course came solid sweet items such as sevaka, modaka and phenaka. Rice followed next and the sixth was of broths. Curd preparation made the seventh course and the eighth ended with thickened milk flavoured with saffron. Items such as parpata (papad) and vataka (vadam) were common. Coming of Islam By 1100 A.D. many people stopped eating Pork because it was not allowed by the Koran. This had an adverse effect on environment because Pigs do not destroy the forest in which they live but sheep and goats do. Roti in thali Roti, dhal and cereals are easily grown in the dry arid atmosphere where there is less of green vegetables. This food continued from this period to the present. Diversity in Indian Food Indian food is as diverse as its culture, its religions, geography, climatic conditions and traditions. All of these combine to influence the preparation of Indian food.
  11. 11. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 11 | P a g e Essentially spicy, the cuisine is, however, not always hot. It is the different combination of a handful of spices that produce the most delectable dishes in the world. Use of fruits With coming of Islam people started eating more fruits. Citrus fruits like lemons and oranges grown from now onwards and eaten. Firoz Tughluq laid a large number of mango gardens. Persian influence on Food • The food from North India also traces its descent from Persian ancestors and then more definitely from the 16th century Mughals. • The Mughals brought with them Persian and Afghan cooks who started North Indians on the rich and fragrant Persian rice dishes, such as pilafs and biryanis (meat-based pilafs). • Garnished with pounded silver (vark), these dishes along with spicy kormas (braised meat in creamy sauces), koftas (grilled spicy meatballs) and kababs used to grace the tables of emperors. Mughlai influence Central Asian nomadic influence is apparent in meat dishes and communal eating due to tent life of the warriors Kulfi the Mughal way The delicious cold kulfi was made at court by freezing a mixture of khoa, pista nuts and zafran essence in a metal cone after sealing the open top with dough. (The only modification today is to use aluminium or plastic cones with their own caps). Falooda Jahangir, unlike his father, enjoyed meat, but will be remembered for popularizing falooda (a jelly made from boiled wheat strainings mixed with fruit juices and cream). Food from 16th century The Mughals were great patrons of cooking. Introduced rich gravies, pilafs and non-vegetarian fare such as kebabs, resulting in Mughalai Cuisine as well as such fruits as apricots, melons, peaches and plums. Lavish dishes were prepared during the reigns of Jahangir and Shah Jahan. The Nizams of Hyderabad state meanwhile developed and perfected their own style of cooking with the most notable dish being the Biryani, often considered by many connoisseurs to be the finest of the main dishes in India.
  12. 12. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 12 | P a g e Portuguese During this period the Portuguese introduced foods from the New World. They brought potato, tomato, tapioca, groundnuts, corn, papaya, pineapple, guava, avocado, rajma (kidney bean), cashew, sapota (chiku), and of course capsicum and chilli in all its forms. Perhaps the cauliflower and cabbage came from Europe or Latin America too, but certainly a particular form of cottage cheese did come from the Portuguese. It was this that became the chhana of Bengal and Orissa — the base for many Bengali sweets (Sandesh in its modern form, and of course inventions called Rasogolla, Khirmohan, Mouchak, Pantua, Sitabhog, Chhena Puda, and so forth). The Portuguese word for grain, grao, was taken up to describe Indian pulses as Bengal gram, horse gram and other grams. While the Arabs and Central Asians brought bajra, jowar, lobia and forms of bread (roti) into India, the Portuguese enriched Indian food through their diverse introductions. When we eat Aloo-poori, we partake of the richness of the produce of people from West Asia and Latin America! Early European officials Early European Officials in India had lavish tables. Mandelslo in 1638 noted, 15 or 16 dishes of meat, besides the dessert in the home of the President of the English merchants of Surat. In 1780, Mrs. Eliza fay, a lawyers wife and herself a dressmaker wrote, “We dine at 2, 0, clock in the very heat of the day, a soup, a roast fowl, curry, rice, a mutton pie, four quarter of lamb, a rice pudding, tarts, very good cheese, fresh churned butter, excellent Madeira( that is very expensive but eatables are very cheap). To prepare and serve these arrays of dishes a whole array of servants and Kedmutgars were in attendance. This was followed by a siesta, evening visits and a light dinner at night. By the turn of the twentieth century eating habits had changed. The mid-day meal had become lighter. By 1910, a lunch consisted of pea soup, roast chicken and tongue, breadsauce, potatoes, cheese macroni and lemon pudding. The main meal had moved to seven or eight in the evening and in 1909, Maud Divers declared, India is the land of dinners and England is the land of five o, clock tea all India is in a chronic state of giving and receiving this form of hospitality. British attitude to Indian food Indian food, whether the robust fare of Punjab and the North East Frontier or the delicate, light flavours of the South Indian cuisine, remained essentially the "food of the natives" who, according to the foreign rulers, ate pungent, chilli-spiked curries and rice or rotis like some uncivilised pagans.
  13. 13. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 13 | P a g e The British were not in India to learn. They, as well as other Europeans, were here to "civilise" the backward masses of India and their looking down on the food of India was but a natural corollary. The memsahibs, whether they were British, French or Portuguese, employed Indian khansamas, cooks and bearers but taught them their own cuisines rather than eat Indian meals at their innumerable parties or in their family meals. Most British officers and civil administrators who came to India, looked upon the native cuisines of India as unhygienic and unpalatable because of the high content of spices and herbs. British contribution to Indian food British made little contribution to Indian food. Fish and chips or Yorkshire pudding pale in comparison to what we got from the Arabs, Portuguese and Moghuls, but the British did sensitise us to at least one fruit, namely the apple. Apples Local varieties of apple are recorded to have occured in Kashmir (called amri, tarehli and maharaji), and Dalhara in 1100 AD talked about a "ber as big as a fist and very sweet, grown in North Kashmir", which is likely an apple. But it was the colourful Britisher Frederick "Pahari" Wilson who established a flourishing apple farm in Garhwal, where they grow red and juicy Wilson apples to this day. Apples in Himanchal In these days of American imports into India such as Pizza, Burgers, French fries and colas, it is well to remember the best import we have had from these, namely apples and express our gratitude to the American Mr. Stokes. He settled in Kotgarh near Simla in the 1920s and started apple orchards there, and helped in the proper grading, packing and marketing of the fruit. Word related to food in British Vocabulary Colonial rulers have never been known for their linguistic accuracy and no one knows for sure where the British got this one. "Kari" is a South Indian word for sauce and "tarkari" is a North Indian dish. Shiqar festivals The only concession they made was when they attended the shikar feasts of the maharajas or ceremonial royal meals in the opulent, chandeliered dining halls of the riyasatis where food was served by turbaned waiters from gem-studded gold or silver vessels. Throughout the colonial period too many new, hybrid cuisines developed because the khansamas of the memsahibs innovated food which combined some of the flavours of India with those of Britain, France or Portugal.
  14. 14. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 14 | P a g e Thus, as a legacy of the Raj era, we have the remnants of an Anglo-Indian, Indo-French or Indo- Portuguese cuisine. These flourish in parts of India and in Britain or Europe where nostalgic memories of the Raj linger on. When the British left Clearly the sahibs and memsahibs fell in love with the flavors of India. When they returned to the homeland, they had their cooks grind up a mix of spices to sprinkle on their staid British staples. The world now knows this as "curry powder" and whatever is cooked with it is "curry." Changes in eating habits In the British Raj, mini revolutions occurred in food and eating habits in the higher echelons of Indian society. Affluent, Westernised Indian families ate at dining tables with forks and knives and added to their menus, at least some western goodies such as baked dishes, cakes, puddings and ice cream. Their food, though cooked in their own style, also included a few acceptable western items in their daily diet. Chines influence on Food The Chinese had their influence too, though not to the extent of the Portuguese and the Moghuls. Mulberry, blackberry and the litchi fruit came to us through them. Of Chinese origin are also the sweet cherry and the peach. China also developed the leafy variety of Brassica juncea (rai), which we in India use as a vegetable. Camphor is a Chinese import and introduction (it is even today called chinakarpura). The soybean was imported from China into India in 1908 for cultivation, though it caught on widely only after the U.S. variety was introduced in 1970s. And the most precious introduction of China to India (and to the world at large) is of course their cha or teh, namely tea. Just imagine what we do first thing in the morning — we pay obeisance to the Arabs with a cup of coffee (they brought it to us in the 1600s) or to the Chinese with our steaming cuppa. Caste based food However, the large mass of the highly caste and-religion-riddled Indian society continued to maintain its original food barriers and ate community or regional food which was their legacy for generations.
  15. 15. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 15 | P a g e Caste and religion were the main dividing partitions of society and food and eating habits reflected these divisions clearly. After Independence Only when Independence came, did Indians realise that they were one nation and that they would have to work above all towards a homogenous culture, lifestyle and national awareness. The divide and rule days of the British were at last over. The French had vacated Pondicherry, Mahe and Karaikal and the Portuguese were soon to be forced out of Goa, Diu and Daman. Food Revolution The first signs of the imminent, massive food revolution were visible when Mumbai, the most cosmopolitan city of India, welcomed hordes of Sindhi and Punjabi refugees who migrated to the city. They entered the building and film industries and began to assert their culture in the metropolis. Punjabi dhaba food from the North West Frontier became popular in Mumbai in the Sixties. Mumbaites, who had hitherto relished non-vegetarian food in the many street-corner Irani restaurants and khanawals serving the fish and meat dishes of the Konkan coast and Goa, pounced on the luscious kebab and tandoori cuisine which was new and exciting. Food Today In addition to the pronounced use of spices, common culinary threads unifying local cuisines include the prominence of flatbreads and a far greater use of dairy products than anywhere else in Asia. Breads are made with wheat, rice and ground legumes depending on the part of the country while dairy products include milk, cream, yogurt, buttermilk, sour cream and cheese. Geographical Differences in Food Beyond that, the differences take over. Northern Indians tend to use their spices ground while Southerners start out with them whole and grind them to a paste with cooked onions and other ingredients. The South is the land of rice while Northerners rely on wheat and other grains -- except for Kashmir, high in the Himalayas, which produces some of the best rice in the world. Cooks of the tropical South make heavy use of coconut milk, an ingredient rarely seen in the North. Areas with access to waterways rely more heavily on seafood. Thus, Bengal is a region of fish-lovers, preferably the fresh water variety Impact of religion on food Undoubtedly the strongest influence defining Indian food is religion. Centuries of Hindu practice and the profound belief in reincarnation have resulted in the most delicious vegetarian cuisine to
  16. 16. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 16 | P a g e be found in the world. For protein, vegetarians rely on a wide range of legumes, both whole and split. Mixed with grain, boosted by vegetables and dairy products, and spiced to the max, they provide a wholesome, varied diet. Spices Just as Japanese sushi relies on the freshness of the meat and Chinese food relies on the various sauces to impart the right flavor and taste, Indian food relies on the spices in which it is cooked. Spices have always been considered to be India’s prime commodity Spices for medicines Most of the spices used in Indian food have been used for their medicinal properties in addition to the flavor and taste they impart. Ginger is believed to have originated in India and was introduced to China over 3000 years ago. In India, a knob of fresh ginger added to tea is believed to relieve sore throats and head colds, not to mention its aphrodisiacal properties! Turmeric is splendid against skin diseases and neem leaves are used to guard against small pox. Indian Food Festivals 1.National Street Food Festival Where: - Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, New Delhi When: - December-January 2.Mei Ram – we Where: - Sacred grove, Mawphlang, Mghalaya When: - December 3.Great Indian Food Festival Where: - Dilli Haat, Delhi When: - January 4.The Grub Festival Where: - New Delhi, Pune, Mumbai When: - March 5.Goa Food and Cultural Festival Where: - DB Bandodkar Ground, Campal Panaji, Goa When: - April
  17. 17. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 17 | P a g e 6.Palate Fest Where: - Nehru Park, Delhi When: - Februrary 7.Bhukkad Flea Where: - Corona Garden, Bandra West, Mumbai When: - October Importance of Food Fest Provides an excellent platform to market goods and display their best offerings to an enormous crowd. Exposure to Relevant Crowd Staying in touch with your competitors Customer Connect Initiating Boosts Also Helps in Finding Potential Investors Publicity, etc. Baisakhi It is the harvest festival of Northern India. Observed on 13th or 14th of every year. Delicacies: - Chole Bhature, Coconut Ladoo, Kheer, Makki ki roti, Sarson ka saag, Pindi Chana (dried preparation of white chick peas, served with lemon juice and onion rinngs), Puri, Til ke ladoo, Til ka gajak. Pongal This festival celebrated To offer thanks to the Gods for the harvest and to ake Their blessings. Celebrated During 12th -15th January, in South India.
  18. 18. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 18 | P a g e Delicacies:- Avial, Coconut Rice, Lemon Rice, Puli Pongal, Ariselu (made from rice flour, ghee, and jaggery), Masala Vada, Til Polis (made by stuffing sesame seed mixture inn wheat dough and then shallow frying it. Makar Sankranti Makar Sankranti is a widely celebrated festival in India. In South India, it is called Pongal, in North India it is called Lohri, while in western India, it is celebrated by flying colourful kites. Delicacies: - Bajra Khichdi, Til Gajak, Til Chikki, Murmure Ladoo, Payesh (Bengali version of kheer, made by boiling rice/brokeen wheat with milk, sugar and flavoured with cardamom, pistachios, almonds, rasinns, etc), Aate ki Pinni (wheat flour, sugar and dry fruits), Bandaru Ladoo (gramfour mixed with sugar), Pesarattu (It is made with batter of Green gram dal,served with tamarind and ginger chutney), Mahashivratri People believe that Shivratri was the day when Lord Shiva and goddess Parvati tied the Nuptial knot. It falls in the month of February or March. Delicacies :- Singhade ki Roti Singhade ki Kadhi Aloo Chaat (cubes of potatoes fried and sautéed with spices and chhutney) Badaam Halwa (soaked almonds grounded and then cooked in desi ghee ) Holi The celebrations begin with a bonfire and organizing Holi get together and
  19. 19. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 19 | P a g e playing with coloring dyes. Delicacies: - Gujiya (has a distinct shape, filled with a mixture of grated and roasted dry fruits, khoya, coconut and a little suji) Kanji ke Vade (freid rounds of lentil batter fermented in water, mustard seeds, and asafoietida. Thandai (prepared by squeezing the buds and leaves of cannabis into a green paste, and adding mixture of milk, ghee, almond, sugar, etc. Onion Bhajiya Eid Eid is celebrated all across the world, after seeing the moon at the end of holy month Ramzan in which the muslims keep fast. It is celebrated for three consecutive days. Delicacies: - Sheer khurma (a dessert made using Milk, rice, sewain, dates, coconut,etc) Kebabs (kebabs made from a mixture of boiled meat, channa dal Mint leaves and onions) Biryani and Pulao Dahi Bhalla Ayurvedic Food of India… Ayurveda is as old as mankind. According to Indian society origin of Ayurveda is given by the God Vishnu (Dhanvantri). But the morden ayurveda father is acharya Charaka Samhita in indus valley. Fact- national medical award name is dhanvantri award. Ayurveda or ayur-vigyan is a 6000-year-old health care system that asserts that science, philosophy and spirituality are necessary aspects for a healthy living. Ayurveda is considered not only a comprehensive medical system but also a way of life. Ayurveda Works on: • Body • Mind • Sole (Emotions)
  20. 20. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 20 | P a g e Ayurvedic Diet: An ayurvedic diet is an eating plan that provides guidelines for when you eat, what you eat, and how you eat to boost your health. Ayurvedic approach to designing balanced foods for optimal nutrition absorption of essential nutrients. Classification of food in Ayurveda: 1. Hot and Cold nature (after effect on body). 2. Satva or Light food, Rajas or Rich food, Tamas or Dull and sluggish. 3.Food Source (plant base, animal base, other). 4. Medicinal, chemical and Genral. Common food items used in Ayurveda: Cow products. Animal products. Plants products. Crystals and stones. Matel and matel ash. Acids and alkaline. Variety of aushidi and khadas. Use for: 1. Strengthen immune system. 2. Efficient detoxification system. 3. Responsive inflammatory system. 4. Optimal metabolic system. 5. Balanced regulatory system. 6. Enhanced regenerative system. 7. Harmonize the life force. 8. Freeradical scavenging or antioxidant. Indian sciences in Ayurvedic health care practices and related to:
  21. 21. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 21 | P a g e • Yoga • Cosmetology, Aesthetics & beauty concepts (Saundarya Vigyana) • Cookery in view of dietetics (Paaka shastra) • Sexology (Kamashastra) • Meditation, Spiritual Practices (Dhyana Yoga) • Music therapy • Astrology • Vaastu WEEKNESS AND PROBLEM: • In appropriate en-effective, unresponsive educational system. • Halfhearted Government support so other country take patent for ayurvedic product. • Substandard condition of Ayurvedic teaching Institutions. • Poor status of Government run Ayurvedic Institutions. • Loss of faith of Ayurvedic physicians in their own system. • Misconception among public regarding delayed effect of Ayurvedic drugs. • Media creation of toxic effects of TMs due the use of minerals and metals. • No linkage/ understanding / collaboration between the patron countries of Ayurveda to counter the negative market strategies. Vedic Food Introduction: Vedic period Vedic Period is the age of new culture, several developments occurred during that period in the society In India, a completely new culture and civilisation emerged during the 1500 BC-600 BC. The Vedic Religion is the predecessor to modern Hinduism. A method of Ashram system prevailed in the Vedic Period There are four Vedas- Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda which form the main literary sources for this Vedic era. Food in Vedic period begins with cereals like rice and barley which formed a major part of food in Vedic period. The Vedic literature throws considerable light on the food and drink habits of the people of the ancient India. Among the food grains, the Rig Veda repeatedly mentions barley, particularly fried barley. These were used in preparing sweet cakes which were either dipped in ghee before eating or consumed with "Somarasa" prepared with curd and butter which formed a major part of Vedic meal. Along with this the food of the Vedic period include large varieties of pulses, dairy products, meat, salts and spices, sweets and a variety of beverages which reflect the culture of Vedic period that came through the food habits of the Indian people.
  22. 22. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 22 | P a g e Different Food Products in Vedic Period Vedic period included both vegetarian as well as non-vegetarian food items. Vedic people cultivated a number of pulses like masura, masa, arahar, grams, peas and kulattha along with rice, wheat and barley. Generally cow’s milk was consumed after boiling it. Milk was used for preparing some more items in which milk was milked with either with soma juice or messed with grains to create a whole meal of barley. Along with various forms of milk goat milk also formed a major part of Indian society that is mentioned in the Rig Vedas. Beverages in Vedic Period: ❖ Food in Vedic period also gave special importance to beverages particularly Soma Juice which has been mentioned in all the rituals. ❖ The Vedic literature lays down a list of intoxicating beverages which are largely prepared by fermenting the fruit extracts. ❖ Most important among them was Soma Ras that was sweet and delicious in taste. Cooking Methods in Vedic Period ❖ Utensils the Vedic people largely used utensils made up of clay, wood and stone while other metals are also included for making other utensils. ❖ Also leather vessels were also included. ❖ Various rules and etiquettes which were compulsory for a Vedic family while serving the meal. The Golden Principles of Vedic Food Culture Good eating according to Vedic food culture emphasizes that: ❖ One should eat warm, unctuous and fluid food, served in an elegant manner to create the congenial and aesthetic atmosphere for its consumption. ❖ Food should be prepared with a variety of ingredients, to balance the different rasa (taste) and enriched with herbs and spices. The preparation of food should take place with a peaceful mental state. ❖ Never consume food under stressful circumstances or under any emotional restraint. ❖ Before your meal, bring your mind to your food, which is the fundamental basis of body's energy. Look at your food and make a wish that the five elements of the food may provide you with equilibrium, vigour and good health.
  23. 23. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 23 | P a g e ❖ Drinking water, either before or one hour after the food is recommended and not with food. History of Indian Food ❖ The history of Indian food can be traced back to the ancient daysand introduced by the ancient Indian civilizations - The Harappa and the Mohenjo-Daro. ❖ The first preparation of food included a number of cereals and pulses. ❖ Gradually, the ancient Indian civilization moved towards perfection and this was noticed during the Vedic period. ❖ In this period of time, a regular diet consisted of vegetables, fruits, grains, meat, honey, dairy products, beverages and special kind of spices Ancient cooking equipment of India Introduction of Cooking Utensils ▪ Small hand held tools. ▪ Used for food preparation. ▪ Varies with time and style of cooking.
  24. 24. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 24 | P a g e ▪ Can be categorized with use as: - ➢ Kitchen ware ➢ Oven ware ➢ Bake ware ➢ Cook ware COOKING EQUIPMENTS CAN BE MADE UP OF: - ▪ COPPER ▪ IRON ▪ STAINLESS STEEL ▪ EARTHENWARE & ENAMEL WARE ▪ ALUMINIUM ▪ CLAY ▪ PLASTIC ▪ GLASS Etc. HISTORY OF KITCHEN EQUIPMENT: - ▪ Historic utensils can be named as culinary antiques and vintage kitchen Lia. ▪ Introduced in early 19th century. ▪ Started in 3600 BC the bronze age. ▪ Followed by iron age. ▪ Results into more sophisticated form of tool making. ▪ Stoneware were also very common in 19th century. HISTORY OF KITCHEN EQUIPMENT: - ▪ Equipment’s were used as per nutritional purpose. ▪ The style of cooking also affects the use of utensils. ▪ Some utensils popularized by Romans in 8th century is: - ➢ Meat mincer ➢ Strainers ➢ Ladle (made of iron)
  25. 25. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 25 | P a g e ➢ Kettles and pots (made of terracotta & bronze) ▪ 20th century equipment’s includes: ▪ Utensils made with tinned or enameled iron. ▪ Steel, nickel, silver utensils were used. ▪ Coppers were not used because it reacts with acidic food. ▪ Mud, cow dung, clays were commonly used. ▪ The middle east household use: - ➢ Measuring cups (stone made) ➢ Meyham (wide neck vessel) ➢ Kederah (a bellied cooking pot) ➢ Yorah and kumkum. ➢ Two types of Teganon (frying pan) ➢ Iskutla (glass serving platter) ▪ The equipments were made more famous in late 19th century. Growth of kitchen equipments: - ▪ In late 19th century enormous growth in kitchen equipment was seen. ▪ Various machine was introduced in the market to save labour and time. ▪ The equipment’s include: - ➢ Copper saucepans (well lined) ➢ Gridiron (flat bottom soup pot) ➢ Double broiler, rolling pin, cleaver etc. ▪ Styles of Equipment’s used in different parts of India East ▪ Bonthi (vegetable cutter) ▪ Khunti (flat metal spatula) ▪ Hatha (round spoon) ▪ Jhanjri (perforated spoon) ▪ Ghutni (wood hand blender)
  26. 26. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 26 | P a g e ▪ Sharashi (pincer) ▪ Styles of Equipments used in different parts of India West ▪ Sadha nu vasan (steamer) ▪ Lohri (kadhai & tawa) ▪ Kuth (jugs without handle) ▪ Modak patra (copper vessel used for making modak. ▪ Veeli (vegetable chopper) ▪ Chool (cooking stove made of mud) ▪ Styles of Equipments used in different parts of India North ▪ Chakla belan ▪ Pauni (perforated spoon) ▪ Patila (same as lagan) ▪ Khoncha (flat metal spoon) ▪ Bhatti (used for grilling kebabs) ▪ Tikra (clay pot) ▪ Chulah (mud stove) ▪ Styles of Equipments used in different parts of India South ▪ Kalchatti (stone ware used for tempering) ▪ Dosa thiruuppi (flat slicer) ▪ Idli panai (making bulk idli ) ▪ Uruli (heavy pot) ▪ Thurvammi (coconut scraper) ▪ Eyya chombu ▪ Thhaavi ladles (bamboo ladles)
  27. 27. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 27 | P a g e SPICES Sophistication and subtle use of some herbs & spices characterize Indian food and Indian cuisine. These spices play a very important role in Indian cooking. If there are no spices, it’s not Indian food. We Indians have a habit of spicing up our food to make it more hot and tasty. Some of the spices are required for the aroma, some for flavor and some for complimenting other spices. . In ancient times majority of the spices were produced in India and exported worldwide. It was then, the Spices of India attracted people across the borders are defined as “a strongly flavored or aromatic substance of vegetable origin, obtained from tropical plants, commonly used as a condiment”. Spices were once as precious as Gold. India plays a very important role in the spice market of the world ices and forced them to come to India for Spice trade. • Masala is a word very commonly used in Indian cooking and is simply the Hindi word for “spice.” So, whenever a combination of spices, herbs and other condiments are ground or blended together, it is called masala The Indian spices can be categorized into three main categories: 1. The basic spices 2. Complimentary spices 3. Aromatic or secondary spices 1. The Basic Spices There are a few basic spices in Indian cuisine that go into most dishes. Often a very basic vegetable dish is made by adding cumin or mustard seeds and asafetida in some hot ghee (clarified butter) or oil until they sizzle and pop. Then the vegetables are added and steamed. 1a. Cumin Seed: Other Names: Jeera, jeeragam, jilakara, black cumin, kala jeera, royal cumin, shah jeera, Comino, cumin-A basic Indian spice. Used mainly in North Indian food and is used for its strong distinctive taste. When roasted, whole cumin seeds release more aroma and gives the dish a sweet flavor. Cumin can be used as a whole spice or in the powdered form. Cumin seed powder lends a sweet and mild flavor to a dish and is one of the main ingredients in the popular mixed Indian spice called Garam Masala. 1b. Coriander Seeds: Other Names: Dhania Mainly used for its fresh, soothing and cooling taste, coriander seeds are very light weight and have a mild flavor. Although they come from the same plant, they should not be mixed up with cilantro. Coriander seeds like cumin is used as a whole spice and in a powdered form. In a powder form it is an indispensable spice in the spice box of Indians. The aromatic fragrance of the roasted coriander powder enhances the taste of any dish.
  28. 28. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 28 | P a g e 1c. Black Mustard Seeds: Other Names: Mohri In India the black mustard seeds are preferred over the larger yellow ones found in the western world. It has a strong but pleasing flavor and known for its digestive qualities. It is spluttered in oil or Ghee (clarified butter) and used as a tempering. Mustard seeds are used in India to flavor vegetables, pulses and pickles. 1d. Turmeric: Other Names: Haldi Looks similar to a ginger root but when cut has a gorgeous orange-yellow color. Turmeric is mainly used in Indian dishes for its medicinal properties and for the gorgeous intensive color it gives to the dishes. It is mildly aromatic and has a delicate scent of ginger. Turmeric is a wonder spice and is used throughout Asia to treat cases of stomach and liver ailments. It is also used externally to heal sores and in cosmetics. 1e. Chilli Powder: Other Names: Lal Mirch The Indian chili powder is made from spicy ground chilies and is often hotter that the chili powder available in the US/European stores. It has a pungent, hot aroma with a strong bite to it. 1f. Asafetida: Other Names: Hing, asafetida powder, asafetida, devil’s dung, ferula, foetida, heeng This is often used as a digestive. It has a strong odor and a slight garlicky flavor. Do not taste this raw – it is NOT a pleasant experience. Using it in the recommended recipe however, works wonders. Just a pinch is used for cooking in dishes with lentils and beans. 1g. Garam Masala: Other Names: Mixed Spice powder Garam Masala is powdered blend/mix of spices (aromatic spices, see below) that may include cloves, cardamom, cinnamon, black peppercorns, nutmeg, mace. Garam means “hot”, but not chili hot, hot in the sense that these spices are said to increase body temperature. It can be used a mix of whole spices as well. A whole garam masala could include whole cinnamon sticks, bay leaves, cloves, cardamom (black or green), whole mace, and black peppercorns. Powdered garam masala is often added at the end of cooking in small quantities so that the full aroma is not lost whereas, whole garam masala is used in north Indian cooking, especially meat dishes and as aromatics for rice dishes. Often these are fried in hot oil before other wet ingredients such as meat, onions, garlic, and/or ginger are added. Different regions use different mixtures and proportions of the spices. A garam masala will vary from household to household. 2. Complementary Spices Spices like fennel or nigella seeds are sometimes added along with some of the basic spices to add to flavours. These are used in combination with the basic spices and aromatics mentioned below according to the dish being prepared. 2a. Fennel Seeds: Other Names: Saunf Although this is a basic Indian spice, it is not essential. It is mainly used in North Indian cuisine and possess digestive qualities. If you often visit Indian restaurants you will find these
  29. 29. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 29 | P a g e coated with colored sugar and offered after meals as a mouth freshener. Fennel seeds are also often used to spice up teas and drinks. 2b. Fenugreek Seeds: Other Names: Methi, halba This spice, which is actually a lentil, is used throughout India for its distinctive flavor (it has a slight bitter taste) it gives the dish and for its wonderful healthful properties. Fenugreek is used in small quantities and is used throughout India – both in North and South Indian Cooking. As a matter of fact, after turmeric, fenugreek seeds are the most medically useful item in an Indian kitchen. 2c. Nigella Seeds: Other Names: Kalonji, onion seeds, calonji, hasbasoda, ketza, black caraway Small black seed, sometimes called onion seeds, although they are not really seeding from onions. these are often used in North India to enhance vegetable dishes. Toasting the seeds briefly brings out the flavor. 2d. Carom Seeds: Other Names: Ajwain These have a strong peppery-thyme flavor. This poppy seed like plant comes from the lovage plant. It is very popular in North Indian cooking. It is used in preparing many Indian vegetables and pulses. 3. Aromatics or Secondary Spices To the above spices we would add chopped onions, tomatoes, herbs and any of the following secondary spices and create a curry. We go light with the Aromatics and added them in small quantities or in the form of garam masala. When you require cardamom in the powdered form, the best way is to crack open the pods using the back of a spoon and powder the small brown/black seeds inside in a mortar or it is recommended to grind small quantities at home using a coffee mill. When a recipe calls for whole cardamom, the pods can be cracked open slightly to release the full. Andhra Pradesh Must eat' lists are always a tricky proposition. We're bound to leave out iconic dishes especially in a large state like Andhra Pradesh where each region offers a cornucopia of culinary treasures. And then there is that standard myth about Andhra cuisine that almost every dish is guaranteed to drill a hole in your tongue because of their fiery spice levels. While that might hold good for some dishes, there's enough Andhra cuisine where subtle flavours come to the fore.
  30. 30. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 30 | P a g e My earliest references of Andhra cuisine go back to my paternal village in West Godavari district (not far from Rajahmundry). Add to that is North Chennai's long list of Andhra restaurants with culinary traditions that date back to a time when large parts of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu were part of the same region - Madras Presidency. We therefore pick ten dishes that are a great starting point for you to explore Andhra cuisine: 1. Kandhi Podi It's true that the podis (powders) are one of the best known elements of Andhra cuisine. The pale orange Kandhi Podi (Red gram powder) combines split red gram, Bengal gram and roasted gram and can be stored for months. Restaurants like National Lodge in Chennai have acquired a hallowed reputation for their Kandhi Podi. Add some of this powder to piping hot rice and a dollop of ghee, and there's probably no better way to start your Andhra meal. 2. Gongura Pachadi
  31. 31. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 31 | P a g e Just like the podis, the pachadis (chutneys) are a quintessential element in Andhra cuisine and can either be mixed with rice or served as an accompaniment for dosas or idlis. There's a variety of interesting chutneyslike the Vankaya (brinjal) Pachadi or my favourite Allam (ginger) Pachadi that is terrific with dosas or pesaratu. But nothing is more unique than the spicy Gongura Pachadi that's crafted with spinach (sorrel leaves). I remember looking forward to a large porcelain jar of this pachadi every summer along with a jar of avakkai (mango pickle). 3. Ulava Charu This is among the state's most popular dishes and halfway between a rasam and a traditional soup. The Ulava (horse gram) Charu might be associated with the Guntur and Krishna districts but is a delicacy that is savoured across the state on special occasions. It's usually served with rice and with a dollop of cream - Andhra's outstanding dairy produce (from set curd to home-made ghee) doesn't quite get the national attention it truly deserves. 4. Pesarattu At a time when carb-free diets are officially a thing, the pesarattu makes a compelling case for a breakfast or anytime snack. While this dosa variant does use a small amount of rice flour, it's almost entirely dominated by moong dal. There's also an interesting version (often called MLA Pesarattu) where the pesarattu is stuffed with Rava Upama.
  32. 32. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 32 | P a g e 5. Ragi Sangati with Natu Kodi Pulusu It's tough to pick Andhra's most popular Chicken dish. There's the Guntur-style Kodi Vepudu that gets its rich flavours from the dry Guntur chilli, garlic and coconut. And then there's Ragi Sangati (Ragi Balls) served with the Rayalseema-style chicken gravy made with free range chicken. This gravy features a medley of spices including star anise and poppy seeds and tastes equally delicious with steamed rice. 6. Akura Pappu The Akura Pappu combines the goodness of spinach with the protein content of a conventional dal. The Pappus (dals) bust the myth that all Andhra cuisine is fiery and boast of a tangy flavour from the tamarind in the mix.. 7. Royyala Veppudu It is strongly associated with the Nellore region in the Southern tip of coastal Andhra Pradesh, a region known for high quality shrimps. Royyala Veppudu (prawn fry) is relatively easy to fix and doesn't go overboard with the spice mix allowing you to enjoy the flavours of the prawn.
  33. 33. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 33 | P a g e 8. Gongura Mamsam One of the state's most popular lamb dishes that tastes delicious with steamed rice but works well with chapatti or dosa. The dish is an explosion of flavours that combines the sour taste of the gongura (sorrel) leaves with red chilli and mutton. It's not uncommon for this dish to feature potatoes and also coconut milk that lends a rich texture to the gravy. 9. Gutti Vankaya Koora It is arguably Andhra's best known brinjal dish and quite similar to the Bagara Baingan that is a popular accompaniment for biryani. This flavoursome dish combines peanut with red chillies and the wonderful flavours and textures of brinjal equally scrumptious with steamed rice and bajra or jowar rotis. 10. Poothareku Andhra cuisine has its share of payasams (kheer) and semolina-based desserts (ladoos and pudding) but nothing quite matches the unique appeal of this sweet dish that can be traced back to the East Godavari district. Derived from the words 'pootha' (coating) and 'reku' (sheet), you can be forgiven for mistaking this sweet for paper rolls in terms of appearance and texture. Rice flour and ghee combine to create the thin film (it requires great skill) that is usually stuffed with powdered sugar or jaggery (some modern versions even feature chocolate!) Assam Assam is a state in northeastern India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys. The state is bordered by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh to the north; Nagaland and Manipur to the
  34. 34. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 34 | P a g e east; Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram and Bangladesh to the south; and West Bengal to the west via the Siliguri Corridor, a 22 kilometers strip of land that connects the state to the rest of India. Assam is known for Assam tea and Assam silk. The state was the first site for oil drilling in Asia. Assam has conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros from near extinction, along with the wild water buffalo, pygmy hog, tiger and various species of Asiatic birds, and provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. The Assamese economy is aided by wildlife tourism to Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park, which are World Heritage Sites. Sal tree forests are found in the state which, as a result of abundant rainfall, look green all year round. Assam receives more rainfall than most parts of India; this rain feeds the Brahmaputra River, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a hydro-geomorphic environment. GEOGRAPHY A significant geographical aspect of Assam is that it contains three of six physiographic divisions of India – The Northern Himalayas (Eastern Hills), The Northern Plains (Brahmaputra plain) and Deccan Plateau (Karbi Anglong). As the Brahmaputra flows in Assam the climate here is cold and there is rainfall most of the month. CLIMATE With the tropical monsoon climate, Assam experiences heavy rainfall and high humidity. The climate is characterized by heavy monsoon downpours reducing summer temperatures and affecting foggy nights and mornings in winters, frequent during the afternoons. Spring (March–April) and autumn (September–October) are usually pleasant with moderate rainfall and temperature.
  35. 35. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 35 | P a g e FAUNA Assam is one of the richest biodiversity zones in the world and consists of tropical rainforests, deciduous forests, riverine grasslands, bamboo orchards and numerous wetland ecosystems; Many are now protected as national parks and reserved forests. Assam has wildlife sanctuaries, the most prominent of which are two UNESCO World Heritage sites- the Kaziranga National Park, on the bank of the Brahmaputra River, and the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, near the border with Bhutan. The Kaziranga is a refuge for the fast-disappearing Indian one-horned rhinoceros, white-winged wood duck, rufous-necked hornbill, Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, pygmy hog, wild water buffalo, Burmese python, and Assam roofed turtle. Threatened species that are extinct in Assam include the gharial, a critically endangered fish-eating crocodilian, and the pink-headed duck. For the state bird, the white-winged wood duck, Assam is a globally important area. In addition to the above, there are three other National Parks in Assam namely Dibru Saikhowa National Park, Nameri National Park and the Orang National Park. The state has the largest population of the wild water buffalo in the world. The state has the highest diversity of birds in India with around 820 species. With subspecies the number is as high as 946.The mammal diversity in the state is around 190 species. FLORA Assam is remarkably rich in Orchid species and the Foxtail orchid is the state flower of Assam. The recently established Kaziranga National Orchid and Biodiversity Park boasts more than 500 of the estimated 1,314 orchid species found in India. GEOLOGY Assam has petroleum, natural gas, coal, limestone and other minor minerals such as magnetic quartzite, kaolin, sillimanites, clay and feldspar. A small quantity of iron ore is available in western districts.Discovered in 1889, all the major petroleum-gas reserves are in Upper parts. A recent USGS estimate shows 399 million barrels (63,400,000 m3 ) of oil, 1,178 billion cubic feet
  36. 36. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 36 | P a g e (3.34×1010 m3 ) of gas and 67 million barrels (10,700,000 m3 ) of natural gas liquids in the Assam Geologic Province. The region is prone to natural disasters like annual floods and frequent mild earthquakes. Strong earthquakes were recorded in 1869, 1897, and 1950. LANGUAGE Assamese is the official language of the state. Additional official languages include Bengali and Bodo languages. FESTIVALS Bihu is the most important and common and celebrated all over Assam. Bihu is a series of three prominent festivals. Primarily a non- religious festival celebrated to mark the seasons and the significant points of a cultivator's life over a yearly cycle. Three Bihus, rongali or bohag, celebrated with the coming of spring and the beginning of the sowing season; kongali or kati, the barren bihu when the fields are lush but the barns are empty; and the bhogali or magh, the thanksgiving when the crops have been harvested and the barns are full. Bihu songs and Bihu dance are associated to rongali bihu. The day before the each bihu is known as 'uruka'. The first day of 'rongali bihu' is called 'Goru bihu' (the bihu of the cows), when the cows are taken to the nearby rivers or ponds to be bathed with special care. In recent times the form and nature of celebration has changed with the growth of urban centres. Bihu is a set of three important non-religious festivals in the Indian state of Assam—Rongali or Bohag Bihu observed in April, Kongali or Kati Bihu observed in October, and Bhogali or Magh Bihu observed in January.The Rongali Bihu is the most important of the three, celebrating spring festival. The Bhogali Bihu or the Magh Bihu is a harvest festival, with community feasts. The Kongali Bihu or the Kati Bihu is the sombre, thrifty one reflecting a season of short supplies and is an animistic festival.
  37. 37. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 37 | P a g e The Rongali Bihu coincides the Assamese New Year and with the Indian New Year festivals like Baisakhi, Bishu, etc. as well as with other regions of East and South-East Asia which follow the Buddhist calendar. The other two Bihu festivals every year are unique to Assamese people. Like some other Indian festivals, Bihu is associated with agriculture, and rice in particular. Bohag Bihu is a sowing festival, Kati Bihu is associated with crop protection and worship of plants and crops and is an animistic form of the festival, while Bhogali Bihu is a harvest festival.Assamese celebrate the Rongali Bihu with feasts, music and dancing. Some hang brass, copper or silver pots on poles in front of their house, while children wear flower garlands then greet the new year as they pass through the rural streets. The three Bihu are Assamese festivals with reverence for Krishna, cattle (Goru Bihu), elders in family, fertility and mother goddess, but the celebrations and rituals reflect influences from aborigine, southeast Asia and Sino-Tibetan cultures. In contemporary times, the Bihus are celebrated by all Assamese people irrespective of religion, caste or creed. It is also celebrated overseas by the Assamese diaspora community living worldwide. The term Bihu is also used to imply Bihu dance otherwise called Bihu Naas and Bihu folk songs also called Bihu Geet. TRADITIONAL CRAFTS Assam has a rich tradition of crafts, Cane and bamboo craft, bell metal and brass craft, silk and cotton weaving, toy and mask making, pottery and terracotta work, wood craft, jewellery making, and musical instruments making have remained as major traditions. Cane and bamboo craft provide the most commonly used utilities in daily life, ranging from household utilities, weaving accessories, fishing accessories, furniture, musical instruments, construction materials, etc. Assam is the home of several types of silks, the most prestigious are: Muga – the natural golden silk, Pat – a creamy-bright-silver coloured silk and Eri – a variety used for manufacturing warm clothes for winter. Apart from Sualkuchi (Xualkuchi), the centre for the traditional silk industry, in almost every parts of the Brahmaputra Valley, rural households produce silk and silk garments with excellent embroidery designs. Moreover, various ethno-cultural groups in Assam make different types of cotton garments with unique embroidery designs and wonderful colour combinations.
  38. 38. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 38 | P a g e Moreover, Assam possesses unique crafts of toy and mask making mostly concentrated in the Vaishnav Monasteries, pottery and terracotta work in western Assam districts and wood craft, iron craft, jewellery, etc. in many places across the region. TOURIST PLACES 1.KAZIRANGA NATIONAL PARK Home to two-thirds of the world's one horned rhinoceros’ population, this national park has been declared as a World Heritage Site. 2. MAJULI Majuli is a lush green environment friendly, pristine and pollution free fresh water island in the river Brahmaputra, just 20 km from the city of Jorhat. 3. GUWAHATI A sprawling city located beside the mighty Brahmaputra, Guwahati is the epitome of an amalgamation of ancient history and modernization. The largest city in all of Assam, Guwahati stands as the gateway to the Seven Sisters of North East India. A city shaped by time itself, Guwahati is home to age-old temples that take you centuries back to the pages of ancient history, but it also boasts of a cutthroat lifestyle and an electric nightlife, keeping up with the modern era of urbanization and commercialization. The gushing Brahmaputra river carries with it untold tales from thousands of years past, and the peaceful ambience lingering in the city despite its modern lifestyle is one of the main reasons you should visit Guwahati if only to get a slice-of-life experience of the vivacious juxtaposition of the old and the new. Guwahati is home to a huge number of old temples, all of which have interesting stories and legends behind them. The Kamakhya temple, arguably the most visited temple in the city, is a temple dedicated to the goddess Kamakhya, who was also known as the goddess of desire.
  39. 39. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 39 | P a g e 4. HAJO The ancient pilgrim centre of Hajo is a unique place for being an attraction for three religions - Hindu, Muslims and Buddhists. 5. MANAS NATIONAL PARK Manas National Park is a UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger Reserve, an Elephant Reserve and a Biosphere Reserve in Assam. 6. ORANG NATIONAL PARK One of the oldest game reserves of the state, The Orang National park located on the shores of river Brahmaputra, is home to various animals, birds, fishes and is one of the more popular tourist destinations of Assam. 7. UMANANDA TEMPLE The smallest river island in the world, Umananda Island is a place with legends aplenty, a place where man and the wilderness co-habit in peace and serenity. Umananda Island lies at the heart of the Mighty Brahmaputra River which flows through the middle of the city of Guwahati. An island with many legends associated with it, it's pristine and calm environ has not been destroyed by the presence of human beings as yet. It was known as Peacock Island among the British Colonists who named it so based on its shape. The Island is home to a very rare and endangered species called _ãÄGolden Langurs_ã_ who are considered to be highly sacred among the people of the Himalayas. The legend goes that it is the very same place where Lord Kamdev (Lord of Love) was burnt into ashes by the third-eye of Lord Shiva when the former tried to disrupt his meditation thereby giving it its alternative name _ãÄBhasmchal_ã_. The major attraction of the island is the Umananda Devi
  40. 40. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 40 | P a g e Temple which is dedicated to Lord Shiv and sees a large influx of devotees during religious festivals. 8. KAMAKHYA TEMPLE A heavenly abode in the laps of Nilachal hills brings you to Kamakhya Devi temple. And you have got to believe, this place has a totally amazing old story at its back having Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati as main leads. It was built in the old 10th century and located at a distance of mere 7km from the city of Guwahati, which can be easily reached by well-connected roads. The temple is dedicated to Goddess Kamakhya and is one of the prominent Shaktipeeth of the country. The culture of the temple is well imbibed in local people and they celebrate Ambubachi festival in the month of June every year to commemorate the annual mensuration of the Goddess Kamakhya. The ancient temple is built in an elongated manner with a circular mandapa at the top, surrounded by lush green zones. Tourists, as well as devotees, usually come in the early morning to pay their respect to the temple and Goddess and keep their spiritual energy high in the sky. 9. TOKLAI TEA RESEARCH CENTRE Assam and Tea are both inseparable in literal terms. Set up in times of British rule and following the legacy with the developed state, this place is standing high in tea research facility. Tocklai institute is located in Jorhat city and easy to reach by roads. 10.TEZPUR Another city that is on the edges of river Brahmaputra and is a neighbor of Guwahati by the distance of 175 km, is the city Tezpur. Tezpur has a history with mythology but the actual ruins of medieval age could be seen in Bamuni hills. Modern Tezpur has a connectivity with the British
  41. 41. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 41 | P a g e era and composes of a subtle calm climate. Tezpur has a rich culture from where Bihu and Bagurumba dance is the most catching performance. A concoction of places like Bhairabi temple, Hanuman Mandir, Mahabhairav temple, Cole Park, Padam pukhuri, Rudra Path and many more makes this place best places to visit in Assam. Nature gets an extra gist of Kolia Bhomora Setu that connects Tezpur to Nagaon and the view of the bridge as well as from it makes one fall in love with river Brahmaputra again and again. Don't miss a chance to be in Tezpur when the tickets to Assam are booked and lying on your table. 11. DIPORBIL Lake, also known as Bil in Assamese is an evergreen feature of the land of the North East. The list of tourist places in Assam never completes without including Dipor Bil in it. The mighty Brahmaputra has an extension into the plains which resulted into this enchanting lake. Located 13 km in South West direction from Guwahati, Dipor Bil is perfect to watch beautiful birds basking in the sun and swinging on the tunes of the lake's ripples. The surface of the lake is flared by flora like Waterlily, water hyacinth, aquatic grass and believe us, it is adding an extra grace to blue clean waters. Along with a boat ride, one can feel the difference with migratory birds while taking a tour here. Moreover, you can notice Storks, Ducks, Kingfishers, and Pelicans enjoying in the glory of the climate and making it an attraction for thousands. Assam Culinary Delight APONG is a rice beer, which is traditionally prepared by some tribes of North-East India. Apong is an integral part of the life of the Mising (or Mishing) people of Assam. It is brewed in every Mising household. Adi people of Arunachal Pradesh also prepares Apong. Apong is prepared by fermenting rice. The Mishing Apong comes in two types – Nogin Apong and Poro Apong. The Nogin
  42. 42. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 42 | P a g e Apong is whitish in colour, while Poro Apong has a dark greenish colour. The method of preparation is different. So, the two apongs also differ in their taste and colour. JUDIMA The rice wine which can ward off evil. KHAR This unique dish is prepared with raw papaya, pulses and a main ingredient. All these ingredients are then filtered in water through dried banana ashes for a flavour that is most unusual and refreshing. It is a rich dish generally consumed with lunch. PITHA Pitha is the most popular snack from Assam; usually had for breakfast or with an evening cuppa. There are many types of pitha. They may be can be either sweet or savoury, fried, roasted or barbequed inside a hollow bamboo stem. The sweet Pitha is preferred over the salty one.This finger licking Assamese snack tastes best with Doi (curd) and gur. BAMBOO STEAMED FISH This dish is a speciality from Nagaland. The first bite might taste plain, but eventually you can savour the subtle hint of bamboo flavour. Fresh spices include Raja Mirchi. used in the dish enhances its flavour. Bamboo Steamed Fish is best enjoyed with steamed rice. ALOO PITIKA
  43. 43. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 43 | P a g e It is a mashed potato dish, and we all know that there’s nothing quite like mashed potatoes, especially when it is teamed with chopped onions, green chillies, fresh coriander leaves, salt and a drizzle of mustard oil. It is usually served with steam rice, dal and lemon wedges on the side. MASOR TENGA Fish forms an integral part of the Assamese cuisine, thanks to the mighty Brahmaputra that runs through the state. There are different varieties of big and small fish that are available throughout the year, which are then prepared in various ways using regional vegetables and greens, and without turning to spices and masala mixes to build flavour. The most quintessential Assamese fish dish is called Masor Tenga, ‘tenga’ meaning sour. Several kinds of souring agents are used to make the curry, such as lemon, kokum, tomatoes, herbs, elephant wood apple, etc and it is served along with steamed rice. MANGSHO Mutton curry is another favourite dish in Assamese cuisine. In fact, people take it as an offense if they are not served mutton curry and luchi or pulao when they visit neighbours, friends or relatives on invitation. This is one of the few dishes that witness the use of multiple spices to build flavour. Pork dishes are also popular in Assam, but traditionally they were a speciality among the tribal lot. Pork is prepared using herbs, bamboo shoot, bhoot jolokia, and veggies, among other ingredients. GHILA PITHA This sweet called the “ghila pitha”, is a savory made during the festivals like Magh Bihu and Bohag Bihu in Assam and relished with friends and families.
  44. 44. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 44 | P a g e West Bengal Culinary Delight Kolkata, the City of Joy, has many things to offer to locals and tourists alike. Food is of course one of the major highlights of this metropolitan city. Like most other cities in India, Kolkata offers a wide variety of food options. But, Kolkata is best known for its local Bengali cuisine and why not? Where else can you have Sorshe Ilish ! How about a Food Crawl through the streets of Kolkata? Street Food Jhal Muri .Jhal Muri is made of puffed rice, chili powder, raw mustard oil and other ingredients like chopped boiled potatoes, coriander leaves and more. This spicy mixture served in paper packets . It is Kolkata’s most popular street food and can be found at railway stations, bus stops, busy market places, outside office complexes and almost everywhere. Puchka Pani Puris of Mumbai and Golgappas of Delhi become Puchkas in Kolkata. Puchakas are round fried hollow puris filled with a mixture of tamrind water, mashed potatoes, chaat masalas, chilis, onions, chickpeas and more. You will barely find any restaurant serving Puchkas, you have to hit the streets for it.
  45. 45. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 45 | P a g e Tele Bhaja Tele Bhajas are yet another specialty of Kolkata. You can literally find hundreds and hundreds of street side stalls offering these fried delicacies. They aren’t just simple fries. The ingredients are boiled, smashed, dipped in slurry of gram flour and then fried. Stop being conscious about your waistline for at least once and sample Aalur Chop (uses smashed boiled potato), Peyaji (uses chopped onion), Beguni (uses sliced brinjal) and more! Rolls (Mutton, Chicken and Egg) Though they are not really traditional Bengali fare, these are quite popular in the evenings. The meat rolls are parathas (breads made of maida, the all purpose flour) fried in oil and rolled with chicken or mutton pieces inside it. Egg rolls are slightly different with egg on one side of the paratha and then rolled with chopped onion, cucumber and green chilies. Churmur – A crunchy blend Much like Phuchka, this street food of Kolkata is a mix of crushed puchka, mixed with mashed potatoes, onions, spices, and of course tetul gola – pulp of tamarind. Though it tastes similar to Phuchka, Churmur is easier to eat. Your Kolkata street food tour is incomplete if you don’t try Churmur. Ghugni Chaat If you’ve ever tasted Mumbai’s Ragda, you somewhat know what we’re talking about. Ghugni is made mainly of boiled yellow and white peas – mixed with onions, coriander, chillis, tomatoes, spices, and topped with tamarind pulp. This is a popular street food in Kolkata, and deserves all the popularity!
  46. 46. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 46 | P a g e Keemar Doi Bora Keemar Doi Bora is meat Dahi Bada dropped in sweet dahi sprinkled with panch phoron, that is – cinnamon, a pinch of red chilli powder, cumin, black mustard seeds and fenugreek. For north Indians, this is a unique dish to try – definitely one of the best street food of Kolkata. Chhanar Jilipi For those with a sweet tooth, relishing this street food in Kolkata is sheer delight; it is juicy, soft, and chewy. Chanar Jilipi is a Kolkatan jalebi made of cottage cheese. It is thicker than a normal jalebi and the texture is similar to Gulab Jamun. That’s basically goodness of two sweets in one. Aloo Kabli One of the best forms of potato, Aloo Kabli is a spicy and hot dish you mustn’t miss when you crave for something flavorsome in Kolkata. Boiled potatoes are tossed with tamarind pulp, onions, tomatoes, chilies, chickpeas, and a magical combination of masalas. MAIN COURSE Luchi Luchi is a deep fried bread that resembles a poori .The only difference is that it is made with refined flour and fried without any colour .Luchi is made on special occasions and is usually accompanied by cholar dal that is usually accompanied by cholar dal that is tempered with small pieces of coconut.
  47. 47. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 47 | P a g e Radha balhobi Radha balhobi is eaten mostly for breakfast and is quite similar to a kachori made in Uttar Pradesh.It is stuffed with urad dal and served with potato curry known as aloor dum. Bhaja The word bhaja mainly refers to fried items. One could have a range of bhajas that accompany a special meal. The most common and famous is baigun bhaja , which is a thick roundel of eggplant marinated and shallow fried in mustard oil .Similarly,fine juliennes of potato are fried in the same way to make topsey mach bhaja and are served during festive occasion. Shorshe bata ilish The hilsa fish braised in mustard pasteand slit green chillies is an important dish of both West Bengal and Bangladesh. It is commonly known as shorsho bata ilish. It can be cooked for everyday meals or even during festivals and occasions. Macher paturi This is quite a unique preparation where the darnes or steaks are marinated in freshly grounded mustard paste and wrapped in banana leaves .These are then steamed and eaten with steamed rice. Chitol macher muitha Chitol is a special fish typically eaten during Durga Puja . The meat from the back part after removing the bones is shaped into koftas and simmered in gravy.
  48. 48. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 48 | P a g e Pabda macher jhalThis dish made from the pabda fish and is a speciality made during durga puja .The whole fish is stewed in gravy predominant of red chili powder. Chingri malai curry This preparation is cooked on festive occasions and on marriages.Small sized prawns are stewed in a gravy made with boiled onion paste, thickened with coconut milk. Kosha mangsho This is a semi dry preparation of lmb that gets its unique dark colour from the iron kadhai that it is cooked in and the caramelized sugar .This preparation is eaten with deep fried bread such as luchi Potoler dolma Baby oval gourd are stuffed with a mixture of cottage cheese,potatoes,raisins and spices and simmered in an onion based gravy .This is again a festive dish and made on special occasions. Dhokar dalna This unique dish is again made on special occasions a gram flour batter is cooked with spices and then spread on a tray and steamed .It is then cut into small pieces in the shape of a diamond and deep fried .The fried dumplings are now stewed in a gravy of boiled onion paste ,thickened with gram flour and whole spices.
  49. 49. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 49 | P a g e Kabiraji cutlet Kabaraji cutlet is made from chicken breast .The chicken breast is marinated in turmeric ,salt,ginger and garlic paste , onion paste and spices such as green chillies and red chilli powder .The marinated chicken is coated with a light batter of rice flour and eggs deep fried until golden brown. Aloo posto Potatoes are cooked with freshly grounded poppy seeds paste and flavored with spices and turmeric. Aloo posto can be eaten with deep fried bread or whole wheat paratha. FAMOUS SWEETS:- Rosogulla A famous sweet meat seller Nabin Chandra Das of Kolkata invented rosogulla.It is pepared from cottage cheese (chenna) which is first kneaded and then rolled into smart balls .Theses cheese balls are then cooked in thin sugar syrup.The rosogulla did not get any fame until his son K.C. Das popularized the same by canning it and marketing it all over the world.Rosogulla are made in various sizes and flavours and are named differently .Some of the most common once are as follows:- • Nolen Gurer rosogulla:-These rosogulla are poached in nolen gur .This are the only rosogula that are served hot ,otherwise rosogulla are served chilled. • Raj Bhog:-This rosogulla are large in size and the diameter can be 3-4 inches • Kamala bhog:-This is the large size rasagulla that are coloured yellow and is flavoured
  50. 50. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 50 | P a g e with oranges. Rasmalai This is a variation of rasgulla.It is prepared like a rasgulla ,but the chenna dumplings are flattened and poached in syrup until cooked .These are then soaked in saffron flavoured sweetened milk and served chilled with chopped pistachios. Patishapta This is the dessert that is made to celebrate the end of Bengali new year. Pank cakes are made from the batter of refined flour and milk.This are then stuffed with cooked mixture of grated coconut sugar or jaggery and cardamom powder.These pan cakes are garnished with same stuffing in the middle . Misti Doi Misti doi is the delicacy is prepared like a regular curd but with the addition of jiggery to it.Only palm jiggery is used to get that the peculiar colour and taste It gives creamy texture to the curd with a layer of fat at top , is a skill that is passed down from one generation to generation. Sandesh Sandesh is one of the famous Bengal dessert made from palm jaggery ,reduced milk and chenna.All the three ingredients are cooked in a thick bottom pan until they stop sticking .Balls od the mixture are then pressed into moulds of various shapes to give the characteristics shape to sandesh.Variation of sandesh are prepared by altering the shape and flavour of sandesh. Payesh Payesh is commonly made at homes by cooking short grain rice known as gobind bhog along with milk until creamy. Jaggery is used to sweeten payesh and broken cashewnuts and rasins are added for texture.
  51. 51. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 51 | P a g e Lengcha These are deep fried dumplings of khoya and flour symbolizes the jamun and the rose ,honey and saffron flavoured syrup symbolizes the dessert.It is traditionally made of chikna khoya and maida ,which gives the dough the correct consistency and prevents it from cracking while it is being fried.These are two inch long rod shaped ,fried in ghee and poached I sugar syrup. Chenna poda Chenna poda is a very famous dessert baked and probably influenced by the baked cheese cake of the western world .To make this sweet a paste of soaked rice and urad dal is made .Water is added to this paste and a batter of pouring consistency is made.Usually ,crushed aniseed is used for flavouring the batter.Another mixture is made by cooking grated jaggery until jaggery melts .Chenna is added and the mixture is cooked until it begins to leave the sides of the pan .Now the mould is prepared by linning with banana leaves and alternativey the rice and lentil batter are cooked cottage cheese mixture is poured into and the same is baked until the cake is cooked and slightly brown. Kancha Gola Kancha gola is a soft sandesh from Bengal .It is used by cooking fresh curd ,milk ,and condensed milk .boiling curd along with results in a curdled texture .The mixture is cooked until it becomes sticky.It is then removed from fire and green cardamom powder is added .It is shaped into round dumplings .This sandesh is slightly granular in texture.
  52. 52. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 52 | P a g e Culinary Delights of Chhattisgarh Introduction Chhattisgarh, state of east-central India. It is bounded by the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand to the north and northeast, Odisha(Orissa) to the east, Telangana (formerly part of Andhra Pradesh) to the south, and Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh to the west. Its capital is Raipur. Area 52,199 square miles (135,194 square km). The history of the Chhattisgarh regions dates back to about the 4th century CE, when it was known as southern kosala . The Name Chhattisgarh Meaning “thirty-six forts,” was Formerly applied to the territory of Haihaya Dynasty of Ratanpur , founded about 750. Under British rule the present region of Chhattisgarh consisted of a division comprising 14 feudatory princely kingdoms under the Eastern states agency .Raipur was the headquarter of that region. With in the republic of india , Chhattisgarh the part of Madhya Pradesh until Nov. 1, 2000. At present the state has 27 administrative districts and 5 divisions. Cuisine of Chhattisgarh – The ‘rice bowl of India’ is Chhattisgarh, as rice is widely eaten and relished. The staple diet of people of the territory consists of wheat, maize and Jowar. The Cuisine of Chhattisgarh serves a wide range of mouth-watering dishes and they are enriched with the qualities of protein , vitamins, minerals and irons . The rich Divergent Culture, Palate and traditions of the Nation is imbibed in the soil of Chhattisgarh. Although the Savor and Savory has been blending and evolving with the confluence of immigrants from the north and south, yet the essence still remains. The major dishes and savouries here are mostly made of rice and assorted ingredients. Not much of spice, a Pinch of salt and mostly oil less. The people of the state have an inclination towards tangy recipes and sweet delectable. Maize, wheat and Jowar are the basic diet of the inhabitants of Chhattisgarh. Since the state is quite opulent with an abundance of crops such as rice and oilseeds, so the people of the place are never short of their staple food. The food of Chhattisgarh is categorized under two different heads - tribal recipes and non-tribal menus. The tribes of Chhattisgarh primarily add the various types of fruits that are commonly found in the forest areas of Chhattisgarh. Rakhia Badi and Petha are the two distinctive food items that are prepared by the tribal population of Chhattisgarh during major festivals.
  53. 53. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 53 | P a g e The tribal food includes fish, pork, red ants, flying ants, squirrels, field rats and wild mushrooms and plants. The fruit got from the Mahuwa tree is very famous in Chhattisgarh. The fruit is small, white and creamy which is further fermented into a strong brew and consumed by the people. The meal of these people are complete only with a sweet after their food and so jalebi has become an integral part of the food menu of the state. Bafauri a special recipe made of Chana dal is also a favourite among the people of the state. The people of the state have a liking towards tangy recipes and sweet dishes. Most of the traditional foods are made of rice and rice flour, curd and a variety of green leafy vegetables like Lal Bhaaji, Chowlai Bhaaji, Chech Bhaji, Kaanda Bhaaji, Kheksi,Katha,Kochai Patta, Kohda and Bohar Bhaji. Badi and Bijori are optional food categories; Gulgul (bobra), Dhoodh Fara, Bafauli, Kusli, Balooshahi, Singhara, Tikhur ,Anarsa and Khurmi fall in sweet categories. Some well-known breakfast dishes made out of Rice & rice flour include Fara/Muthiya (rice rolls in white sauce), cheela (Dosa like dish made with rice batter), Angakar roti, Chousela roti (rice Puris), etc. One of the common meal had during the scorching summer is Bore Baasi ( literally means dipped rice from last cooked meal) which mainly consists of cooked rice dipped water/Curd/buttermilk. It is mostly accompanied by pickle and raw onion. It helps maintain the water levels in the body, keeping it cool and hydrated during the hot and arid summer days. Most of the traditional and tribal foods are made of rice and rice flour, curd and a variety of green leafy vegetables like lal bhaaji, chowlai bhaaji, chech bhaji, kaanda bhaaji, kheksi,kathal,kochai patta, kohda and bohar bhaji (Blossom of Lesuaa or Rasaulaa in Hindi, mostly used for making Achaar). Badi and Bijori are optional food categories; gulgula (bobra), bidiya, dhoodh fara, bafauli, kusli, balooshahi,singhara, tikhur ,anarsa and khurmi fall in sweet categories. Some well known breakfast dishes made out of Rice & rice flour include fara/muthiya (rice rolls in white sauce), cheela (dosa like dish made with rice batter), angakar roti, chousela roti (rice puris), etc. One of the common meal had during the scorching summer is Bore Baasi ( literally means dipped rice from last cooked meal) which mainly consists of cooked rice dipped water/dahi/buttermilk. It is mostly accompanied by pickle and raw onion. It helps maintain the water levels in the body, keeping it cool and hydrated during the hot and arid summer days. One of the well known traditional dishes of Chhattisgarh is Iddhar. It is made with ground Urad dal and kochai patta. Both are arranged in alternate layers 2-3 time and then rolled. This roll is then cooked in steam and cut into pieces. After that it is prepared with curd like curry. Some people
  54. 54. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 54 | P a g e also make it with gram flour (besan) instead of urad dal. Tribal and village populations drink a brew made of the small, creamy white flower of a local tree called Mahuwa Dishes like Chila and Phara are favourites.They are made with rice flour and eaten with spicy or tangy chutnees of tomato,chilli and coriander.Chila is made by making a thick mixture of water and rice flour and then made like a plain dosa.On the therapy side phara is made by left over rice and rice flour by making a dough and then make cylindrical shapes and giving tadka with jeera,mustard,curry leaves,tomato,turmeric,salt and chilly.People of Chhattisgarh do not waste food.People eat Baasi here.It is left over rice dipped in water and curd and eaten with chutney. Bhajis of Chhattisgarh In Chhattisgarh 36 varieties of Bhaji cultivated and consumed locally in different – different region of Chhattisgarh like – 1. Amaari bhaaji (Ambadi leaves) 2. Chench bhaaji 3. Tiwra bhaji (Tinwara leaves) 4. Chana bhaji (Gram leaves) 5. Laal bhaaji (Red amaranthus leaves) 6. Khendaha bhaaji 7. Gondali bhaaji 8. Bohaar bhaaji 9. Muskeni bhaaji 10. Patwa bhaaji 11. Kajra bhaaji 12. Macheriya bhaaji 13. Chanauri bhaaji 14. Tinpaniya bhaaji 15. Kurma bhaaji 16. Murai bhaaji 17. Chaulai bhaaji 18. Karmata bhaaji 19. Kaanda bhaaji
  55. 55. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 55 | P a g e 20. Makhna bhaaji 21. Chunchuniya bhaaji 22. Putka bhaaji 23. Paalak bhaaji (Spinach leaves ) 24. Barre bhaaji 25. Ghobhi bhaaji (Cauliflower leaves) 26. Lahsuva bhaaji (Garlic leaves) 27. Sarson bhaaji (Mustard leaves) 28. Kusum bhaaji 29. Charota bhaaji 30. Chirchira bhaaji 31. Urla bhaaji 32. Gudru bhaaji 33. Munga bhaaji (Drumstick leaves) 34. Aalu bhaaji (Potato leaves) 35. Bhathava bhaaji Delights of the Chhattisgarh- 1. Chila – It is a Chhattisgarhi pancake which is made of Rice flour and mixed it with chopped coriander leave and seasoned with salt. Figure 1(Chila) 2. Fara – The dish which is shaped of Croquette and made of rice flour and the Tempered with sesame seeds, Curry Leaves and Green Chilies. Figure 2 (Fara) 3. Bafauri – It is a simple and light snacks made from chana dal , onion and mix of spice and served along with chutney.
  56. 56. Indian Culinary Institute, Noida Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 56 | P a g e Figure 3 (Bafauri) 4. Chausela – It is basically a Puffed Poori Which is made of rice flour and Deep fried in a oil. Figure 4 (Chausela) 5. Urad Bada – It is like an Savoury south indian Fritters which is not having any hole in the centre .It is made from Split Black Lentil , Onions and green chilies and seasoned with salt. It is accompanied with Crushed tomato chutney. Figure 5 (Urad bada) 6. Moong bada - It is round shaped bada which is made of Pigeon Peas , Ginger , Green chilies, Onion and cumin. Its deep fried in a oil and accompanied with Crushed tomato chutney. Figure 6 (Moong bada) 7. Majha pitha - Pitha is a combination of rice and Split Black lentil ( Urad Dal ). It is Prepared with Split Black gram , Garlic, Mustard seed and Sesame seeds It is generally served as a snack with Crushed tomato chutney.

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