Preparation of different agro chemical doses for field & pot application:
DIFFERENT AGROCHEMICALS (PESTICIDES) DOSES FOR FIELD APPLICATION:
-pigeon pea (Red gram)
-green gram & black gram
-STUDY 1: (Chick pea) /[Bengal gram]
Oilseed crop – Groundnut
Sugar crop – Sugarcane
Fruits – Mango
FERTILIZERS FOR FIELD APPLICATION
-STUDY 2 :(Optimization & validation of targeted yield equation based fertilizer doses)
DIFFERENT AGROCHEMICAL DOSES FOR POT APPLICATION
-STUDY 3: (Fertilizer management of cabbage)
FERTILIZERS FOR FIELD APPLICATION
-STUDY 2 :(Optimization & validation of
targeted yield equation based fertilizer doses)
DIFFERENT AGROCHEMICAL DOSES FOR
-STUDY 3: (Fertilizer management of
Agrochemical (or agrichemical), a contraction
of agricultural chemical, is a generic term for the
various chemical products used in agriculture.
Many agrichemicals are toxic, and agrichemicals in
bulk storage may pose significant environmental
and/or health risks, particularly in the event of
In many countries, use of agrichemicals is highly
It is also known as yellow borer of rice
The larva feeds inside the stem
causing drying of the drying of the
The caterpillars are tiny, black
headed which bore into the stem from
the growing points.
• Spraying the seedlings with 400-500ml of Methyl
Parathion 50EC or 500ml of Fenitrothion 50EC
(Sumithion/Folithion) in 500 litres of water per hectare.
• Application of Furadan 3 G granule (33kg/ha) or Cytrolan
5 G granule (20kg/ha) or Diazinon 4 G granule (16kg/ha) in
4-5 cm standing water after 15-20 days of transplanting.
• This may be followed by one spraying of 350ml Methyl
Parathion 50 EC or 400ml Thiodan 35 EC or 450ml
Sumithion 50 EC or 200ml Dimecron 100 EC in 400 litres
of water after 30days of granule application if the borer
RICE GRASS HOPPERS
(Hieroglyphus niogrorepletus Bol & H. banyan
This is a polyphagus pest.
They start feeding from the leaf margins
towards the centre.
They devour the young shoots causing drying or
stunting of the plant.
They are active from July to
DIFFERENT PESTICIDE DOSES
the grasses on the bunds with 10%
BHC @15-20kg/ha in the morning hours.
with 5% Malathion @25-30kg/ha.
the crop with 0.04% Heptachlor or
0.02% Methyl Parathion or 0.02% Aldrin by
using 750-1000 litres/ha.
• The weevils attack the seedlings.
• They remain clinging near the root zone & feed on
the fibrous roots of the plants with the result plants
become yellow or sticky & in case of sever attack
the plants die out.
• Usually the attacked plants remain stunted & do
not put forth tillers.
Mix 5% Aldrin or Chlordane dust @30kg/ha in
the soil before sowing in the endemic areas.
(Gecarcinucus jaccruemontii M.E., Pratelphuse
guerif M.E., P. jaccruemontii Rathb., Puratelphusa
spinigera, P. hydrodromus H.)
Crabs cause damage in both seed beds &
They cut the plant near the ground level & carry
them to their holes.
They make a series of holes in the bunds, due to
which holding of water in the fields become difficult.
Mix one part of Calcium Arsenate & 16 parts of
wheat bran moistening with water & spread in the
Mix 2% Metaldehyde dust, 5% Calcium arsenate &
wheat bran, moisten with sufficient water &
broadcast in the infested fields.
Spray 1% Copper sulphate solution. Two sparying
should be done at an interval of 15-20 minutes.
(Viviparus variatus F., Pila virens L., Indoplauorbis
These species are commonly found
in rice field.
The transplanted seedlings are cut
5-8cm below the water level during
nights in an irregular serrated
The cut stubbles rot away under
Copper sulphate @7.5kg along
with 125kg of common salt per hectare.
baiting with Parisgreen (copper
acetoarsenite) 2.5kg with 27.5kg bran per
hectare has been found effective against this
• This is also known as
rotten neck, rice fever
• Cause: Pyricularia oryzae
• Symptoms: Brown spindle
shaped lesions on the leaf
& leaf sheath
DIFFERENT FUNGICIDE DOSES
Seed treatment with Agrosan G.N. or Ceresan or
Thiram @2.5g/kg of seed.
In endemic area where the disease appears every
year spray the crop with 0.1% Hinosan 50 EC (1ml/L)
or Benlate (1g/L) or Bavistin (1g/L).
4-5sparys at 10days interval may be needed for
Spraying of Dithane M-45 (2.5g/l) or Brestanol (4g/l) is
Cause: Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn
It overwinters in the form of
sclerotia of the fungus
Symptoms: 2-3cm long greenish-
grey lesions with irregular dark
brown margin on the leaf & leaf
Sclerotia form even on the grain
in case of severe infection.
Seed treatment with Thiram or Agrosan GN
Soil application of Thiram or Brassicol
@25kg/ha before transplanting has been
BACTERIAL LEAF BLIGHT
• CAUSE: Xanthomonas oryzae
• SYMPTOMS: It occurs in 2phases:
1.Wilt or kresek phase: This is the
most destructive phase of the
disease. The leaves roll
completely, droop & turn yellow or
2.Leaf blight phase: Appearance of
straw coloured stripes with wavy
margins generally on both edges of
• Spray the crop with a mixture of copper
oxychloride & streptocycline with 1:1 ratio.
• Apply 7.5g streptocycline or Agrimycin-100
& 500g copper oxychloride (Fytolan/ Blitox50) in 500litres of water.
• It can be sprayed after 30days of
transplanting & repeated after 1 day
UFRA DISEASE OR RICE STEM
O Cause: Ditylenchus
O Symptoms: The nematode feeds
ectoparastically causing malformation of
host tissue, stunting & wilting of plants.
Spraying Diazinon 100ppm on the
soil in the rice crop completely
controls the nematodes within 72hrs.
RICE ROOT NEMATODE
oryzae Bred de Haan.
It generally invades young roots.
Symptoms: Heavy population of nematodes may
cause yellowing & reduction in the number of tillers.
Mentek: Reddish discolouration of leaves &
stagnation of plant growth.
Underground symptom: Root rot.
• Presowing treatment of nursery beds with
Dibromide injected @400 L/ha or DBCP
(dibromochloropropane) applied @10 L/ha in
• Phorate/ Carbofuran/Fenusulfothion @1-2kg/ha
gives significant control of rice root nematodes
• Root dip of seedlings in 500ppm solution of
Vydate, Diazinon or Carbofuran for 15mins helps
to keep off nematodes for several weeks.
RICE WHITE TIP NEMATODE
Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie
The upper 2-5cm leaf tips turn
white or pale yellow in the tillering
stage, then brown, & frayed.
DIFFERENT NEMATICIDE DOSE
• Soil treatment with Diazinon or
Disulfothion or Fensulfothion @ 1-2
kg a.i./ha gives good control of
• Spraying of infested crop with
Parathion (0.025%) &
Trichlorophos (0.03%) three times
has been found to be effective.
Cause: Zinc deficiency
Symptoms: The disease appears in nursery but may
appear in patches after 10-15days of transplanting.
The leaves show chlorosis at the base.
The growth of disease plant is stunted.
Root growth is also restricted & usually the main roots
turn brown & the finer roots are destroyed.
a mixture of zinc sulphate (5kg) & lime
(2.5kg) in 1000 litres of water after 10days of
sowing in the nursery
sulphate (5kg) & Urea (2%) in 1000 lites of
water/ha can also be applied.
The most common weeds found in the
transplanted rice fields are green
bristlegrass (Setaria glauca), smallflower
umbrella-sedge (Cyperus difformis),
Cyperus (Scirpus spp. Fimbristylis
litoralis), akankong (Ipmea reptans), wild
rice(Echinocloa sp. Oryza sativa), etc.
1. Stam-F-34 (Propanil)
a solution of 8 litres of herbicides (3kg
a.i.) in 400-600 litres of water per hectare 6-8
days after transplanting.
is advisable to remove water before spraying
field should be flooded again within 24-48
hrs & kept submerged till crop covers the land.
2. Machete (Butachlor)
Effective against annual grasses & broad-leaved
weeds in rice field.
Spray 5 litres of herbicide (2kg a.i) in 400-600 litres
of water per hectare immediately after
Drain out the water from the field before the
application of herbicide
Machete granules can be applied @50kg/ha in
standing water (4-5 cm) & not on the dry soils.
3. BASALIN (FLUCHLORALIN)
Spray a solution of 2 litres (1 kg a.i) of Basalin
in 400-500 litres of water per hectare or
broadcast 50-60kg of granules/ha in standing
water (3-5cm) after the final puddling or 1 or
3 days after transplanting the rice seedlings.
These are social insects that live
underground in colonies.
They attack roots & plants below the soil.
The damaged plants dry up completely &
can be easily pulled out.
• Mix thoroughly 5% Aldrin or Chlordane dust
in the soil at the time of sowing or during
preparation of land @ 20-25kg/ha.
• In case of infestation found in standing crop
apply Aldrin 30EC @5 L/ha with irrigation
• Seed treatment with Aldrin 30 EC @ 4ml/kg
of seed also gives good control.
Effects or symptoms
• The young
hatching bore in the
stem and feed on the
• As a result of larval
feeding, the entire
shoot withers & dies
out giving rise to
Dust 5% BHC
powder @ 20kg/ha
35EC @ 1.5ml/litre
Also known as common root rot
• Brown lesion on the
coleoptiles, roots &
stem of the surviving
P.K. & B.
• The plant turn yellow
& dry up in patches.
• Plants mature early
& have shrivelled
• Heads are bronzed,
white or bleached
with Agrosan GN
@2g/kg of seed
KARNAL BUNT grains in
Treat seeds with
the spike are
Agrosan GN or
Ceresan or Vitavax
wholly converted @ 2- 2.5 g/kg seed
• The black
powder gives a
foul smell due to
Wheat crop is infested with the major weeds viz.,
Chenopodium album (bathua), Anagalis arvensis
(Krishna neel), Cirsium arvense (Kateli),
Fumaria parviflora (gajri), Lathyrus sp. (chatri
All of these are broad leaved weeds .
» Bladex G (700ml/ha) or Weedar (700ml/ha)
or Bladex C (1.4 L/ha) or Tafacide (625g/ha)
or Fernoxone (625g/ha) should be sprayed in
wheat fields 30-35days after sowing in 500700 litres of water per hectare
» Spray Tribunil or Dosanex or Iso-proturon
@2kg per hectare in 400-600 litres of water
32-35days after sowing.
MAIZE STEM BORER
• 1st spray after 15immediately after
20days of germination
with 350ml of
Sumithion /Folithion 50
Stem borer is a very serious EC (Fenitrothion) using
pest of maize &
hearts in young
inferens Wlk plants. the country litres of water per
• 2nd spray after 2530days of germination
with Sevin 300g or
Dipterex 550g in 300
litres of water.
Odontotermes They cut the
roots & stems
of the young
surface of the
• Soil should be
treated with Aldrin
5% dust or
Heptachlor 3% dust
• In standing crop
spray with Aldrin 30
EC/ Aldrex 30 EC
@3.5 lites in 700-875
Maize crop is infested with
common grassy weeds like
Sawan, makra, kodo, banra,
doob, nakrul, motha; and
broad leaved weeds like
chilimil, kankoua, hulhul,
makoi, chaulai & naunia.
Atrazine or Simazine @ 1-1.25 kg
a.i/ha in light soil & 1.25-1.50kg ai/ha in
heavy soils immediately after planting
maize by mixing with in 1000 litres of
of Lasso @ 5litres in 1000
litres of water per hectare.
(Eleusine coracana Gaertn.)
Caterpillars attack the • Dust 10% BHC for
maturing seeds &
thus reducing yield
• Spray 0.05%
controlling grown up
SEEDLING BLIGHTS & ROTS
• Light brown
lesions on the
• Seed treatment
sowing at the
rate of 2g/kg of
• Can lead to
brown to dark
• Spray with
Longitudinal streaks on
Seed treatment with 5%
Magnesium arsenatre @1g/kg
moth causes grain
damage by making
tunnel into them.
Donot show any
until the borer
make holes in the
Spray the crop
35 EC (1.5L/ha) or
Nuvacrone 40 EC
(750ml/ha) at the
rate of of 800-1000
litres of water per
2.Pulse The larvae & Mix Malathion 5% dust at the
beetle beetles are
rate of 2.5g/kg of grain for
affinis) the grains & Fumigate with EDCT
(Ethylene Dichloride and
mixture @1 litre per 3 cu. M.
space or 20 quintal of grain
consumption Use aluminium phosphide
(Phostoxin/ Celphos/ Delicia)
Tablet @ one tablet (3g each)
per metric ton.
GREEN GRAM & BLACK GRAM
Leaf Hopper The pest suck the
juice from the
leaves thus the
Spray the crop with 0.04%
Monocrotophos 40 EC
(1ml/litre of water)
Apply Termic 10G (10kg/ha)
or Thimet 10G (10kg/ha) in
the soil at the time of sowing
Causes the plant to
Rot of seed &
• The leaves
reduce in size
• Pods are
Spray mixture of
at 10 days
SOME COMMON DISEASES
Leaf is covered by
growth of the fungus.
Plant growth become
with Agrosan GN
or Emisan at the
rate of 2.5g/kg of
Whitish patches or
mass cover the entire
leaves, stems & pods
Spray the crop
with Sulfex (0.2%)
or Elosal (0.3%) or
Drying up of
with Benomyl at
the rate of 2g/kg of
Seed yield & economics of chickpea as influenced
by foliar application of agrochemicals:
A field study on 76 farmer’s field was
conducted in three different villages of
Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan under
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) project
during Rabi season 2009-10 with the objective
to enhance the productivity level & net return
of chickpea crop.
MATERIALS & METHODS
Four treatments viz; T1-control (no spray), T2-2
spray of 0.05% thio-urea at branching & pod
formation stage, T3- 2 spray of 0.5% zinc sulphate at
branching & pod formation stage, & T4- 2 spray of
0.05% thio-urea + 0.2% zinc sulphate stage by
tractor mounted power sprayer using 500 litre of
water/ha were tested.
The crop was sown in the 2nd fortnight of October
under irrigated conditions along with recommended
dose of N,P, K & it was harvested in the last week of
Result of the study:
Table: Effect of foliar applied agrochemicals on yield:
Grain yield (q/ha)
% increase over
T2- Thio urea @ 0.05%
T3- Zinc sulphate @
T4- Thio urea @ 0.05% + 10.35
Zinc sulphate @ 0.2%
(Odontotermes obesus Ramb.)
feed on the roots of groundnut plant
& the attacked plants wither & finally dry
The attack incidence is high during July to
Presowing soil application of 5% Aldrin dust or 3%
Hepatachlore or 5% Chlordane @25kg per hectare at
the time of last harrowing is recommended
Dressing of groundnut kernels with Aldrin emulsion
@12ml/kg kernels has been found to be cheaper &
Infected leaves show • Spraying of Daconil
whitish fleck in early
0.03% or Mancozeb @
Later appears as
0.2% thrice in a season
after 40 days of
sowing at 20 days
leaves dry out & fall
• Sprayin Zineb @ 0.2%
• Plant remain
in size of leaflets
• Pray Metasystox 25 EC
at the rate of 1 litre in
1000 litres of water
SOME COMMON DISEASES
Cause- Colletotrichum falcatum Went
Brown coloured lesion with light
brown straw coloured centre on the
If the diseased cane is split open, the
pith inside is found reddened.
The diseases tissue emit a typical
Dip the setts in 0.25% solution of Agallol or
Aretan for 5mins before planting.
SMUT OF SUGARCANE:
Ustilago scitaminae Syd.
Production of a long whip like black structure at the
apex of the stalk
Treat setts before planting with the solution of Agallol or
Aretan (0.25%) for 5mins.
The major weeds in autumn sugarcane planted in
October are the annual broad leaf weeds: Matri,
krishna neel, Gajri,Makoya, Bathua
Applying 2,4-Dibromide @ 1kg ai per hectare in
500- 600 litres of water 25-30days after planting.
The spring cane are generally infested with weeds
like Motha, Doob, Sama, Makra, Jongli
cholai, Safed murga
Spraying of Atrazine or Simazine @ 2kg ai/ha in 500600 litres water just after planting.
-The grubs damage the trees
by boring into the trunk &
making tunnels in branches
& stems & feeding inside
-The branches dry up &
trees may die
-Injection of 0.2% Methyl
paration 50EC into the holes &
subsequent plugging with mud.
-Pour kerosine oil/ petrol/
formalin/ carbon bisulphide into
The ants stitch together
some leaves & build their
nests in them on the trees &
renders new leaves useless
Spray with Dieldrin (0.3 %) or
BHC 50 WP (0.25%) to keep
these pests in check.
The tip of the
fruits from the
base rots & turns
black & shrivels
Spraying of Borax
@ 6g/litre water or
caustic soda @
Scorching of old
leaves at the tips
Apply solutions of
@ 5g/litre of water
at 15days intervals
on newly emerged
make holes into
the fruits & make
Spray Endosulfan 35 EC @
1.5ml/litre water or Sevin
50 WP @2g/litre of water
at 15days interval
Growth retardation Spraying of Necotine
n malformation of
sulphate 1:800 parts of
water with 4 parts of soap
is also recommended.
Dark brown spots
Drench seed beds
with sunken grey or with Thiram or
white on the centres Captan @ 3g/litre of
nt, dwarfing, wilting
in hot dry weather &
in extreme cases
death of the plants
@25kg/ha to soil
caterpillars web up
the leaves & live
inside the knotted
Dust 4% Carbaryl
(sevin) or Spray
Malathion 50 EC
They are common in
They feed on the
roots & the affected
Apply 5% Aldrin or
@30kg/ha into the
soil just before
spots on the
Treat seeds with
Agrosan GN or
Emisan @2.5g/kg of
Spray with Dithane
M-45 @2g/litre water
patches on the
upper surface of
the leaves, which
on severe attack
may cover the
entire leaf &
(Dinocap) 25 WP @
2g/litre water at the
first sign of disease
thereafter repeat at
15days interval if
1. A compound made artificially by chemical
2. Not genuine or natural.
They are specifically designed to feed a
plant a certain amount of specific nutrients.
An example of a synthetic fertilizer input
would be urea. This common nitrogen source
is famous for its quick release and soluble
Phosphoric acid and potash are also the
most common phosphorus and potassium
ingredients in synthetic fertilizers
Nearly all nitrogen that plants use is in the form of
NH3 or NO3 compounds. The usable phosphorus
compounds are usually in the form of phosphoric
acid (H3PO4) and the potassium (K) is typically in
the form of potassium chloride (KCl).
In commercial fertilizers the same required
compounds are available in easily dissolved
compounds that require no decay—they can be
used almost immediately after water is applied.
Inorganic fertilizers are usually much more
concentrated with up to 64% (18-46-0) of their
weight being a given plant nutrient, compared to
organic fertilizers that only provide 0.4% or less of
their weight as a given plant nutrient.
Compound fertilizers often combine N, P
and K fertilizers into easily dissolved
pellets. The N:P:K ratios quoted on
fertilizers give the weight percent of the
fertilizer in nitrogen (N), phosphate
(P2O5) and potash (K2O equivalent)
Synthetic fertilizers are commonly used for growing all
crops, with application rates depending on the soil fertility,
usually as measured by a soil test and according to the
particular crop. Legumes, for example, fix nitrogen from the
atmosphere and generally do not require nitrogen fertilizer.
Studies have shown that application of nitrogen fertilizer on
off-season cover crops can increase the biomass (and
subsequent green manure value) of these crops, while
having a beneficial effect on soil nitrogen levels for the main
crop planted during the summer season
Nutrients in soil can be thrown out of balance with
high concentrations of fertilizers.
Applying excessive amounts of fertilizer has negative
To avoid over-application, the nutrient status of
crops should be assessed. Nutrient deficiency can
be detected by visually assessing the physical
symptoms of the crop.
Both soil tests and Plant Tissue Tests are used in
agriculture to fine-tune nutrient management to the
Optimization & validation of targeted yield
equation-based fertilizer doses under
Integrated Nutrient Management for wheat
in Tarai region of Uttarakhand, India
This investigation was undertaken to
study the relationship between the
nutrient supplied by the soil & added
fertilizers, their uptake & yield of
wheat & to develop a guideline for
judicious application of fertilizer doses
under integrated nutrient management
» Field experiment was conducted at Crop
Research Centre of the G.B.Pant University of
Agriculture & technology, Pantnagar
» The soil was silty clay loam & was classified as
» Prior to this experiment, fertility gradient was
created through graded doses of N, P, K fertilizers
to obtain appreciable variation in soil fertility in
the same field.
FERTILIZER PRESCRIPTION EQUATION FOR N,P,K
FOR TARGETED YIELD WERE WORKED OUT AS
In principle strip III should be richest in the soil
fertility status, followed by strip II & further
by strip I with poorest fertility. After the
harvest of exhaust crop, soil test values for
alkaline KMnO4, P & ammonium acetate
extractable K were found in the order, stripIII> strip-II > strip-I.
The term “plant growth factor” is usually
employed for plant hormones or substances
of similar effect that are administered to
plants. Growth factors are widely used in
industrialized agriculture to improve
For instance, ripening tomatoes can be
controlled by setting desired atmospheric
Traditionally five major classes of plant
hormones are listed: auxins, cytokinins,
gibberellins, abscisic acid and ethylene.
However as research progresses, more active
molecules are being found and new families of
regulators are emerging; one example being
polyamines such as putrescine or spermidine
Auxin is the active ingredient in most rooting mixtures.
These products help the vegetative propagation of plants.
Auxins influence cell elongation, cell division and the
formation of adventitious roots.
Some auxins are active at extremely low concentrations.
Typical auxin concentration range from 0.01 to 10 mg/L.
Indole-3-acetic acid ultra-pure
Cytokinins promote cell division, stimulate shoot
proliferation, activate gene expression and metabolic
activity in general.
In addition, cytokinins slow the aging process in plants.
Concentration of cytokinins used for horticulture vary
between 0.1 to 10 mg/L
6-Benzyladenine horticultural grade
Gibberellins are derivatives of gibberellic acid.
They are natural plant hormones and promote flowering, stem
elongation and break dormancy of seeds.
Gibberellins are fundamental to plant development especially
with respect to the growth of stems.
Low levels of gibberellins will prevent plants from reaching
their natural height.
Gibberellins are particularly effective at breaking seed
dormancy and at speeding up germination.
Gibberellic acid GA3 90+%
Abscisic acid (ABA)
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant growth inhibitor
It induces dormancy, prevents seeds from germinating and causes
abscission of leaves, fruits, and flowers.
High concentrations of abscisic acid can be induced by
environmental stress such as drought.
Elevated levels of abscisic acid will eventually induce dormancy,
when all non-essential processes are shut down and only the
essential metabolism is maintained in guard cells.
(+)-cis, trans-Abscisic acid
Ethylene is unique in that it is found only in gaseous form.
It induces ripening, causes leaves to abscess and promotes
Plants often increase ethylene production in response to
stress and before death.
Ethylene concentrations fluctuate with the seasons while
playing a role in inducing foliage and ripening of fruit.
0.1 - 0.2 ml/L
Foliar insecticide(Corn, cotton,
fruits, grapes, nuts, orchard
soybean, tree fruit, vegetables)
Bollworm in cotton
Idaprole 40% +
Aphids, cane beetles, sucking
insect, termites, soil insects
Insecticide or acaricide (aphids &
white fly in various fruits,
vegetables & cotton)
100ml Per 200l
Foliar fungicide or seed
treatment (rice,wheat, burley,
40g Per 200l
Metirame 55% +
600g Per 200l
Fungal diseases in carrot,
cole crops, onion, tomato,
leafy & tuber vegetables,
Metirame 70% WG
800g Per 200l
Early blight, late blight in
potatoes, apple rust
Hexaconazole 4% + 400-500g Per
Zineb 68% WP
Tea plants, sheath blight of
paddy, leafspots, red rot of
Bactericide Technical Name
Leaf spot, fruit rot, foot
rot, black rot, rust,
blight, brown leaf spot,
bud rot, early blight, red
rust, downy mildew
Hydrochloride 77% 200L
Leaf spot, anthracnose,
tikka leaf spot, blister
blight, False smut.
All citrus fruits
Zenab 75% WP
Downy Mildew, Scab,
Early Blight. For apple,
Grapes, Beans, Potato,
Paddy, soya bean
Wheat, corn, soybeans
potatoes, cabbage, peas,
carrots and asparagus
2, 4 Dichlorophe
For perennial and broad
leaf weeds in rice &
Rice & wheat field
Fertiliser Management Of Cabbage As
Influenced By Method Of Raising Seeding,
Depth Of Placement & Levels Of 35slabelled Superphosphate
kinds of growing seedlings: on raised bed in
the field & in pro-trays using coco-peat as the
substrate; two band placements of 35 S-labelled
superphosphate at 5 & 10cm depths & 3 levels of
superphosphate at 60,80 & 100% of recommended
P dose were evaluated for yield & S-use efficiency
using ‘Omphalos’ F1 hybrid cabbage.
The raised bed seedlings of cabbage were more
vigorous, well-nourished in terms of seedling
length, girth & dry weight of shoot & root. They
showed more prominent tap root than pro-tray
The crop grown from transplanting raised bed
seedling produced a significantly higher yeild &
dry matter production of head portion & the
whole plant compared to that grown from protray seedlings.
Conclusion drawn for the study:
Coco peat contained definitely higher
quantities of all nutrients & was more
fertile compared to the soil used in raised
The seedlings raised in both the media
showed almost the same height but those
grown in raised bed were thicker in girth
compared to that of the pro-tray seedlings.
Upon transplantation in the field, cabbage
grown from raised bed seedlings produced
22.3% higher yield compared to that grown
from pro-tray seedlings.
Banding of fertiliser at 10cm depth was
superior to shallower 5cm deep banding.
The yield of cabbage heads & dry matter
production increased as the S doses increased.
• Interaction of the treatments showed that in the
cabbage crop grown from raised bed seedlings by
banding fertiliser at 5cm depth, increasing
fertiliser dose significantly decreased yeild of
cabbage heads at 60% to 100% doses.
• Yield significantly increased from 48.88 t/ha at
60% dose to 54.81 at 80% dose & to 60.35 at 100%
dose by growing cabbage from properly raised
seedlings & by banding the basal dose of fertilisers
at 10cm depth.
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