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Plant layout

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Plant layout

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Plant layout

  1. 1. Page 1 Ch 2 : Plant Layout
  2. 2. Page 2 Plant/Facility Layout “Plant layout ideally involves allocation of space and arrangement of equipment in such a manner that overall operating costs are minimized. Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilities such as machinery, equipment, furniture etc. with in the factory building in such a manner so as to have quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the least amount of handling in processing the product from the receipt of material to the shipment of the finished product.
  3. 3. Page 3 Features of Plant Layout • Ease of working, maximum safety and minimum health hazards for people working in the plant • Minimum handling of materials • Reduced congestion of materials,, machinery and men • Minimum damage and spoilage of materials • Flexibility with regard to changing production conditions
  4. 4. Page 4 Factors affecting Plant Layout 1. Plant location and building 2. Nature of Product 3. Plant Environment 4. Spatial Requirements 5. Repairs and Maintenance 6. Management Policy 7. Human Needs 8. Types of machinery and equipment 9. Production Process
  5. 5. Page 5 • Factory building - The nature and size of the building determines the floor space available for layout. While designing the special requirements, e.g. air conditioning, dust control, humidity control etc. must be kept in mind. Location of a plant greatly influences the layout of the plant. Topography, shape, climate conditions, and size of the site selected will influence the general arrangement of the layout and the flow of work in and out of the building. • Nature of product - Production of heavy and bulky items need different layout as compared to small and light items. Similarly products with complex and dangerous operations would require isolation instead of integration of processes. • Plant Environment - Heat, light, noise, ventilation and other aspects should be duly considered, e.g. paint shops and plating section should be located in another hall so that dangerous fumes can be removed through proper ventilation etc. Adequate safety arrangement should also be made. • Repairs and maintenance - Machines should be so arranged that adequate space is available between them for movement of equipment and people required for repairing the machines. Factors affecting Plant Layout
  6. 6. Page 6 • Management policy - Various managerial policies relate to future volume of production and expansion, size of the plant, integration of production processes; facilities to employees, sales and marketing policies and purchasing policies etc. These policies and plans have positive impact in deciding plant layout. • Human needs - Adequate arrangement should be made for cloakroom, washroom, lockers, drinking water, toilets and other employee facilities, proper provision should be made for disposal of effluents, if any. • Type of machinery - General purpose machines are often arranged as per process layout while special purpose machines are arranged according to product layout. • Production Process - In assembly line industries, product layout is better. In job order or intermittent manufacturing on the other hand, process layout is desirable. Factors affecting Plant Layout
  7. 7. Page 7 • PRINCIPLE OF MINIMUM MOVEMENT • PRINCIPLE OF FLOW • PRINCIPLE OF SPACE • PRINCIPLE OF SAFETY • PRINCIPLE OF FLEXIBILITY • PRINCIPLE OF INTERDEPENDENCE • PRINCIPLE OF OVERALL INTEGRATION • PRINCIPLE OF MINIMUM INVESTMENT Principles of Plant Layout
  8. 8. Page 8 • PRINCIPLE OF MINIMUM MOVEMENT - As far as possible materials and labour should be moved over minimum distances. • PRINCIPLE OF FLOW - The work areas should be arranged according to the sequence of operations so that there is continuous flow of materials without congestion. The layout should allow for easy movement of materials without interruption or delay. • PRINCIPLE OF SPACE - All available cubic space should be effectively used both vertically and horizontally. • PRINCIPLE OF SAFETY - There should be consideration for safety and convenience of workers. There should be built in provision for the safety and comfort. Principles of Plant Layout
  9. 9. Page 9 • PRINCIPLE OF FLEXIBILITY - Layout should be designed in the manner that production facilities can easily be rearranged when it becomes necessary in future on account of expansion and technological advancement. • PRINCIPLE OF INTERDEPENDENCE Interdependent operations and processes should be located in close proximity to each other. • PRINCIPLE OF OVERALL INTEGRATION - All the plant facilities and services should be fully integrated into a single operating unit so as to maximize efficiency and minimize costs of production. • PRINCIPLE OF MINIMUM INVESTMENT - The layout should yield savings in fixed capital investment through optimum utilization of available facilities. Principles of Plant Layout
  10. 10. Page 10 • Costs of movement of materials from one work area to another • Cost of space • Cost of production delays • Cost of spoilage of materials • Cost of labour dissatisfaction and health risks • Costs of changes required if the operational conditions change in the future. • Cost of customer dissatisfaction due to poor service (quality, delivery, flexibility, responsiveness, cost) which may be due to poor layout. Costs involved
  11. 11. Page 11 Plant Layout : Types
  12. 12. Page 12 The production process normally determines the type of plant layout to be applied to the facility: • Fixed position plant layout Product stays and resources move to it. • Product oriented plant layout Machinery and Materials are placed following the product path. • Process oriented plant layout (Functional Layout). Machinery is placed according to what they do and materials go to them. • Combined Layout Combine aspects of both process and product layouts
  13. 13. Page 13 Under this, machines and equipments are arranged in one line depending upon the sequence of operations required for the product. The materials move from one workstation to another sequentially without any backtracking or deviation. Under this, machines are grouped in one sequence. Therefore materials are fed into the first machine and finished goods travel automatically from machine to machine, the output of one machine becoming input of the next.
  14. 14. Page 14 Product Layouts • Product layouts are used to achieve a smooth and rapid flow of large volumes of goods or customers through a system. Product layout sets up production equipment along a product-flow line, and the work in process moves along this line past workstations. It efficiently produces large numbers of similar items. 14
  15. 15. Page 15  e.g. in a paper mill, bamboos are fed into the machine at one end and paper comes out at the other end. The raw material moves very fast from one workstation to other stations with a minimum work in progress storage and material handling.  e.g. chemicals, sugar, paper, rubber, refineries, cement, automobiles, food processing and electronics etc. Product Layouts
  16. 16. Page 16 Advantages  A high rate of output  Low unit cost due to high volume  Low material-handling cost per unit  A high utilization of labor and equipment  Smooth and uninterrupted operations  Continuous flow of work  Optimum use of floor space  Shorter processing time or quicker output  Less congestion of work in the process  Simple and effective inspection of work and simplified production control Disadvantages  Morale problems due to repetitive stress injuries.  Highly susceptible to shutdowns  Preventive maintenance, the capacity for quick repairs, and spare-parts inventories are necessary expenses  High initial capital investment in special purpose machine  Breakdown of one machine will hamper the whole production process  Lesser flexibility as specially laid out for particular product. Product Layouts
  17. 17. Page 17 • Process layout groups machinery and equipment according to their functions. • In this type of layout machines of a similar type are arranged together at one place. E.g. Machines performing drilling operations are arranged in the drilling department, machines performing casting operations be grouped in the casting department. Therefore the machines are installed in the plants, which follow the process layout.
  18. 18. Page 18 Process Layouts • Process layouts are designed to process items or provide services that involve a variety of processing requirements. 18
  19. 19. Page 19 Process Layouts The grouping of machines according to the process has to be done keeping in mind the following principles – 1. The distance between departments should be as short as possible for avoiding long distance movement of materials. 2. The departments should be in sequence of operations 3. The arrangement should be convenient for inspection and supervision e.g. tailoring, light and heavy engineering products, made to order furniture industries, jewelry. 19
  20. 20. Page 20 Advantages  There is high degree of machine utilization, as a machine is not blocked for a single product  Change in output design and volume can be more easily adapted to the output of variety of products  Not vulnerable to equipment failures. Breakdown of one machine does not result in complete work stoppage  Supervision can be more effective and specialized  There is a greater flexibility of scope for expansion Disadvantages  In-process inventory costs can be high  Material handling costs are high  More skilled labour is required resulting in higher cost.  Time gap or lag in production is higher  Work in progress inventory is high needing greater storage space  More frequent inspection is needed which results in costly supervision Process Layouts
  21. 21. Page 21 • A fixed-position layout places the product in one spot, and workers, materials, and equipment come to it. • In this type of layout, the major product being produced is fixed at one location. Equipment labour and components are moved to that location. All facilities are brought and arranged around one work center. This type of layout is not relevant for small scale entrepreneur. E.g. - shipbuilding
  22. 22. Page 22 Fixed-Position Layouts • In fixed-position layouts, the item being worked on remains stationary, and workers, materials, and equipment are moved about as needed. • Fixed-position layouts are widely used in farming, firefighting, road building, home building, remodeling and repair, and drilling for oil. In each case, compelling reasons bring workers, materials, and equipment to the “product’s” location instead of the other way around. • Manufacture of bulky and heavy products such as locomotives, ships, boilers, generators, wagon building, aircraft manufacturing, etc. Construction of building, flyovers, dams. 22
  23. 23. Page 23 Fixed-Position Layouts
  24. 24. Page 24 Fixed-Position Layouts
  25. 25. Page 25 Advantages  Saves time and cost in movement  Flexible as changes in job design can be easily incorporated  More economical when several orders in different stages are executed  Adjustments can be made to meet shortage of materials or absence of workers. 25 Disadvantages • Capital investment is quite heavy • Very large space is required for storage of materials and equipment • As several operations are carried simultaneously, possibility of confusion and conflicts are high Fixed-Position Layouts
  26. 26. Page 26 • Customer-oriented layout arranges facilities to enhance the interactions between customers and a service.
  27. 27. Page 27 Combination Layouts • Combine aspects of both process and product layouts. • Supermarket layouts are essentially process layouts, yet we find that most use fixed-path material-handling devices such as roller- type conveyors in the stockroom and belt-type conveyors at the cash registers. 27
  28. 28. Page 28 Thank you

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