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Temple Bar Talks: R. Kooyman


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Temple Bar Talks June 30th

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Temple Bar Talks: R. Kooyman

  1. 1. UU / HKU Rene KOOYMAN Dublin 30 June 2011
  2. 2. The cultural and creative industries <ul><li>‘ Cultural industries ’: goods or services that </li></ul><ul><li>embody cultural expressions, irrespective </li></ul><ul><li>commercial value : film, DVD, video, television </li></ul><ul><li>and radio, video games, new media, music, books and press, performing arts, visual arts. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Creative industries ’ : use culture as an input , whose outputs are mainly functional : architecture, advertising, design and fashion.’ </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>staff headcount </li></ul><ul><li>annual turnover, </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>annual </li></ul><ul><li>balance sheet </li></ul>The SME definition
  4. 4. <ul><li>Size of enterprises by sector across CCIs </li></ul><ul><li>Eurokleis 2010 </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Distribution of total turnover per size class </li></ul><ul><li>Eurokleis 2010 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Staff headcount - turnover <ul><ul><li>Creative industries: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro (< 2 milj € / 10 p) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium (2 – 10 m € / 50 – 250 p) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large enterprises (250+): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2006: Cultural Industries BRD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>763.000 taxable employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fesel/Söndermann BRD 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>74% nr of enterprises 27 % turnover </li></ul><ul><li>3 % enterprises 32 % turnover </li></ul><ul><li>< 1 % nr enterprises 40 % turnover </li></ul><ul><li>210.000 Free-lance workers </li></ul><ul><li>not registered </li></ul>
  7. 7. SPECIFICITIES OF CCIs Labour market <ul><li>Thrives on numerous small initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Non-conventional forms of employment ; part-time work, temporary contracts, self-employment , free-lancers; career high degree of uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple job-holdings ; combined sources of income </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneity of human resources ; higher professional training, vernacular backgrounds, craft industry, any other category </li></ul><ul><li>No longer fits typical patterns of full-time professions </li></ul><ul><li>New type of employer ; the ‘entrepreneurial individual’ or ‘entrepreneurial cultural worker’ </li></ul>
  8. 8. DIFFERENCES PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Creative inputs and products are abundant </li></ul><ul><li>Hypercompetitive environment </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge-based and labour-intensive input </li></ul><ul><li>Not ‘simply merchandise’, but express cultural uniqueness and identities </li></ul><ul><li>Experience goods ; production and consumption ‘on the spot’ </li></ul><ul><li>Product life-cycles are short </li></ul>
  9. 9. CCIs AS KEY STRATEGIC FACTOR <ul><li>CCIs drivers of economical growth (UNCTAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers of innovation : driving innovative processes into realisation </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility ; direct producer/client interaction; meet the clients needs </li></ul><ul><li>CCIs stand at the core of cultural and industrial networks </li></ul><ul><li>CCIs and Technological change/digitisation two-way process </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The OECD/EUROSTAT framework for Entrepreneurship indicators 2008 </li></ul>Entrepreneurship Determinants Themes
  11. 11. <ul><li>Access to debt financing </li></ul><ul><li>Business Angels </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Venture Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Access to other types of equity </li></ul><ul><li>Tax incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Bankruptcy Legislation </li></ul>Access to finance and income generation: Cultural Business Modeling Access to Venture Capital
  12. 12. <ul><li>Weaknesses in business skills , training and experience of entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Business Education does not fit </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship Education ( skills ) </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship Infrastructure (Public and Private) </li></ul>Lack of Entrepreneurial capabilities
  13. 13. <ul><li>Risk attitude in society </li></ul><ul><li>Micro businesses: Artisan, Creative Partnership or Solo </li></ul><ul><li>Small-business: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designer and Business Partner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designer and Licensing Partner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designer and Manufacturer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnership with a formal Investor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SMEs and the Financial Sector </li></ul>Entrepreneurial Culture
  14. 14. <ul><li>Administrative Burdens (entry and growth) </li></ul><ul><li>Safety, health, environment and product regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Labour Market Regulation   </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Health Security </li></ul><ul><li>Income Taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Business Taxes and Fiscal Incentives </li></ul>Regulatory framework
  16. 16. SUPPORT <ul><li>Coordinated support shared by several Ministries: Culture, Economic Affairs, Education, Labour) </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of the specific characteristics CCIs: specific support when needed. A general approach will not suffice </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging the entrepreneurial skills gap: provide training </li></ul><ul><li>Three specific dimensions: </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Area development: integrate CCIs in urban renewal, create breeding places, networks </li></ul><ul><li>The Economical approach: job creation </li></ul><ul><li>The social-cultural approach: active and receptive cultural participation, support festivals, exhibitions, art routes, art education </li></ul>
  17. 17. UU / HKU Rene KOOYMAN Dublin 30 June 2011