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Tools of Educational Research - Dr. K. Thiyagu

This presentation is related to tools of Educational Research. This presentation slides deals various tools of educational research likes rating scale, opionnaire, checklist, aptitude test, inventory, observation, interview, schedule etc. This presentation slides also describe the item analysis, steps for item analysis and online survey tools.

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Tools of Educational Research - Dr. K. Thiyagu

  1. 1. TOOLS OF RESEARCH K.THIYAGU, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod Thiyagu 1
  2. 2. • Introduction • Tools • Rating Scale • Opionnaire • Checklist • Aptitude test • Inventory • Observation • Interview • Schedule • Item Analysis • Steps for Item Analysis • Cronbach‟s Alpha • „t‟-test • Correlation • DV & DI • Online Survey Tools Objectives Thiyagu 2
  3. 3. Tools of Research in Education Inquiry Forms Questionnaire Checklist Score-card Schedule Rating scale Opinionnaire Attitude scale Observation Interview Sociometry Psychological Test Achievement Aptitude Intelligence Interest inventory Personality Measures Thiyagu 3
  4. 4. Rating Scale Thiyagu 4
  5. 5. Rating Scales Rating scales record judgment or opinions and indicates the degree or amount of different degrees of quality which are arranged along a line is the scale. Thiyagu 5
  6. 6. Common wordings for Category Scales Quality Very Good Fairly Good Neither Good nor Bad Not Very Good Not good at all Excellent Good Fair Poor - Importance Very Important Fairly Important Neutral Not so important Not at all important Satisfaction Very Satisfied Somewhat Satisfied Neither Satisfied nor dissatisfied Somewhat dissatisfied Very dissatisfied Very Satisfied Quite Satisfied - Somewhat satisfied Not at all satisfied Interest Very Interested Somewhat Interested Not very Interested Thiyagu 6
  7. 7. Category Scales Frequency All of the time Very often Often Sometimes Hardly ever Very often Often Sometimes Rarely never All of the time Most of the time - Some of the time Just now and then Attitude Scale Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Truth Very True Somewhat True Not very true Not at all true Definitely true More true than false More false than true Definitely not true Performance Distinguished Excellent Commendable Adequate Poor Outstanding Satisfactory UnsatisfactoryThiyagu 7
  8. 8. Attitude Scale Attitude scale is the device by which the feelings or beliefs or persons are described and measured indirectly through securing their responses to a set of favorable statement. Thurston and Likert scale are commonly adopted for attitude scaling. Thiyagu 8
  9. 9. Likert Method Thiyagu 9
  10. 10. Semantic Differential Scale Semantic differential scale is a seven point scale and the end points of the scale are associated with bipolar labels. This scale helps to determine overall similarities and differences among objects. Thiyagu 10
  11. 11. Graphic Rating Scales Thiyagu 11
  12. 12. Emoji Rating Scale Thiyagu 12
  13. 13. Ladder Scale Worst Possible Life Best Possible Life Thiyagu 13
  14. 14. Star Rating Scale Thiyagu 14
  15. 15. Opinionnaire Opinionnaire is a special form of inquiry. It is used by the researcher to collect the opinion of sample of populations. Thiyagu 15
  16. 16. Checklist Checklist is a selected list of words, phrases, sentences and paragraphs following which an observer records a check mark to denote a presence or absence of whatever is being observed. It calls for a simple yes / no judgments. Thiyagu 16
  17. 17. Aptitude Test Aptitude test are psychological tests attempt to product the capacities or the degree of achievement expected from individuals in a particular activity. The purpose is to test a candidate‟s profile. Thiyagu 17
  18. 18. Inventory • Inventory is a list, or record containing traits, preferences, attitudes, interests or abilities used to evaluate personal characteristics or skills. • Strong‟s vocational interest inventory is an example of interest inventory. Thiyagu 18
  19. 19. Observation Method • Observation method is a technical in which the behaviour research subjects is watched and recorded without any direct contact. It deals with the overt behaviour of persons in controlled or uncontrolled situations. Thiyagu 19
  20. 20. Interview Interview is an oral type of questionnaire where the subject supplies the needed information in a face to face situation. It is specially appropriate for dealing with your children, illiterates, dull and the abnormal. Thiyagu 20
  21. 21. Schedule A schedule is a structure of a set of questions on a given topic which are asked by the interviewer or investigator personally. It is a plan or guide line for investigation. The order of questions, the language of the questions and the arrangement of parts of the schedule are not changed. However, the investigator can explain the questions if the respondent faces any difficulty. It contains direct questions as well as questions in tabular form. Schedule include open-ended questions and close-ended questions. • Open-ended questions allow the respondent considerable freedom in answering. • Close-ended questions have to be answered by the respondent by choosing an answer from the set of answers given under a question just by ticking.Thiyagu 21
  22. 22. Types of Schedule Observation Schedule This is a type of schedule having questions which guide an observer systematically. Rating Schedule. It is also a set of questions helps to guide a psychologist or sociologist to measure the attitude and behavior of an individual. Survey Schedule. This type of schedule is formulated for a surveyor to guide him for his information‟s collection. Interview Schedule. It is a set of questions with structured answers to guide an interviewer. Thiyagu 22
  23. 23. Tool Constructions - Steps Final Draft Reliability & Validity Reliability: Test retest, Split Half, Cronbach Validity: Face, Content, etc. Pilot Study Item Analysis Accept / Reject Statements Preliminary Draft Overlapping items – modified (Guide & investigator) Number of statement, scales, (Preliminary Draft) Item Writing Positive & Negative Statements Cover the content / dimensions Planning Study of books, articles & Experts Discussion List out the Statement Thiyagu 23
  24. 24. Item Analysis Item analysis is a statistical technique which is used for selecting and rejecting the items of the test on the basis of their difficulty value and discriminated power. Objectives of Item Analysis • To select appropriate items for the final draft • To obtain the information about the difficulty value (D.V) of all the items • To provide discriminatory power (D.I) to differentiate between capable and less capable examinees for the items • To provide modification to be made in some of the items • To prepare the final draft properly ( easy to difficult items) Steps of Item analysis • Arrange the scores in descending order • Separate two sub groups of the test papers • Take 27% of the scores out of the highest scores and 27% of the scores falling at bottom • Count the number of right answer in highest group (R.H) and count the no of right answer in lowest group (R.L) • Count the non-response (N.R) examineesThiyagu 24
  25. 25. Cronbach‟s Alpha Value Cronbach's alpha is a measure of internal consistency, that is, how closely related a set of items are as a group. It is considered to be a measure of scale reliability. A "high" value for alpha does not imply that the measure is unidimensional. MSE = Mean Score Error; MSB= Mean Score Between group Spss demoExcel demo Thiyagu 25
  26. 26. Step 1. Click Analyze > Scale > Reliability Analysis... on the top menu, as shown below: Spss demoExcel demo Thiyagu 26
  27. 27. Step 2: You will be presented with the Reliability Analysis dialogue box, as shown below: Step 3: Transfer the variables Qu1 to Qu9 into the Items: box. You can do this by drag-and-dropping the variables into their respective boxes or by using the button. You will be presented with the following screen: Spss demoExcel demo Thiyagu 27
  28. 28. Step 4: Click on the „statistics‟ button, which will open the Reliability Analysis: Statistics dialogue box, as shown below: Step 5: Select the Item, Scale and Scale if item deleted options in the –Descriptive for– area, and the Correlations option in the –Inter-Item– area, as shown below: Step 6: Continue & OK Spss demoExcel demo Thiyagu 28
  29. 29. „t‟ Test Independent sample „t‟ test Comparing low and high group Spss demoExcel demo Thiyagu 29
  30. 30. Step 1: Click Analyze > Compare Means > Independent-Samples T Test... on the top menu, as shown below: Spss demoExcel demo Thiyagu 30
  31. 31. Group(? ?) Group(? ?) Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 . . Statement n Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 . . Statement n Spss demoExcel demo Thiyagu 31
  32. 32. Spss demoExcel demo Thiyagu 32
  33. 33. Correlation Karl Pearson's Coefficient of Correlation      2222 )(      YYNXXN YXXYN r The item total correlation is a correlation between the question score and the overall assessment score. It is expected that if a participant gets a question correct they should, in general, have higher overall assessment scores than participants who get a question wrong. This relationship in psychometrics is called „discrimination‟ referring to how well a question differentiates between participants who know the material and those that do not know the material. Values for an item-total correlation (point-biserial) between 0 and 0.19 may indicate that the question is not discriminating well, values between 0.2 and 0.39 indicate good discrimination, and values 0.4 and above indicate very good discrimination. Spss demoExcel demoThiyagu 33
  34. 34. Difficulty Value (D.V) “The difficulty value of an item is defined as the proportion or percentage of the examinees who have answered the item correctly” - J.P. Guilford The formula for difficulty value (D.V) D.V = (R.H + R.L)/ (N.H + N.L) R.H – rightly answered in highest group R.L - rightly answered in lowest group N.H – no of examinees in highest group N.L - no of examinees in lowest group In case non-response examinees available means, The formula for difficulty value (D.V) D.V = (R.H + R.L)/ [(N.H + N.L)- N.R] R.H – rightly answered in highest group R.L - rightly answered in lowest group N.H – no of examinees in highest group N.L - no of examinees in lowest group N.R – no of non-response examineesThiyagu 34
  35. 35. Discrimination Index (D.I) “Index of discrimination is that ability of an item on the basis of which the discrimination is made between superiors and inferiors” - Blood and Budd (1972) Zero discrimination or No discrimination The item of the test is answered correctly or know the answer by all the examinee‟s. An item is not answered correctly any of the examinee. Positive discrimination index An item is correctly answered by superiors and is not answered correctly by inferiors. The discriminative power range from +1 to -1. Negative discrimination index An item is correctly answered by inferiors and is not answered correctly by superiors. Types of Discrimination Index (D.I) The formula for discrimination index(D.I) D.I = (R.H - R.L)/ (N.H or N.L) R.H – rightly answered in highest group R.L - rightly answered in lowest group N.H – no of examinees in highest group N.L - no of examinees in lowest group Thiyagu 35
  36. 36. Range of Difficulty Index Interpretation Action 0 – 0.25 Difficult Revise or discard 0.26 – 0.75 Right difficulty Retain 0.76 - above Easy Revise or discard Discrimination Index Item Evaluation ≥0.40 Very good items 0.30 - 0.39 Reasonably good but subject to improvement 0.20 – 0.29 Marginal items , need improvement <0.19 Poor items . Rejected or revised Thiyagu 36
  37. 37. Reliability Interpretation .90 and above Excellent reliability; at the level of the best standardized tests. .80 - .90 Very good for a classroom test .70 - .80 Good for a classroom test; in the range of most. There are probably a few items which could be improved. .60 - .70 Somewhat low. This test should be supplemented by other measures (e.g., more test) for grading. .50 - .60 Suggests need for revision of test, unless it is quite short (ten or fewer items). The test definitely needs to be supplemented by other measures (e.g., more tests) for grading. .50 or below Questionable reliability. This test should not contribute heavily to the course grade, and it needs revision. Reliability Interpretation Thiyagu 37
  38. 38. Best Survey Tools: Create Awesome Surveys For Free! • Google Forms • Survey Monkey • Typeform • Zoho Survey • Survey Gizmo • Survey Planet Thiyagu 38
  39. 39. Google Forms • Unlimited surveys • Unlimited respondents • Survey answers and data are automatically collected in Google Spreadsheets • Lots of theme options • Add images or videos • Imbed survey into emails or website • Add collaborators • 100% free! Thiyagu 39
  40. 40. Survey Monkey Thiyagu 40
  41. 41. Typeform The free version, nicknamed the CORE plan, has a ton to offer, including: • Unlimited questions • Unlimited answers • Data export • Custom design themes or choose from templates • Basic reporting Thiyagu 41
  42. 42. Zoho Survey Thiyagu 42
  43. 43. Survey Gizmo Thiyagu 43
  44. 44. Survey Planet The free version of Survey Planet is offering: • Unlimited surveys • Unlimited questions • Unlimited respondents • Survey theme options • Survey embedding Thiyagu 44
  45. 45. Kaizala Thiyagu 45
  46. 46. Acknowledgements My teachers (SXCE), My Guide , My Students Source – Books / Images Google Thank You Jai Bharath! Thiyagu 46