Alabama High School Graduation Exam (Social Studies) Ch.1 - The Pre-Colonial and Colonial Eras
BELLRINGER #1 THE CRUSADES ENCOURAGED EUROPEANS TO TRAVEL TO DISTANT LANDS FOR TRADE.WHAT DID THE CRUSADES HAVE TO DO WITH THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA?
BELLRINGER #2 WHAT ITEMS WERE TRADED IN THE TRIANGULAR TRADE ROUTE? WHAT WERE THESE ITEMS USED FOR?
AHSGE Chapter 1• CrusadesHoly wars to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Why are the Crusades important to American History? Results – created a desire for Asian spices and silks.Routes – Land routes took too long. Europeans began looking for a sea route to Asia.
Prince Henry of Portugal(Henry the Navigator) established a school for navigation. Henry’s Navigation School used – caravel (strong sailing ship), astrolabe (instrument to determine location by using the stars), compass magnetized needle which points north.
Renaissance and Reformation Renaissance – (rebirth) great cultural developments and societal changes during the 14th through 17th centuries. What did the Renaissance encourage people to do and why was this important? It encouraged people to read the bible and the early writings of the church. People wanted to reform the church by abolishing any religious practices that were not found in the Bible.
Martin LutherBegan the Protestant Reformation.Protestant Reformationmovement to reform the Catholic Church. Many broke away from the Catholic Church to form their own churches.
How did the Catholic Church feel about the Protestant Reformation and what did they do? To defend the Catholic faith many missionaries were sent to the New World in search of conversions among the Native Americans.
Columbus and the Columbian Exchange Christopher ColumbusAn Italian explorer representing Spain in search of a new sea route to Asia. Why was his voyage important? It marked the beginning of colonization efforts by European countries in the Americas. Columbian ExchangeA mixture of European and Western Hemisphere cultures.
What were some of the good items exchanged? Europe brought, sugar, coffee, horses, and firearms. New World offered tobacco, potatoes, corn and chocolate.
What were some of the bad things exchanged?Europeans brought communicable diseases. These diseases killed almost 80% of Native Americans because their immune systems were not able to fight them off.
European Rivalry and Exploration in the New World What did the New World offer European people that Europe did not? Opportunities for wealth, power, adventure and more territory. What did Spain and Portugal seek? Gold, riches and conversions to the Catholic faith. GOD, GOLD,& GLORY What did France and England seek? France was mainly interested in the fur trade. England wanted to establish permanent settlements (13 original colonies).
Bartolomeu Dias – First to sail around the tip of Africa (Cape of Good Hope). Vasco Da Gama – First European to find a sea route to Asia (by sailing around tip of Africa). Amerigo Vespucci – First to realize the New World was an entirely new continent. America is named after him. Vasco de Balboa – First to reach the Pacific Ocean. Ferdinand Magellan – Led first expedition that sailed around the world. He died in route.
Spanish Colonization of the Americas ConquistadorsSpanish explorers (conquerors). Hernando Cortez – conquered the Aztec Empire. Francisco Pizarro – conquered the Inca Empire. Francisco Coronado – explored the area of present day New Mexico in search of Seven Cities of Gold.
Hernando De Soto – explored present day Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. Ponce De Leon – explored Florida looking for The Fountain of Youth.St. AugustineFirst European city in North America. Established to control Spanish trade.
French, Dutch, and English Colonization The French settle where?Lands around the St. Lawrence and Mississippi River (Louisiana). The Dutch Settle?Around the Hudson River (New York area). The English settle? Eastern seaboard of North America.
Southern Colonies Sir Walter Raleigh – Sponsored the first English attempt at colonizing the present-day United States in Roanoke near present-day North Carolina.The Lost ColonyWhat the Roanoke colony was called because it disappeared.
JamestownThe first successful (permanent) English colony.Joint Stock Company – a private company that sells shares to investors.House of Burgessesthe first example of a democratic government in the United States.
SOUTHERN COLONIES Southern Colonies – Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. Plantations – large farms devoted to one main crop. Indentured Servants – people who became servants for 5-7 years to pay for their passage to America. Triangular Trade Route – a trade route between the Caribbean, the American colonies, and West Africa. Molasses (sugar), rum, slaves.
New England Colonies New England Colonies –Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Hampshire. Puritans and Pilgrims – people who had separated from the Church of England and sought religious freedom in the New World.Mayflower CompactAn agreement that guaranteed just and equal laws for all.It helped contribute to DEMOCRACY.
Middle Colonies Middle Colonies – New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. Quaker – persecuted religious group. William Penn – founder of Pennsylvania. Religious group that settle in Maryland? Roman Catholics Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – City of brotherly love and the largest city in the thirteen colonies.
Social and Economic Life in the Colonies Proprietors – wealthy merchants who financed the colonies. Mercantilismthe main economic system in the colonies. A nation’s power is measured by its gold reserves. Belief that a country needs to export more than it’s imports.