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Eco Agricultural Methods in India

Eco Agricultural Methods in India

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Eco Agricultural Methods in India

  1. 1. Eco-Agricultural Methods in India Team Members Abhinav Tripathi -281 Mallika Gupta – 296 Rehan Singh – 305 Tanmaya Harichandan -282 Vaibhav Suwalka -284
  2. 2. UTTAR PRADESH Soil is a natural resource. To sustain the productivity of the soil, different program is being implemented so that the adverse effect of unbalanced use of fertilizer and pesticides can be minimized. In view of above, soil health card has been made available to all the farmers of the state, soil sample is taken from the field, sent to laboratory and after testing, recommendations are made available through soil health to the farmers. Three days massive Kisan Mela was organized Agro-climatic zone wise in the state. In this Mela, problems of the farmers were addressed at the site and farm inputs was also made available. To give fast pace to the continuous growth in farm productivity in the state in past years and ensure new farm techniques to the farmers in time and for timely arrangement of farm resources, divisional, district, block and nyay panchayat level Gosthis are organized in the beginning of Kharif and Rabi season. Scientist of Agriculture Universities and other institutions and senior officers of other department participating in the Gosthi make it useful for the farmers. To redress the current problem of agriculture and increase in technical knowledge , a monthly bulletin “Krishi Chintan” is being published. This bulletin is distributed amongst the Gram Panchayat, departmental staff, progressive farmers and people’s representatives free of cost. To redress the current problem of agriculture and extension of latest system and technology, monthly magazine “Agriculture and Animal Husbandry” is published and made available to farmer member at the cost of Rs. 24 per annum. To promote Organic Farming, 75% grant is given on distribution of bio-fertilizer, bio-pesticides and bio-agents. 75% grant is also provided on distribution of Gypsum to remove deficiency of micro-nutrient in soil.
  3. 3. HARYANA Zero Tillage farming-Tilling involves preparing the soil by digging or ploughing ,so zero tillage refers to leaving the soil undisturbed throughout the cropping cycle. This agricultural practice is inspired by Japanese farmer Masanobu Fukuoka. No till farming is more cost effective by reducing the cost of inputs like tractors and diesel, and the effort of preparing the land before sowing a new crop. More importantly, zero tillage increases the carbon sequestration potential of the soil – only when disturbed does it release carbon through oxidation. Undisturbed soil also allows water to penetrate deeper, resulting in lower amount of irrigation water needed for cultivation. Haryana has planned to make farmers diversify to less water consuming crops, with incentives to reduce paddy area in some specified parts of the State. These new crops have many other benefits like nitrogen fixation, lower cost of production, lower use of chemical inputs, and beneficial by-products like fodder, besides protection from market risk like that for paddy and wheat in the form of MSP and procurement by the government. Farmers also practice crop rotation together with raising animals. Dairy Farming also increases. Best quality seeds are also provided. The irrigation system is either based on underground or tube wells.
  4. 4. BIHAR Bihar is considered destination for second Green Revolution in the country. Several reports including the National Farmers Commission have emphasized the need for accelerated development of agriculture in eastern India for securing food security of the country. System of Rice intensification (SRI) is an environment well disposed & novel strategy of rice cultivation which incorporates utilization of less seed, less water and fewer chemicals to obtain higher yield and profitability. Ahar pynes are traditional floodwater harvesting systems indigenous to Bihar, and have been the most important source of irrigation in this region. Ahars are reservoirs with embankments on three sides and are built at the end of drainage lines such as rivulets or artificial works like pynes. Pynes are diversion channels led off from the river for irrigation purposes and for impounding water in the ahars. Fertile Gangetic alluvial soil, abundant water resources, particularly groundwater resources, form the basis of agriculture in Bihar. The farmers in Bihar grow a variety of crops. Apart from food-grains, the state produces oilseeds, fiber crops, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables and other crops. Recently, high value horticulture viz floriculture and aromatic plant cultivation has caught the imagination of the farmers because of its increasing demand.
  5. 5. ODISHA Panchgavya – a mixture of cow urine, cow dung, jaggery, curd and ghee in his farm. This organic method of farming is for cultivating rice, onion, turmeric, brinjal, cauliflower and cotton. Local tribal communities practice shifting agriculture, mainly for subsistence, which is solely dependent on the monsoon rains. Cultivation of crops remains a challenge with little top soil and accelerated run off during the rainy season. Ecological farming methods are promoted by Agragamee including Zero tillage method with local tribal farmers in the operational villages Farmers are now producing organic manure like Jeevambruta, Cow dung manure and urine, Panchgavya etc and utilizing it in their fields. The leaf litter from the Agro-forestry plantations (Sesbania, Cassia, Leucaena and other leguminous tree crops known for nitrogen fixing in the soil) also improve the humus content of the soil. The Rice husk is used to feed cattle , power generation and fertilizer generation.
  6. 6. RAJASTHAN In Rajasthan, 61% of the cultivable area falls under arid and semi arid zones where rainfall is very low and soils are poor in fertility and water holding capacity. Due to low rainfall, inadequate irrigation facilities and low humidity associated with high temperature (up to 48ºC) in summers, the occurrence of insects, pests & disease is minimal. Out of 17.4 million ha. cultivated area of Rajasthan, more than 70% area is rainfed. The production is uncertain due to erratic behavior of monsoon, so farmers tend to not use costly chemical inputs like fertilizer, pesticides, weedicides, etc. GMO seeds would not be permitted in organic production systems. Establishment of seed villages to meet the requirement of organic seeds and planting materials would be encouraged. Integrated pest management (IPM) practices shall be encouraged and bio pesticides, local botanicals, biodynamic farming and adoption non-pesticidal pest management shall be promoted. Rishi Krishi, Panchgavya Krishi, zero budget farming, zero tillage farming, natural farming, biodynamics farming, nateuco farming, Jaiva Krishi, etc. which are cheap and farm resource based are also practiced.
  7. 7. 1.)What are the practices of sustainable agriculture? ->Sustainable Farming Methods or Practices 1. Make use of Renewable Energy Sources 2. Integrated pest management 3. Hydroponics and Aquaponics 4. Crop Rotation 5. Polyculture Farming 2.)Can organic farming sustain Indian agriculture? ->Organic agriculture can contribute to meaningful socioeconomic and ecologically sustainable development, especially in developing countries. This is due to the application of organic principles, which advocates the application of local resources like, indigenous seed varieties, manure, etc. and therefore cost effectiveness. Organic farming is one of the several approaches found to meet the objectives of sustainable agriculture. Ecological friendly Organic farming is the answer to the problems being faced by agriculture in India today. It will also keep agriculture more sustainable. This form of agriculture conserves our soil and water resources, protects our climate, improves Agro-diversity, ensures biodiversity, meets the demand for food and safeguards livelihoods.
  8. 8. 3)What is organic farming or eco friendly farming? -> Organic farming is a method of crop and livestock production that involves much more than choosing not to use pesticides, fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, antibiotics and growth hormones. It is mainly the use of natural fertilizers like manure, green manure, and bone meal. This organic farming is a natural farming technique with no use of chemicals, pesticides, synthetic substances and artificial fertilizers. It focuses on techniques like Crop Rotation, Vermi-Composting, Using green manures and Mechanical Cultivation. 4)How were ancient agricultural methods eco-friendly? ->Pre-industrial traditional or ancient agriculture was nothing but conservation agriculture (CA) in which farmers developed thousands of crop varieties and animal breeds over centuries . Soil fertility was regenerated through long periods of rest (fallowing, 10-15 years), periodic addition of natural materials such as household wastes, composts and manures, and adopting practices such as crop rotations (especially with N-fixing legumes) and mixed planting. Farmers replanted their own seeds and exchanged their seeds and animal breeds with others, thereby spreading new planting materials and animal breeds far and wide and thus preserving biodiversity in farmlands.
  9. 9. 5)List the eco-friendly approaches for farming system. -> The following eco-friendly approaches are : A. Organic farming-Organic farming is a production system, which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetically compounded fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. B. Biological farming-Diagnostic instruments to monitor plant and soil conditions are frequently used in biological farming. These include refract meters to monitor sugar content (Brix) in plant tissue sap; electrical conductivity meters to monitor ERGS (or energy released per gram of soil); ORPS meters (or oxygen reduction potential of soil); and radionics. C. Nature farming-Regenerative agriculture and permaculture are widely recognized. However, these letter systems, like sustainable agriculture, are more conceptually oriented than methods-based. D. Regenerative Agriculture-In regenerative agriculture bunds on nature’s own inherent capacity to cope with pests, enhance soil fertility, and increase productivity. E. Permaculture-permaculture is concerned with designing ecological human habitats and food production systems, and follows specific guidelines and principles in the design of these systems.

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