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Chinese garden

for landscape design

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Chinese garden

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION… • The Chinese garden is a landscape garden style which has evolved over three thousand years. • It includes both the vast gardens of the Chinese emperors and members of the imperial family, built for pleasure and to impress. • from emperors and government officials to scholars and poets, have built their own Chinese garden. • made for meditation and escape from the outside world. • They create an idealized landscape, which is meant to express the harmony that should exist between man and nature.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION… • A typical Chinese garden is enclosed by walls and includes one or more ponds, rock works, trees and flowers, • and an assortment of halls and pavilions within the garden, • connected by winding paths and zig-zag galleries. • By moving from structure to structure, visitors can view a series of carefully composed scenes, unrolling like a scroll of landscape paintings. Winding path
  4. 4. HISTORY… • The earliest recorded Chinese gardens were created in the valley of the Yellow River, during the Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BC). • These gardens were large enclosed parks where the kings and nobles hunted game, • or where fruit and vegetables were grown. • Early inscriptions from this period, carved on tortoise shells, have three Chinese characters for garden : • you, pu and yuan. • You was a royal garden where birds and animals were kept, • while pu was a garden for plants. • During the Qin Dynasty (221–206 BC), yuan became the character for all gardens.(i.e. it both include the characters of YOU & PU gardens ).
  5. 5. HISTORY… • Somewhere between 206 BC and 220 BC, the Han Dynasty advanced the concept of these 'Natural Gardens' • by adding living quarters and adding animals that were raised and considered to be the beginning of Chinese garden architecture. • The Wei Dynasty (220–265) added a new twist of suggesting rivers and mountains for style, to bring in more qualities of nature. • Upper classes would travel to rivers and mountains for pleasure, and liked the new title of the garden, which was "the garden with natural mountains and rivers.“ • The contribution of the Sui (581–618) and Tang (618–907) dynasties to classical gardening was to bring part of art and literature into the make up of the garden. • Descriptions and paintings were meticulously copied to create gardens exactly like those seen or read about. • The garden was then renamed "the garden imitating mountains and rivers."
  6. 6. HISTORY… • the Song (960–1279) and Yuan (1271–1368) dynasties took it a step further. • Writers and artists took active roles in garden design. • Rocks were situated in spots more suited to the gazing pleasure of the emperor. • Emperor Kangxi of the Ming Dynasty (1386–1644) and Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) again brought focus to the building structures in the garden, • but specifically to enhance appearance. • Buildings were added only to create pleasant or striking scenery. • The royal garden evolved with time and changing tastes over the centuries and inspired gardens in other areas of China.
  7. 7. PHILOSOPHY… • Chinese gardens put more emphasis on accord with nature. • By using patterns found in natural landscapes and fengshui (geomancy), • the plants and ground fit well with the artificial elements. • Chinese gardens usually have winding paths and a range of features and ground levels. • The buildings and landscaping of a Chinese garden are designed and arranged deliberately based on their respective symbols and meanings in fengshui. • Feng shui is an ancient art and science that was formalized over 3,000 years ago in China. • In literal translation feng means "wind" and shui means "water."
  8. 8. PHILOSOPHY… • In Chinese culture, wind and water are associated with good health, • thus good feng shui came to mean good fortune. • Conversely, bad feng shui means bad luck or misfortune. • Chinese gardens are enclosed by walls as special places for the owner's private enjoyment.
  9. 9. TYPES OF CHINESE GARDEN… • Chinese gardens are generally divided into two categories: • imperial gardens (northern gardens) • and • private gardens (southern gardens).
  10. 10. TYPES OF CHINESE GARDEN… IMPERIAL GARDEN : - Imperial gardens are mostly found in north China, with those in Beijing being most representative, displaying grandness and magnificence. - Imperial gardens have been a pet project of many emperors and empresses throughout China's long history. - While gardens from the earliest dynasties have faded into history, many Qing-Dynasty (1644– 1911) gardens remain. - At one time, only members of the royal family and their guests or servants were allowed to experience the beauty of these massive garden complexes.
  11. 11. TYPES OF CHINESE GARDEN… PRIVATE GARDEN : - Private gardens are mostly found in south China, especially in cities in the ‘south of the Yangtze River area, such as Suzhou, Wuxi, Nanjing, and Hangzhou. - Private gardens were designed and created as a place of retreat(shelter) for ancient scholars to escape the chaos of the city and have private relaxation. - Private gardens in China are more intimate than the grand imperial gardens, but their simplicity offers a unique form of beauty. - These gardens were often used for parties, such as those during the autumn moon festival. - One important characteristic of many private Chinese gardens is a rockery. (rock work ).
  13. 13. WATER… • Water, which forms the Earth's arteries, • symbolizes both life and the feminine principle of the universe (yin). • Its flat surface works like a mirror and • seems to increase the dimensions of the surroundings. • Water is essential to the representation of nature as a whole, • and its horizontal line counterbalances the effect of the mountains. • Water is one of the main, unifying elements of garden.
  14. 14. STONE … • If water represents the earth's arteries to the Chinese, • stone, for them, is the skeleton. • Stone is omnipresent in a garden and is perhaps the most distinctive element • Heaped together, stones could form more complex mineral landscapes and recreate real mountains. • Rocks are chosen based on their • shape, texture, substance, color and softness. • Limestone rocks that have taken strange shapes due to erosion are among the most valued rocks for Chinese gardeners.
  15. 15. PLANTS… • Plants are chosen carefully, • dependent on their texture, shape, color and fragrance. • Some Chinese gardens have a lotus pond with a nearby lotus pavilion( open hall ). • Chinese gardeners choose the different plant elements for their garden largely due to fragrance. • Chinese gardens favor plants and trees that tradition and history have imbued (inspire) with symbolism.
  16. 16. Some Important plants of Chinese garden: The Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a very important plant, representing longevity and the struggle for survival. The magnolia tree has traditionally represented wealth. It is also the emblem of Shangai.
  17. 17. Some Important plants of Chinese garden: the azalea the primrose the gentian considered one of the "three famous flowers."
  18. 18. STRUCTURES : - The most important structures of garden are walkways, pavilions and bridges. - Timber frame construction plays a decisive role . - Chinese gardens are filled with architecture halls, pavilions, temples, galleries, bridges, kiosks, and towers, occupying a large part of the space. - Gardens also often feature two-story towers, usually at the edge of the garden , - which provided a view from above of certain parts of the garden or the distant scenery. - Bridges are another common feature of the Chinese garden. - Bridges are often built from rough timber or stone-slab raised pathways.
  20. 20. THE SUMMER PALACE GARDEN : (in northeastern suburb of Beijing.) • The Summer Palace Garden in Haidian District, northwest of central Beijing, • is the best preserved imperial garden in the world. • The Summer Palace was initially built in 1750 by Emperor Qianglong. • The architectural style of Summer Palace is to make others believe it is inartificial. • It covers an area of 70 thousand square meters and holds over 3000 houses. • In 1860 and 1900 it was destroyed by invaders and in 1912 • it was rebuilt by the Government of Qing Dynasty. In 1924, it began to be open to tourists. • Not all the buildings are open to the public, but many are.
  21. 21. THE SUMMER PALACE GARDEN : • The arched bridges, pretty promenades, decorated corridors, and ‘breezeways’ (a hallway that allows the passage of a breeze between structures) lead visitors through ever-changing views and scenery. A promenade. (a leisure walkway )
  22. 22. THE SUMMER PALACE GARDEN : DESIGN OF SUMMER PALACE : - The Chinese call it Yihe Yuan (Garden of Restful Peace), - and the landscaped gardens, temples, and pavilions were designed to achieve harmony with nature, to soothe, and to please the eye. - During the hot Beijing summers, the Imperial Family preferred the beautiful gardens and airy pavilions of the Summer Palace to the walled-in Forbidden City. - Infamous Dowager Empress Cixi took up permanent residence here for a time. - Many of the buildings have been meticulously restored, and maintenance and restoration activities are ongoing.
  23. 23. Master of the Nets Garden : (in Suzhou City )
  24. 24. Master of the Nets Garden : • Master of the Nets Garden is the smallest yet the most delicate landscape garden in Suzhou City. • Area: 0.6 hectares (1.5 acres) • Age: more than 800 years. HISTORY AND FEATURES : - Also called Fisherman's Garden. - It is an elegant structure of a typical official's residence in the Qing Dynasty (1636-1911). - Master of the Nets Garden consists of a residential quarter and a proper garden. - Inside the refined residential quarter, the halls are linked closely by a corridor. - The garden, is focused on a pond and decorated with plants, rocks, pavilions, and stone bridges.
  25. 25. Humble Administrator's Garden : (in Suzhou)
  26. 26. Humble Administrator's Garden : • Built in 1509 during the Ming Dynasty, • Humble Administrator's Garden is the largest and most famous classical landscape garden in Suzhou. • Area: 5.6 hectares (13.8 acres) • Age: more than 500 years. • the garden is in the south region of Yangtze River and • considered as the mother of Chinese gardens. • With its classical and gorgeous gardens, it has been a valuable cultural sign both in China and world. • Pools are built in the center with pavilions standing around, and wingding corridors connecting with each other.
  27. 27. Humble Administrator's Garden : • It consists of Eastern, Western and Central parks as well as residences of the former owners. • The Eastern Section • The Eastern Section covers an area of 5 acres and is divided into four tourist spots. Cross the porch and the courtyard, though the Xuelan Tang, you will find yourself in the eastern garden. • On the east of the garden is a vast lawn with earth pile hill standing in the west. Above the hill is wooden pavilions surrounded by flowing water and willow. • The Western Section • The western region covers an area of half and 2 acres. With the pools for the center.
  28. 28. Humble Administrator's Garden : • The Central Section • The Central Section is the main and elite part of the garden with an area of half and 3 acres. • Nearly one-third of its area is covered by water. • Pavilions, towers and terraces are built around the central pool. • It has well remained the garden pattern of the Ming Dynasty, which is ancient and bright. • The Hall of Distant Fragrance is the main building that is named after a lotus pool nearby.
  29. 29. Lingering Garden : (in Suzhou)
  30. 30. Lingering Garden : • The Lingering Garden is one of nine "Classical Gardens of Suzhou“ • It is a classic example of the Qing Dynasty's garden landscaping. • area: 2.3 hectares (5.6 acres). • The garden measures about 23,000 square meters or 5.6 acres. • It is divided into four distinctly themed sections that are called East Garden, Central Garden, West Garden, and North Garden. • In this garden, perfectly combined corridors, artificial hills, rocks, and water features are present. • The Central Garden is the oldest part, and it has buildings around a pond. The Eastern Garden has the miniature mountain called Shi Ping Peak that is modeled after Tiantai Mountain in Putao.
  31. 31. Lingering Garden :