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New york five


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history of architecture
about five architects

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New york five

  1. 1. NEW YORK FIVE … H I S T O R Y O F A R C H I T E C T U R E …
  2. 2. ABOUT NEW YORK FIVE … • The New York Five refers to a group of five New York City architects :- • Peter Eisenman, • Michael Graves, • Charles Gwathmey, • John Hejduk and • Richard Meier • A meeting of the CASE group (Conference of Architects for the Study of the Environment) held at the Museum of Modern Art in 1969.
  3. 3. ABOUT THE NEW YORK FIVE … • Organized by Arthur Drexler and Colin Rowe in 1969, • and featured in the subsequent book Five Architects, published by Wittenborn in 1972, • then more famously by Oxford Press in 1975. • The purpose of this gathering was to exhibit and criticize the work of five architects– • Eisenman, Graves, Gwathmey, Hejduk, and Meier • who constituted a New York school. • A book was also published on these five architects in 1975. • No matter how varied their individual theories and visions, all five architects simply share a passion for the art of architecture. • Five Architects serves as a reference to the early work of some of America s most important architects and provides us with a glimpse back at the direction of architecture as they saw it twenty
  5. 5. PETER EISENMAN… • Peter Eisenman was born to Jewish parents on August 11, 1932, in Newark, New Jersey. • As a child, he attended Columbia High School located in Maplewood, New Jersey. • He transferred in to the architecture school at Cornell University. • He received a Bachelor of Architecture degree from Cornell, • a Master of Architecture degree from Columbia University's Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, • and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Cambridge. • He received an honorary degree from Syracuse University School of Architecture in 2007.
  6. 6. PETER EISENMAN… • His working style was known as deconstructivism. • Deconstructivism is a movement of postmodern architecture which appeared in the 1980s, • which gives the impression of the fragmentation of the constructed building. • It is characterized by an absence of harmony, continuity, or symmetry. • Its name comes from the idea of "Deconstruction", • A form of semiotic analysis developed by the French philosopher Jacques Derrida. A Deconstructivism Building example :-
  8. 8. NUNOTANI BUILDING… • One structure that exemplifies his concept of DECONSTRUCTIVISM is the Nunotani Office Building in Japan. • it clearly follows a modernist vernacular. • Eisenman takes a typical, box-shaped building, then extrudes some side, • slants windows and frames, and exaggerates angles to the point that the building looks as if it is sliding into different pieces, as if just sliced across by a blade. • At first glance the building looks like it is sagging and unstable. • The instability is amplified not only by the pieces of the building that come out at angles, but also by the slanted windows.
  9. 9. NUNOTANI BUILDING… • Even more so by the piece of with windows that appear to go into the ground, creating a sinking feeling. • By making it appear as if the building is sliding at different points, • Eisenman reminds people of the actual structural instability of Japan’s seismic plates. • Though this building emphasizes just how prevalent earthquakes are in this region, the play with tectonics dramatizes the effects. • The building witnesses moving floor plates that mimic the plate movements from volcano eruptions that initially created the islands and cared for the Yamato people. • Although there's no glazing on the rear facade, 'surfaces' painted in hues of pink appear to have settle about one another crookedly( curvilinearity ).
  10. 10. NUNOTANI BUILDING… • designed as a main office building was turned into a warehouse. • The company later went bankrupt in 2000 . • A company called “Life Support” bought the building in 2003 at an auction and it is now an elderly care center.
  11. 11. MICHAEL GRAVES… • Michael Graves (July 9, 1934 – March 12, 2015) was an American architect and • Principal of Michael Graves and Associates and Michael Graves Design Group. • He was also professor of architecture at Princeton University for nearly forty years. • Graves, who was one of The New York Five and a member of the Memphis Group, is best known first for his modern and postmodern building designs. • He also designed buildings internationally. • In addition to his postmodern buildings, Graves was a representative of New Urbanism and New Classical Architecture, and was recognized as a major influence in all three movements.
  12. 12. MICHAEL GRAVES… • Graves was the recipient of numerous honors for his architectural and product designs, including a National Medal of Arts (1999), the American Institute of Architects' Gold Medal (2001), and the Driehaus Architecture Prize (2012). • Graves graduated from Indianapolis's Broad Ripple High School in 1952 and • Earned a bachelor's degree in architecture in 1958 from the University of Cincinnati. • Graves earned a master's degree in architecture from Harvard University in 1959. • After graduation from college, Graves spent a year working in George Nelson's office, a furniture designer and the creative director for Herman Miller, • Exposed Graves to the work of fellow designers Charles and Ray Eames and Alexander Girard. • In 1960 Graves won the American Academy in Rome's Prix de Rome (Rome Prize) and spent the next two years at the Academy in Italy
  14. 14. THE WALT DISNEY WORLD DOLPHIN RESORT … • The Walt Disney World Dolphin is a resort hotel designed by architect Michael Graves • located between Epcot and Disney's Hollywood Studios in the Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, Florida, next to Disney's Board Walk Resort area. • It opened on June 1, 1990 and is joined to its sister hotel, the Walt Disney World Swan (also designed by Graves) by a palm-tree lined covered walkway crossing a lagoon. • The pair of vast hotel buildings, totaling two million square feet, sit opposite each other on either side of a lake, but are connected by a causeway across the waterside. • Together they include over 2,200 guest rooms, and huge conference and event facilities, including 16 food and beverage outlets. • For the Disney project, Graves and his team looked to past art and architecture, as well as the local landscape and climate, in order to design buildings that would be unique to the Orlando location.
  15. 15. THE WALT DISNEY WORLD DOLPHIN RESORT … • The larger Dolphin hotel is anchored by a giant triangular element at its centre, • intersected by a linear volume with a slightly curved top. • Four wings expand away from the main building towards the water, while the sprawling convention centre stretches off at an angle behind. • the facades of the two hotels are decorated with large-scale patterns. Banana leaves cover the Dolphin. • Roofs are topped with ornamental animals that correspond to the building's names, making them easily distinguishable to guests from afar. • Graves' firm was responsible for the entire site, including the architecture, interiors, furniture, signage and artwork. • The exteriors remain intact, however several rounds of alterations have taken place on the insides.
  16. 16. CHARLES GWATHMEY… • Charles Gwathmey (June 19, 1938 – August 3, 2009) was an American architect. • Born in Charlotte, North Carolina, • he was the son of the American painter Robert Gwathmey and photographer Rosalie Gwathmey. • He attended the High School of Music and Art in New York City, graduating in 1956. • He attended the University of Pennsylvania and • received his Master of Architecture degree in 1962 from Yale School of Architecture. • In 1965, while not yet a licensed architect, he designed a house and studio for his parents in Amagansett, NY, that became famous and revolutionized beach house design. • He was the recipient of the Brunner Prize from the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1970,
  17. 17. CHARLES GWATHMEY… • In 1983, he won the Medal of Honor from the New York Chapter of the American Institute of Architects and in 1985, • he received the first Yale Alumni Arts Award from the Yale School of Architecture. • In 1988 the Guild Hall Academy of Arts awarded Gwathmey its Lifetime Achievement Medal in Visual Arts. • in 1990 a Lifetime Achievement Award from the New York State Society of Architects has been received by him.
  19. 19. YALE ART COMPLEX… • Location New Haven, CT, USA. • Also known as Rudolph Hall. • Formerly known as the Art and Architecture Building. • one of the earliest and best known examples of Brutalist architecture in the United States. • the complex building contains over thirty floor levels in its seven stories. • The building is made of ribbed, bush-hammered concrete. • The design was influenced by Frank Lloyd Wright's Larkin Administration Building, in Buffalo, NY and the later buildings of Le Corbusier. • When the building first opened, it was praised widely by critics and academics, and received several prestigious awards.
  20. 20. YALE ART COMPLEX… • A large fire on the night of June 14, 1969 caused extensive damage and during the repairs, many changes were made to Rudolph's original design. • Yale University decided to undertake the exterior and interior renovation of the structure along with the addition of a seven-story History of Art Building that allows for an expanded Art and Architecture Library, classrooms, seminar rooms, lecture halls, faculty offices, lounge, and public café. • Completed in 1963.
  21. 21. JOHN HEJDUK … • John Quentin Hejduk (19 July 1929 – 3 July 2000) was an American architect, artist and educator of Czech origin who spent much of his life in New York City, United States. • Hejduk studied at the Cooper Union School of Art and Architecture, the University of Cincinnati, and the Harvard Graduate School of Design. • He worked in several offices in New York including that of I. M. Pei and Partners and the office of A.M. Kinney and Associates. • He established his own practice in New York City in 1965. • Hejduk is associated with several schools, including the New York Five whose early works are described in Five Architects (1973), and • the Texas Rangers, a group of innovative architects and professors at the Texas School of Architecture, Austin, whose other well-known participants include Colin Rowe and Werner Seligmann.
  23. 23. KREUZBERG TOWER AND WINGS… • The Kreuzberg Tower is a rare example of Michael Graves ‘s built work. • The Kreuzberg Tower was part of the 1987 International BauAufstellung (IBA) Program. • The German program continues to support innovative architecture and design through built and unbuilt projects. • In 1987 the IBA invited noted architects and designers to envision new low and middle income housing for West Berlin. • Hejduk’s project is composed of a 14 story tower with two separate 5 story wings. • The neutral colored tower and wings feature green geometric shapes attached to the facades. • These extrusions serve as balconies and sun shades for the low income housing units.
  24. 24. KREUZBERG TOWER AND WINGS… • Proposed renovation by the owners had included changes such as removal of the sun shades and expanding the balconies. • the architecture community halted the changes and encouraged a reconsideration of the importance of the building. • Instead of the initial changes, a full renovation is planned for the Kreuzberg Tower, including the surrounding gardens, which were designed but never realized. • Today the Kreuzberg Tower is protected by the government with a order stating that plans to alter it must be considered by the city’s building department and appropriate historians, • as well as all of the 1987 IBA buildings.
  25. 25. RICHARD MEIER… • Richard Meier (born October 12, 1934) • Is an American abstract artist and architect, whose geometric designs make prominent use of the color white. • A winner of the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1984, • Meier has designed several iconic buildings including the Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art, the Getty Center in Los Angeles, and The Hague City Hall. • He grew up in nearby Maplewood, where he attended Columbia High School. • He earned a Bachelor of Architecture degree from Cornell University in 1957. • After graduation, Meier traveled to Israel, Greece, Germany, France, Denmark, Finland, and Italy, among other places, to network with architects. • Meier is also the second cousin of Peter Eisenman, an architect, theorist, and fellow member of The New York Five.
  27. 27. BARCELONA MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY ART… • The Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art is situated in the Plaça dels Àngels, in El Raval, Ciutat Vella, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. • The museum opened to the public on November 28, 1995. • In 1959, art critic Alexandre Cirici Pellicer formed a group of contemporary artists showing work in a series of 23 exhibitions with the hopes of beginning a collection for a new contemporary art museum in Barcelona. • It was not until 1986 , the Barcelona City Council recommended the American architect Richard Meier & Partners (1987–1995) to design the museum. • Meier accept the difficult task of creating a building that would ultimately display a variety of contemporary artworks that were unknown to him at the time of design.
  28. 28. BARCELONA MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY ART… • The choice to build the museum in the Plaça dels Ángels is consistent with Meier’s vision to situate the building amongst some of Barcelona’s oldest streets and buildings, in addition to revamping the public space of the Raval (neighborhood of Barcelona ) . • Entry to the gallery space is through a cylindrical, top-lit gallery/foyer leading to a glazed, triple-height ramp-hall that faces the new Plaça dels Àngels to the south. • This hall, together with an intermediate corridor paved in glass block, enables the visitor to access six continuous loft-like spaces on successive levels. • . A semidetached wing at the eastern end of the block accommodates additional gallery space and the suite of curatorial offices.
  29. 29. BARCELONA MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY ART… • The main galleries are partially lit from above, particularly at the top of the building where the loft space is covered with louvered skylights. • Some of the light from this source filters down via glass block floors and open slots to illuminate the lower levels. • Where natural light enters from the south, it is screened in part by the external louvers, by a number of freestanding screen walls, and by the ramp. • Clad in white enameled-steel panels, the plaza elevation is animated by the horizontal louvers of the ramp-hall and by two plaster sculptural elements, a cut out plane above the entrance and a free-form, • top-lit special exhibitions gallery set in advance of the building at the eastern end of the main façade.