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Vernacular architecture of gujarat

traditional vernacular architecture of gujarat
bhonga houses (rural houses of kutch gujarat )

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Vernacular architecture of gujarat

  1. 1. VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF GUJARATNAR – 904 VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE
  2. 2. LOCATION MAP OF INDIA SHOWING STATE OF GUJARAT REGION OF KUTCH IN GUJARAT
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION KUTCH IS A DISTRICT OF GUJARAT STATE IN WESTERN INDIA. COVERING AN AREA OF 45,652 KM² IT IS THE LARGEST DISTRICT OF INDIA. THE POPULATION OF KUTCH IS 21 LAKH, LITERACY RATE IS 59.79%. PEOPLE OF THIS REGION ARE OF VERY LOW OR LOW INCOME CLASS.  IT IS ALSO EARTHQUAKE PRONE AREA. . IT IS A BORDER DISTRICT, HAVING INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY WITH PAKISTAN IT ALSO CONSISTS OF HILLY REGION WITH DRY LAND FARMING.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION THE DISTRICT HAS A VERY VAST AMOUNT OF MINERALS DEPOSITS LIKE LIGNITE, BAUXITE, LIMESTONE ETC. THE DISTRICT STRETCHES ROUGHLY FROM 22°44'11 TO 24° 41'25 NORTH LATITUDES AND 68° 09'46 TO 71° 54'47 EAST LONGITUDE. IT IS BOUND ON THE NORTH AND AS WELL AS NORTH WEST BY SINDH (PAKISTAN), ON THE NORTH EAST BY RAJASTHAN, ON THE EAST BY DISTRICT OF BANASKANTHA AND MEHSANA, ON THE SOUTH EAST BY SURENDRANAGAR DISTRICT, ON THE SOUTH BY A GULF OF KUTCH AND THE RAJKOT DISTRICT AND ON THE SOUTH WEST AND WEST BY ARABIAN SEA.
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION THE COASTAL AREA OF KUTCH DISTRICT CONSISTING OF LAKHPAT, ABDASA, MANDVI, MUNDRA, ANJAR AND BHACHAU LIES IN THE SOUTHERN COAST AREA. THEY SHARE A COMMON BOUNDARY ON THE SOUTH AND FACE GULF OF KUTCH. MAP SHOWING COASTAL AREA OF KUTCH DISTRICT
  6. 6. TOPOGRAPHY KUTCH IS DIVIDED INTO 5 DISTINCT REGIONS : (I) THE GREAT RANN, OR UNINHABITED WASTELAND IN THE NORTH, (II) THE GRASSLANDS OF BANNI, (III) MAINLAND, CONSISTING OF PLANES, HILLS AND DRY RIVER BEDS, (IV) THE COASTLINE ALONG THE ARABIAN SEA IN THE SOUTH, AND (V) CREEKS AND MANGROVES IN THE WEST. MORE LOOSELY, THE SOUTHERN PORTION OF THE RANN IS CONSIDERED AN ISLAND, WITH SEAWATER INUNDATING THE LAND FOR MOST OF THE YEAR. THE MAINLAND IS GENERALLY PLANE, BUT HAS SOME HILL RANGES AND ISOLATED HILLS.
  7. 7. CLIMATE EXTREME CLIMATE & TEMPERATURE .  WITH AN AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL OF APPROXIMATELY 14 INCHES. THE TEMPERATURE RANGES FROM 2 DEGREES CELSIUS IN THE WINTER  45 DEGREES CELSIUS IN THE SUMMER. THE THREE MAIN SEASONS ARE: • SUMMER, FROM FEBRUARY TO JUNE, • MONSOON SEASON, FROM JULY TO SEPTEMBER, AND • WINTER, FROM OCTOBER TO JANUARY. THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY IS LESS THAN 60 PERCENT. THE AVERAGE WIND SPEED IS 10-15 KM PER HOUR AND THE WIND DIRECTION IS WEST AND NORTH WEST DURING SUMMER AND MONSOON AND NORTH DURING WINTER.
  8. 8. SOIL DESERT SOIL IS GENERALLY FOUND IN THE LITTLE AND GREATER DESERT OF KUTCH. THE SOIL IS DEEP AND LIGHT GREY IN COLOUR WITH NO DEFINITE STRUCTURE.  IT IS SANDY TO SANDY LOAM WITH SILT CLAY LOAM IN STRUCTURE. THIS TYPE HAS HIGH SALT CONTENT AND SUFFICIENT AMOUNT OF GYPSUM IN THE SOIL PROFILE. THE SOIL TEXTURE OF KUTCH REGION BELONGS TO THE SANDY CLASS.
  9. 9. SOIL THE NORTHERN PART OF THE DISTRICT IS DOMINATED BY DESERT AND SANDY SOILS WHICH ARE MAINLY SALT AFFECTED SOILS. THAN PROCEEDING SOUTHWARDS ,THE INTERIOR AREA IS COMPOSED OF EITHER SANDY OR MEDIUM BLACK SOILS. THE SOUTHERN PART OFTHE DISTRICT COMPRISING THE COASTAL AREA AROUND MANDVI AND MUNDRA HAS SALINE SOILS SUITABLE FOR CULTIVATION. THE CENTRAL PORTION IS HILLY AND ROCKY WITH STRIPS OF CULTIVABLE LAND ALONG THE LOWER SLOPES .THE SOIL IS POOR BUT DUE TO BETTER UNDERGROUND WATER CURRENT IN THEIR PART THE IRRIGARION FACILITIES ARE ADEQUATE. THE EASTERN PART IS MOSTLY PLAIN WITH SOME ROCKY PATCHES WHERE THE SOIL IS SANDY WITH CLAY AND ALLUVIAL LOAM IN SOME PARTS.  IN THE WESTERN PART THE SOILS ARE MOSTLY SANDY WITH PATCHES OF FINE SANDY LOAMS HAVING NO SCOPE FOR WELL IRRIGATION.
  10. 10. FLORA THE FOREST IN KUTCH CAN BE BROADLY CLASSIFIED IN MANY TYPES • SOUTHERN DRY MIXED DECIDUOUS FOREST, • DRY DECIDUOUS FOREST, • DRY SAVANNAH FOREST, • DRY GRASSLAND, • SOUTHERN THORN FOREST, • SOUTHERN FOREST SCRUB, • MANGROVE FOREST, • MANGROVE SCRUB & EUPHORBIA SCRUB. RULERS OF KUTCH MARKED CERTAIN FOREST AS "RAKHAIS" WHICH ARE NOW KNOWN AS PROTECTED AND RESERVE FORESTS.
  11. 11. FLORA THERE ARE FIFTY SIX RAKHAIS IN KUTCH. THE TOTAL AREA COVERED UNDER FORESTRY IS ABOUT 286,774 HECTARES. KUTCH FORESTS ARE CHARACTERISED BY THORNY AND NON THORNY TREE GROWTH.  LOCALLY, THE NAMES GIVEN TO THE THORNY VARIETIES ARE BAWAL, KHER, KANDO, ANGARIO, GUGGAL ETC, WHILE THE NON THORNY SCRUB AND TREES CONSTITUTE JAL,AKDO, GANGI, GUNDI, NEEM, SIRAS, LAI ETC. ONE OF THE BEST FODDER PROVIDING TREES CALLED KAO-BABUL HAS BETTER NUTRITIONAL VALUE. THE PODS OF KAO-BABUL CONTAIN RICH AMOUNTS OF PROTEIN. SEVERAL OTHER TYPES OF FODDER ARE GROWN SEPARATELY FOR CAMELS, BUFFALOES, COWS, SHEEP GOATS ETC.
  12. 12. FAUNA THE ARID LAND, VAST SALINE DESERTS, CREEKS AND THE LONG COASTLINE PROVIDES FOR A WIDE VARIETY OF ITS OWN WILD LIFE. SOME OF THE DISTINGUISH WILD LIFE FOUND IN KUTCH IS AS FOLLOWS: MAMMALS: CHINKARA DEER , WILD BOAR OR JUNGLI BUDHAR, INDIAN WOLF, MONGOOSE OR NOLIA , LONG EARED LEDGEHOG ETC. REPTILES: CROCODILE MUGGER, MONITOR LIZARD, SPINY TAILED LIZARD OR SANDA, MATT-TAILED LIZARD ETC. SNAKES: PYTHON, SAND BOA, RAT SNAKE, ROYAL SNAKE ETC. AMPHIBIANS: MANY SPECIES OF FROGS AND TOADS . BIRDS: SEA GULLS AND WHITE STORKS , DUCKS ,ETC.
  13. 13. CHINKARA DEER WILD BOAR LONG EARED HEDGEHOG WHITE STORKSTOADSPYTHON FAUNA
  14. 14. HISTORY THE REGION CONTAINS SEVERAL SITES THAT WERE ONCE A PART OF THE FAMOUS INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION. ONCE RULED BY MENANDER THE FIRST, OF THE GRECO-BACTRIAN KINGDOM, KUTCH WAS SOON TAKEN OVER BY THE INDO-SCYTHIANS, FOLLOWED BY THE MAURYA EMPIRE AND THE SAKAS. THE FIRST CENTURY SAW THE REGION RULED BY THE WESTERN SATRAPS AND THEN THE GUPTA EMPIRE. THE MAITRAKA OF VALABHI TOOK OVER IN THE FIFTH CENTURY. IN THE SEVENTH CENTURY, THE CHAVDAS RULED OVER THE EASTERN AND CENTRAL PARTS OF THE REGION. KUTCH EVENTUALLY FELL UNDER THE RULE OF THE SOLANKIS BY THE TENTH CENTURY. AFTER THE SOLANKIS HAD FALLEN, THE VAGHELAS RULED KUTCH.
  15. 15. HISTORY BY THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY, THE RAJPUT SAMMAS TOOK ON THE DYNASTY TITLE OF JADEJA AND CONTROLLED THE ENTIRE REGION OF KUTCH. THE REGION WAS DIVIDED AND RULED BY THREE DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF THE JADEJA BROTHERS FOR THREE CENTURIES. IN THE 16TH CENTURY, RAO KHENGARJI I UNIFIED KUTCH, AND IT WAS RULED BY HIS DECEDENTS FOR TWO CENTURIES. THE RULERS FOUGHT MANY BATTLES WITH THE ARMIES OF SINDH, AND THE REGION WAS FINALLY STABILISED BY THE COUNCIL CALLED BAR BHAYAT NI JAMAT, WHO RULED INDEPENDENTLY DURING THE MID-EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. THE KINGDOM WAS DEFEATED IN 1819 AND KUTCH BECAME A PART OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. AFTER INDIA BECAME AN INDEPENDENT NATION IN 1947, KUTCH BECAME A STATE WITHIN THE UNION OF INDIA IN 1950
  16. 16. CULTURE RELIGION OF KUTCH : AS PER THE 2001 CENSUS, THE DISTRICT'S POPULATION WAS 1,526,331, OF WHICH MOST AROUND ARE HINDU. THE REMAINDER OF THE POPULATION ADHERE TO MOSTLY JAINISM AND MUSLIMS.  LANGUAGE : THE LANGUAGES SPOKEN PREDOMINANTLY IN KUTCH IS KACCHI AND TO LESSER EXTENT SINDHI AND GUJARATI PEOPLE : KUTCH DISTRICT IS INHABITED BY VARIOUS GROUPS AND COMMUNITIES. MANY OF THESE HAVE REACHED THIS REGION AFTER CENTURIES OF MIGRATION FROM NEIGHBORING REGIONS OF MARWAR (WESTERN RAJASTHAN), SIDH, AFGHANISTAN AND FURTHER. EVEN TODAY, ONE CAN FIND VARIOUS NOMADIC, SEMI NOMADIC AND ARTISAN GROUPS LIVING IN KUTCH.
  17. 17. OCCUPATION KUTCH IS KNOWN FOR ITS NOMADIC TRIBES WHO LEAD A VERY SIMPLE LIFE;  THEIR MAJOR OCCUPATIONS BEING CATTLE REARING FOR MILK & WOOL AND FARMING.  THE WOMEN FOLKS WHO CANNOT DO MANLY JOBS REMAIN INSIDE HOMES AND HANDCRAFT ARTWORKS LIKE BEADED ACCESSORIES, EMBROIDERED TEXTILES AND MUCH MORE. THESE ARTIFACTS CONTAIN ELEMENTS WHICH PURELY SYMBOLIZE THEIR RICH CULTURE, CUSTOMS AND SIMPLISTIC LIFESTYLES.
  18. 18. TRADITIONAL RURAL HOUSE OF KUTCH BHONGA HOUSE
  19. 19. BHONGA HOUSE TRADITIONAL CIRCULAR HOUSE-FORM (BHUNGA) IN KUTCH, GUJARAT THE BHONGA IS A TRADITIONAL CONSTRUCTION TYPE IN THE KUTCH DISTRICT OF THE GUJARAT STATE IN INDIA,  WHICH HAS A VERY HIGH EARTHQUAKE RISK. A BHONGA CONSISTS OF A SINGLE CYLINDRICALLY SHAPED ROOM. THE BHONGA HAS A CONICAL ROOF SUPPORTED BY CYLINDRICAL WALLS. BHONGA CONSTRUCTION HAS EXISTED FOR SEVERAL HUNDRED YEARS. THIS TYPE OF HOUSE IS QUITE DURABLE AND APPROPRIATE FOR PREVALENT DESERT CONDITIONS. BHUNGAS ARE MAINLY FOUND IN DESERT ISLANDS (FERTILE LAND IN THE MIDDLE OF THE DESERT) IN THE NORTHERN PARTS OF KUTCH REGION OF GUJARAT- SPECIALLY BANNI AND PACHHAM (LITERALLY MEANING PASHCHIM- WEST).
  20. 20. HOW IT IS MADE
  21. 21.  CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES GENERALLY USED “COB”. IN THESE METHODS A LARGE LUMP IS ROUGHLY MOULDED INTO THE SHAPE OF A HUGE ELONGATED EGG.  THE USUAL SIZE IS ANYTHING BETWEEN 12 TO 18 INCHES. 30-40CM LONG AND 6 INCHES IN DIAMETER. A ROW OF THESE COBS OF MUD ARE LAID NEARLY SIDE BY SIDE. PREFERABLY SOMEWHAT PRESSED TOGETHER. THEN ANOTHER ROW OF COBS IS LAID ON TOP.  THE SIDES ARE SMOOTHENED OVER SO THAT THE HOLES AND CRACKS DISAPPEAR. HOW IT IS MADE
  22. 22. FEATURES PLAN SHAPE : CURVED, SOLID (E.G. CIRCULAR, ELLIPTICAL, OVOID) INNER DIAMETER GENERALLY VARIES BETWEEN 3.0 M TO 6.0 M. TYPICAL PLAN LENGTH (METERS) : 6 METERS  TYPICAL PLAN WIDTH (METERS) : 6 METERS TYPICAL STORY HEIGHT (METERS) : 2.5 METERS  STRUCTURAL SYSTEM : • MASONRY: EARTHEN/MUD/ADOBE/RAMMED EARTH • WALLS: ADOBE BLOCK WALLS ( A COMPOSITE MATERIAL MADE OF EARTH MIXED WITH WATER AND AN ORGANIC MATERIAL SUCH AS STRAW OR DUNG.) ROOF IS MADE OF BAMBOO/WOODEN FRAMEWORK COVERED WITH THATCH.(A ROOF COVERING OF STRAW, REEDS, PALM LEAVES, OR A SIMILAR MATERIAL.) ADOBE BLOCKS OR MUD BRICKS THATCH ROOF
  23. 23. ROOF DETAIL
  24. 24. FEATURES THE CONICAL ROOF OF A BHONGA IS SUPPORTED AT ITS CREST BY A VERTICAL CENTRAL WOODEN POST, WHICH RESTS ON A WOODEN JOIST. THE BASE OF THE ROOF AND THE WOODEN JOIST ARE GENERALLY DIRECTLY SUPPORTED ON BHONGA WALLS. THE BHONGA WALL IS USUALLY EXTENDED BELOW GROUND UP TO THE REQUIRED FOUNDATION DEPTH, AND SEPARATE FOUNDATION IS NOT TRADITIONALLY CONSTRUCTED. A BHONGA GENERALLY HAS ONLY THREE OPENINGS ONE DOOR AND TWO SMALL WINDOWS. A BHONGA IS OCCUPIED BY A SINGLE FAMILY. SOMETIMES, A SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING UNIT MAY CONSIST OF SEVERAL BHONGAS. THE VARIATION DEPENDS ON THE SIZE AND ECONOMIC CONDITION OF THE FAMILY. EACH BHONGA IS A SINGLE ROOM HOUSING UNIT. DEPENDING ON THE ECONOMIC CONDITION OF THE OWNER, A HOUSING UNIT MAY CONSIST OF SEVERAL BHONGAS.
  25. 25. FEATURES THE THICK WALLS, MADE OF MUD, KEEP THE INTERIOR COOL WHEN THE TEMPERATURE RISES TO 40+ DEGREES CELSIUS IN SUMMER AND WARM WHEN IT DROPS BELOW 5 DEGREES IN WINTER. CULTURE IS REVEALED IN THE DECORATION OF THE BUNGA(OUTSIDE AS WELL AS INSIDE). IN THE RECENT M7.6 BHUJ EARTHQUAKE IN 2001  VERY FEW BHONGAS EXPERIENCED SIGNIFICANT DAMAGE IN THE EPICENTRE REGION, AND THE DAMAGE THAT DID OCCUR CAN BE MAINLY ATTRIBUTED TO POOR QUALITY OF THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS OR IMPROPER MAINTENANCE OF THE STRUCTURE.
  26. 26. CULTURE REVEALED ON BHONGA HOUSES (OUTSIDE)
  27. 27. CULTURE REVEALED ON BHONGA HOUSES (INSIDE)
  28. 28. SETTLEMENT DESIGN (ELEVATION & PLAN) PLINTH(OTLA) (500MM TO 1000MM)
  29. 29. SETTLEMENT DESIGN (PLAN)
  30. 30. SETTLEMENT DESIGN (PLAN)
  31. 31. T H A N K Y O U

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