Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Upcoming SlideShare
Learning outcome of learners in knowledge construction web based learning environments
Next
Download to read offline and view in fullscreen.

0

Share

Download to read offline

Epistemology

Download to read offline

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all
  • Be the first to like this

Epistemology

  1. 1. ª√—™≠“·Ààߧ«“¡√Ÿâ(Epistemology): ®“°ª√—™≠“ Ÿà°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘ 3 ª√—™≠“·Ààߧ«“¡√Ÿâ(Epistemology): ®“°ª√—™≠“ Ÿà°“√ªØ‘∫µ‘ — ¥√. ÿ¡“≈’ ™—¬‡®√‘≠* Õπÿ™“ ‚ ¡“∫ÿµ√** Õ‘»√“ °â“π®—°√*** „π™à«ß‡«≈“∑’˺à“π¡“∑—Èß„π√–¬–‡«≈“‰¡à°’Ëªï ·≈–»÷ ° …“§â π §«â “ °— π µà Õ ‰ª ‡æ◊Ë Õ „Àâ  ‘Ë ß ∑’Ë ‡ √’ ¬ °«à “ ∑’˺à“π¡“À√◊Õ·¡â°√–∑—Ë߇¡◊ËÕ§√—Èß∫√√æ∫ÿ√ÿ… ‰¥â¡’°“√ §«“¡√Ÿâπ—Èπ‡°‘¥ª√–‚¬™πå Ÿß ÿ¥ °≈à“«∂÷ß ç§«“¡√Ÿâé °—π¡“·µà™â“π“π  —ß‡°µ®“°º≠“ À“°®–æ‘®“√≥“∂÷߇√◊ËÕߧ«“¡√Ÿâ ·≈â«Õ“®®– ´÷Ë߇ªìπ¿“…“∑’ˇ°‘¥®“°¿Ÿ¡‘ªí≠≠“¢ÕߧπÕ’ “π ‚¥¬ µâÕß¡Õ߬âÕπ°≈—∫‰ª∂÷ߪ√—™≠“ ∑’Ë·ª≈°—π«à“ ç°“√√—° º≠“∫“ß∫∑°Á‰ª Õ¥§≈âÕß°—∫§”æ—߇欢Õß¿“§°≈“ß „𧫓¡√Ÿâé (Philos + Sophia) À√◊Õ ·ª≈«à“ 秫“¡√Ÿâ ·≈– 3-4 ªïπ’È ¡’°“√°≈à“«∂÷߇√◊ËÕß ç§«“¡√Ÿâé °—π¡“° Õ—πª√–‡ √‘∞é À√◊ÕÕ“®®–°≈à“«„À⇢Ⓞ®ßà“¬Ê °Á§◊Õ ®π∑ÿ ° §π‰¥â µ √–Àπ— ° ·≈–‡°‘ ¥ §«“¡‡¢â “ „®°— π ‚¥¬ ‡ªìπ°‘®°√√¡∑“ߪí≠≠“À√◊Õ°“√ √â“ß√–∫∫§«“¡§‘¥ ∂â«πÀπâ“«à“  ‘ß∑’‡Ë √’¬°«à“ 秫“¡√Ÿé π—𠔧—≠¬‘ß ‡æ√“– Ë â È Ë ‡æ◊Õ°“√· «ßÀ“§”µÕ∫ §”Õ∏‘∫“¬„Àâ°∫§”∂“¡∑’‡Ë ªìπ Ë — §«“¡√Ÿ‡â ªìπ√“°∞“π¢Õ߇√◊Õß∑’ ”§—≠Ê Õ¬à“ß¡“°¡“¬ Ë Ë æ◊Èπ∞“π∑’Ë ÿ¥¢Õß™’«‘µ ‡™àπ ®ÿ¥ª√– ß§å¢Õß™’«‘µ §◊Õ ‡™àπ 砗ߧ¡∞“𧫓¡√Ÿâé (Knowledge-based society) Õ–‰√? æ√–‡®â“¡’Õ¬Ÿà®√‘ßÀ√◊Õ‰¡à? ‡√“®–·¬° ç∂Ÿ°é °—∫ ∫â“ß ç‡»√…∞°‘®∞“𧫓¡√Ÿâé (Knowledge-based 纑¥é ÕÕ°®“°°—π‰¥âÕ¬à“߉√?  ‘Ëß∑’ˇ√“°√–∑”‡ªìπ‰ª economy) ∫â“ßÀ√◊Õ°“√®—¥°“√§«“¡√Ÿâ (Knowledge ‚¥¬Õ‘ √–¢Õßµ—«‡Õß À√◊Õ‡ªìπ‡æ√“–‚™§™–µ“øÑ“≈‘¢µ? ‘ management) ‡ªìπµâπ °“√„À⧫“¡ ”§—≠°—∫ ‘Ëß∑’Ë ‡ªìπµâπ ¥â«¬‡Àµÿπ’Ȫ√—™≠“®÷߇ªìπ√“°∞“𠔧—≠„π ‡√’¬°«à“§«“¡√Ÿâπ—Èπ·∑∫‰¡àµâÕß ß —¬‡≈¬«à“π—Ëπ‡ªìπ °“√¥”‡π‘π°‘®°√√¡∑“ߪí≠≠“µà“ßÊ  ‘Ëß∑’Ë¥’À√◊Õ‰¡à À“°·µà¬—ß¡’ª√–‡¥Áπ∑’ˇ°’ˬ«æ—π°—∫‡√◊ËÕß ª√—™≠“¬—ß¡’ “¢“·¬°¬àÕ¬ ÕÕ°‰ªÕ’°À≈“¬ §«“¡√ŸâÕ’°À≈“¬ª√–°“√ ´÷Ë߉¡à§àÕ¬‰¥â√—∫°≈à“«∂÷ß°—π  “¢“ ¡’ª√“™≠åÀ≈“¬∑à“π‰¥â®”·π°ª√—™≠“„π “¢“ ¡“°π—° ®–¡’¬°‡«âπ·µà‡©æ“–ª√–‡¥Áπ‡√◊ËÕß ç°“√®—¥ µà“ßÊ ·µ°µà“ß°—πÕÕ°‰ª ´÷ßæÕ √ÿª‰¥â∑ßÀ¡¥ 5  “¢“ Ë —È °“√§«“¡√Ÿâé ´÷Ëß¡’ °“√°≈à“«∂÷ß°—π∫àÕ¬¢÷Èπ ·≈–„π ¥—ßπ’È:- ªí ® ®ÿ ∫— π π’È ‰ ¥â ¡’ ° “√®— ¥ µ—È ß Àπà « ¬ß“π‡°’Ë ¬ «°— ∫ ‡√◊Ë Õ ßπ’È 1. Õ¿‘ª√—™≠“ (Metaphysics) ‡ªìπ “¢“¢Õß ¢÷Èπ·≈⫥⫬ ª√—™≠“∑’Ë«à“¥â«¬ ‡√◊ËÕߢÕß ‘Ëß∑’Ë¡’®√‘ß ‡ªìπ®√‘ß Õ—πÕ¬Ÿà Õ¬à“߉√°Áµ“¡ ¬—ß¡’ª√–‡¥ÁπÕ◊ËπÊ ∑’ˇ°’ˬ«¢âÕß πÕ°‡Àπ◊ Õ ‰ª®“°¢Õ∫‡¢µª√– “∑ — ¡ º—   ∑’Ë ‡ ªì π ∑’Ë¡’§«“¡ ”§—≠‰¡àπâÕ¬ ·≈–§«√‰¥â√—∫°“√°≈à“«∂÷ß §«“¡®√‘ß Ÿß ÿ¥ (Ultimate reality) * √Õß»“ µ√“®“√¬å  “¢“«‘™“‡∑§‚π‚≈¬’°“√»÷°…“ §≥–»÷°…“»“ µ√å ¡À“«‘∑¬“≈—¬¢Õπ·°àπ ** π—°»÷°…“ª√‘≠≠“‡Õ°  “¢“«‘™“‡∑§‚π‚≈¬’°“√»÷°…“ §≥–»÷°…“»“ µ√å ¡À“«‘∑¬“≈—¬¢Õπ·°àπ *** Õ“®“√¬å·≈–π—°»÷°…“ª√‘≠≠“‡Õ°  “¢“«‘™“‡∑§‚π‚≈¬’°“√»÷°…“ §≥–»÷°…“»“ µ√å ¡À“«‘∑¬“≈—¬¢Õπ·°àπ1 3 8/4/07, 3:36 PM Black
  2. 2. 4 JCT 2(1) 2007 2. ≠“≥«‘∑¬“ (Epistemology) ‡ªìπ “¢“ ·π«§‘¥‡°’¬«°—∫ª√—™≠“·Ààߧ«“¡√Ÿâ (Epistemology) Ë ¢Õߪ√—™≠“∑’Ë«à“¥â«¬ ∑ƒ…Æ’§«“¡√Ÿâ »÷°…“‡°’ˬ«°—∫ ª√— ™ ≠“∑—È ß À≈“¬∑—È ß ª«ß∑’Ë ™’È ™— ¥ ‡©æ“–∑’Ë °”‡π‘¥ (Origin) ∏√√¡™“µ‘ (Nature) §«“¡∂Ÿ°µâÕß ‡°’ˬ«°—∫§«“¡√Ÿâ‚¥¬µ√ßπ—Èπ ‡ÀÁπ®–‡ªìπ≠“≥«‘∑¬“ (Validity) ¢Õ∫‡¢µ (Limit) §«“¡√Ÿâ¢Õß¡πÿ…¬å ´÷Ëßµ√ß°—∫¿“…“Õ—ß°ƒ… §◊Õ Epistemology ¡’√“°»—æ∑å 3. ®√‘ ¬ »“ µ√å (Ethics) ‡ªì π  “¢“¢Õß ¡“®“°¿“…“°√’ ° Episteme À¡“¬∂÷ ß §«“¡√Ÿâ ª√—™≠“∑’Ë«à“¥â«¬ °“√»÷°…“‡°’ˬ«°—∫§ÿ≥§à“¢Õߧ«“¡ (Knowledge) ·≈– Logos À¡“¬∂÷ß ∑ƒ…Æ’ (Theory) ª√–惵‘¡πÿ…¬å (The study of values in human ¥—ßπ—Èπ Epistemology À¡“¬∂÷ß »“ µ√åÀ√◊Õ∑ƒ…Æ’ conduct) ∑—Èß„π√Ÿªªí®‡®°™π·≈– —ߧ¡ ‡°’ˬ«°—∫§«“¡√Ÿâ·∑â À√◊Õ§«“¡®√‘ß·∑â À√◊Õ§«“¡√Ÿâ∑’Ë¡’ 4.  ÿπ∑√’¬»“ µ√å (Aesthetics) ‡ªìπ “¢“¢Õß √–∫∫„π∑“ߪ√—™≠“ §«“¡√ŸâµâÕ߇ªì𧫓¡√Ÿâ„𧫓¡ ª√—™≠“∑’Ë«à“¥â«¬ §«“¡ß“¡ ·≈–§ÿ≥§à“¢Õß»‘≈ª– ®√‘ß ‡æ√“–©–π—Èπªí≠À“≠“≥«‘∑¬“ ®÷߉¡à„™à‡æ’¬ß«à“ 5. µ√√°«‘∑¬“ (Logic) ‡ªìπ “¢“¢Õߪ√—™≠“ §«“¡√Ÿâ§◊ÕÕ–‰√ ·µà¬—߇°’ˬ«æ—π°—∫§«“¡®√‘ߥ⫬ ‡™àπ ∑’Ë«à“¥â«¬ °Æ‡°≥±å·Ààߧ«“¡§‘¥ ·≈–°“√„Àâ‡Àµÿº≈∑’Ë Õ–‰√§◊Õ ‘Ëß∑’ˇ√“√Ÿâ ¡πÿ…¬å√Ÿâ§«“¡®√‘߉¥âÀ√◊Õ‰¡à ·≈– ∂Ÿ°µâÕß °“√„™â¿“…“ ·≈–§”查∑’Ë√—¥°ÿ¡ µ≈Õ¥®π Õ¬à“߉√ §«“¡®√‘߇ªìπ ‘Ëß —¡æ—∑∏å (Relative) À√◊Õ‡ªìπ °“√„™â —≠≈—°…≥å·∑π§”查∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“ Symbolic logic  ‘Ëß —¡∫Ÿ√≥å (Absolute) ‡ªìπµâπ ¥—ßπ—È𧫓¡√Ÿâµ“¡ ‡æ◊ËÕÀ“§ÿ≥§à“ §◊Õ §«“¡®√‘ß ª√—™≠“ Epistemology ®÷߇ªìπ‡«§‡µÕ√å (Vector) ´÷Ëß¡’ ª√—™≠“®÷߇ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ∑’Ë¥’∑’Ë ÿ¥∑’Ë®–™à«¬ ∑—ß¢π“¥·≈–∑‘»∑“ß °≈à“«§◊Õ ¡πÿ…¬å®–µâÕß√Ÿ«“µπ‡Õß È âà ª≈Ÿ ° Ωí ß „Àâ ∫ÿ § §≈‰¥â ‡ °‘ ¥ π‘  — ¬ „π°“√§‘ ¥ ‰µ√à µ √Õß √ŸâÕ–‰√·≈–√ŸâÕ¬à“߉√ æ‘®“√≥“ «‘æ“°…å «‘®“√≥å  ‘Ëßµà“ßÊ Õ¬à“ß°«â“ߢ«“ß Epistemology ®–‡°’¬«¢âÕß°—∫°“√°”‡π‘¥·≈– Ë ∑”„À⇪ìπºŸâ¡’«‘𗬄π°“√§‘¥Õ¬à“ß¡’‡Àµÿº≈‡æ◊ËÕ‰ª Ÿà ∏√√¡™“µ‘¢Õߧ«“¡√Ÿâ (Nature of knowledge) µ≈Õ¥®π ®ÿ¥¡ÿßÀ¡“¬∑’‰¥â殓√≥“‰µ√àµ√ÕßÕ¬à“ß√Õ∫§Õ∫·≈â« à Ë ‘ °“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ (Learning) ‚¥¬‡©æ“–Õ¬à“߬‘Ëß Construc- ‡ªìπ·π«§‘¥ §«“¡‡™◊ËÕ §à“π‘¬¡ ∑’Ë„™â‡ªìπÀ≈—°„π°“√ tivism ®”‡ªìπ∑’®–æ‘®“√≥“‡°’¬«°—∫ §«“¡√Ÿâ ∏√√¡™“µ‘ Ë Ë ¥”‡π‘π™’«‘µ∑’Ë·ΩßÕ¬Ÿà‡∫◊ÈÕßÀ≈—ß惵‘°√√¡¢Õß¡πÿ…¬å ¢Õߧ«“¡√Ÿâ (Knowledge and itûs nature) ·≈–«‘∏’°“√∑’Ë ·¡â·µà ‘Ëß∑’ˇªìπ§à“π‘¬¡∑’Ë·∑â®√‘ß ·¡â®–∂Ÿ°¬Õ¡√—∫·≈â« ‡√“®–√Ÿâ (How we come to know) ‡æ√“–‡Àµÿ„¥ ∫ÿ§§≈∑—ßÀ≈“¬°Á§«√‰¥âµ√«® Õ∫√–∫∫§«“¡‡™◊Õ À√◊Õ È Ë Constructivism ®–¢âÕ߇°’ˬ«°—∫‡√◊ËÕߥ—ß°≈à“«? §à“π‘¬¡¢ÕßµπÕ¬Ÿà‡ ¡Õ ‡æ√“–§à“π‘¬¡¢Õߧπ‡√“®– Von Glesersfeld °≈à“««à“ Constructivism ‡ªì𠇪≈’ˬπ‰¥âµ≈Õ¥‡«≈“ µ“¡ª√– ∫°“√≥å™’«‘µ ·≈– ∑ƒ…Ø’¢Õߧ«“¡√Ÿâ∑’Ë¡’æ◊Èπ∞“π¢Õß ª√—™≠“ ®‘µ«‘∑¬“ §«“¡√Ÿâ„À¡àÊ ∑’ˉ¥â√—∫∑—Èß®“°°≈ÿࡇæ◊ËÕπ ·≈–√Ÿª·∫∫∑’Ë ·≈–∑ƒ…Æ’ Cybernatics πÕ°®“°π’Ȭ—߇™◊ËÕ«à“ §«“¡√Ÿâ ·µ°µà“ß°—π‰ª Õ¬à“߉√°Áµ“¡„π∫∑§«“¡π’È®–‡πâ𠇪ì π  ‘Ë ß ∑’Ë ‰ ¡à ‰ ¥â ‡ ªì π °“√√— ∫ ·∫∫‡©◊Ë Õ ¬™“(Passively ª√—™≠“·Ààߧ«“¡√Ÿ∑‡’Ë ™◊Õ¡‚¬ß°—∫°“√ÕÕ°·∫∫°“√ Õπ â Ë receive) ‰¡à«“∑“ߧ«“¡√Ÿ ° À√◊Õ°“√ ◊Õ “√ ·≈–‡πâπ à â ÷ Ë (Instructional design) °√–∫«π°“√¿“¬„π(Mental process)¢Õß·µà≈–∫ÿ§§≈ ·≈–·π«§‘¥ ∑’Ë«à“ Individual mind ‡ª√’¬∫‡ ¡◊Õ𠇧√◊Õß¡◊Õ ”À√—∫ –∑âÕπ≈—°…≥–·≈–‡ß◊Õπ‰¢¢Õß‚≈° Ë Ë1 4 8/4/07, 3:36 PM Black
  3. 3. ª√—™≠“·Ààߧ«“¡√Ÿâ(Epistemology): ®“°ª√—™≠“ Ÿà°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘ 5 ∑’Ë·∑â®√‘ß ´÷Ëß·µ°µà“ß®“°«‘∏’°“√∑’Ë®– √â“ߧ«“¡√Ÿâ¢Õß §«“¡‡¢â “ „®∑’Ë · µ°µà “ ß°— π ¢÷È π °— ∫ ª√– ∫°“√≥å ∑’Ë ‚≈°∑’Ë·∑â®√‘ß∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“ Radical Constructivism (Von ·µ°µà“ß°—π ·≈–§«“¡√Ÿâ‡¥‘¡ (Prior knowledge) ‰¡à„™à Glesersfeld,1988) „π¡ÿ¡¡ÕߢÕßπ—°§Õπ µ√—§µ‘«‘ µå °“√∑’∫§§≈¡’§«“¡‡¢â“„®‡©æ“–µπ ·µà‡™◊Õ«à“º≈°√–∑∫ Ë ÿ Ë ‡™◊ËÕ«à“ §«“¡√Ÿâ®–∂Ÿ° √â“ß‚¥¬·µà≈–∫ÿ§§≈ºà“π°“√¡’ ¢Õߧ«“¡√Ÿâ‡¥‘¡·≈–°“√µ’§«“¡À¡“¬ (Interpretation) ªÆ‘ —¡æ—π∏å°—∫ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ ¥—ßπ—Èπ «‘∏’°“√∑’ˇ√“√—∫√Ÿâ ∂Ÿ ° ¡Õß«à “ ®–𔉪 Ÿà ° “√∑”§«“¡‡¢â “ „®∫“ß à « 𠧫“¡√Ÿâ ·≈–°√–∫«π°“√¢Õß°“√∑’ˇ√“®–√Ÿâ ®–‡ªìπ ·≈–§«“¡‡¢â“„®∑’ˇªìπÕ§µ‘ ¥—ßπ—Èπ‡ªÑ“À¡“¬ §◊Õ æ◊Èπ∞“π∑’Ë®–𔉪 Ÿà°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘ ¥—߇™àπ ∂Ⓡ√“‡™◊ËÕ«à“ °“√„À⇰‘¥§«“¡‡¢â“„®∑’Ë ¡∫Ÿ√≥å·≈–∂Ÿ°µâÕß ∂Ⓡ™◊ËÕ ºŸ‡√’¬π√—∫ “√ π‡∑»Õ¬à“߇©◊Õ¬™“ (Passively receive) â Ë ∫π¢âÕµ°≈߇∫◊Õßµâπ ¥—ß°≈à“« ‡ªÑ“À¡“¬¢Õß°“√‡√’¬π È ¥—ßπ—Èπ °“√®—¥°“√‡√’¬π°“√ Õπ §ßµâÕ߇ªìπ°“√ °“√ Õπ ®–‡ªìπ°“√∑’˙૬„À⺟â‡√’¬π‰¥â√—∫·°àπ·∑â ∂à“¬∑Õ¥§«“¡√Ÿâ (Transmission)‡ªìπ≈”¥—∫·√° „π∑“ß §«“¡ —¡æ—π∏å·≈–§ÿ≥≈—°…≥–∑’π”¡“ √â“ß‚§√ß √â“ß Ë µ√ߢⓡ ∂Ⓡ™◊ËÕ«à“ºŸâ‡√’¬π √â“ߧ«“¡√Ÿâ Õ¬à“ßµ◊Ëπµ—« ¢Õߪ√–æ®πå∑∂°µâÕß À√◊Õ°≈à“«‰¥â«“ ‚≈°·Ààߧ«“¡√Ÿâ ’Ë Ÿ à (Actively construct) „π°“√∑”§«“¡‡¢â“„® ‚≈°¢Õßµπ ‡ªìπ ‘ß∑’·πàπÕπ∑’º‡Ÿâ √’¬πµâÕß¡“√—∫√Ÿ¢Õ¡Ÿ≈ “√ π‡∑» Ë Ë Ë ââ ¥—ßπ—Èπ °“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ §«√®–¡ÿà߇πâπ°“√æ—≤π“ °“√ √â“ß ∑’Ë∂Ÿ°·∫à߇ªìπ à«πÊ ºŸâ ÕπµâÕߪؑ∫—µ‘µ“¡·π«∑“ß∑’Ë §«“¡À¡“¬·≈–§«“¡‡¢â“„® (Meaning and under- °”Àπ¥‰«â ·≈–欓¬“¡∑’Ë∂à“¬∑Õ¥§«“¡§‘¥ ·≈– standing) ¥—ßπ—Èπ «‘∏’°“√∑’Ë®–√Ÿâ §ß‰¡à„™à°“√∂à“¬∑Õ¥ §«“¡À¡“¬‰ª ŸàºŸâ‡√’¬π ·≈–‡ªÑ“À¡“¬¢ÕߺŸâ‡√’¬π ·µà§«√‡ªìπ°“√®—¥ ‘ß·«¥≈âÕ¡ ”À√—∫°“√ √â“ߧ«“¡√Ÿâ Ë ¬Õ¡√—∫„π§”Õ∏‘∫“¬·≈–查µ“¡„π ‘Ëß∑’ˇ√’¬π «‘∏’°“√ ¢Õß Objectivism ‡™àπ Front end analysis ‰¥â„À⧫“¡ ª√—™≠“ Ÿ°“√ªØ‘∫µ®–‡°’¬«¢âÕß°—∫ Instructional à —‘ Ë  ”§—≠°—∫√–∫ÿ·°àπ·∑â §«“¡ —¡æ—π∏å·≈–§ÿ≥≈—°…≥– design Õ¬à“߉√? ¢Õß ‘Ëß∑’˺Ÿâ‡√’¬πµâÕß√Ÿâ ·≈–°“√‡√’¬π°“√ Õπ µâÕß°“√ Instructional design À√◊Õ °“√‡√’¬π°“√ Õπ „À⺟â‡√’¬π¡’ à«π√à«¡Õ¬à“ß°√–©—∫°√–‡©ß (Active (Instruction) π—Ëπ‡Õß ‡ªìπæ◊Èπ∞“πÀ≈—°∑’Ë ”§—≠¢Õß learner) ‡æ√“–‡™◊Õ«à“ °‘®°√√¡¥—ß°≈à“«®–∑”„À⺇Ÿâ √’¬π Ë ‡∑§‚π‚≈¬’°“√»÷°…“ ∑’˪√–°Õ∫¥â«¬  ◊ËÕ°“√ Õπ  ◊ËÕ ‰¥â„À⧫“¡ π„®Õ¬à“ß„°≈♑¥°—∫‡Àµÿ°“√≥å∑’ˇªìπ °“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ ·≈–§Õ¡æ‘«‡µÕ√å»°…“ Instructional design ÷  ‘߇√â“ Ωñ°ªØ‘∫µ‘ ·≈–· ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁπ°“√‡√’¬π·∫∫√Õ∫√Ÿâ Ë — ¡’æ◊Èπ∞“π¡“®“°«—µ∂ÿª√– ß§åπ‘¬¡ (Objectivism) (Mastery)„𧫓¡√Ÿâπ—ÈπÊ „π¡ÿ¡¡ÕߢÕß Objectivism ∑’ˇ™◊ËÕ«à“ ‚≈°(World) À√◊Õ ‚≈°∑’Ë·∑â®√‘ß(Real world) ¥—ß°≈à“«π’È °“√ÕÕ°·∫∫°“√‡√’¬π°“√ Õ𠇪ì𧫓¡≈÷° ∂Ÿ°®—¥‚§√ß √â“ß∑’Ë ¡∫Ÿ√≥å·≈–∂Ÿ°µâÕß ¢Õß·°àπ·∑â ª√‘¡“≥¢Õß°“√ª√–¡«≈„π‡Àµÿ°“√≥å∑’ˇªìπ ‘Ë߇√â“ §ÿ≥ ¡∫—µ‘ ·≈–§«“¡ —¡æ—π∏å ª√– ∫°“√≥å¡∫∑∫“∑ ’ ‡æ√“–«à“ ‡™◊ËÕ«à“ §«“¡√Ÿâ‡ªìπ ‘Ëß∑’Ë¡’Õ¬Ÿà°àÕπ ·¬°°—∫ ∑’ ”§—≠„π°“√®—¥‚§√ß √â“ß‚≈° ·≈–§«“¡À¡“¬‡ªìπ Ë °“√‡√’¬π°“√ Õπ ®÷߉¡à®”‡ªìπµâÕß®—¥À“°‘®°√√¡  ‘ß∑’ª√“°ØÕ¬Ÿ„π‚≈° ¥—ßπ—π‡ªÑ“À¡“¬¢Õߧ«“¡‡¢â“„® Ë Ë à È ·µàµâÕßÀ“«à“ ‡π◊ÈÕÀ“ À√◊Õ ‘Ëß„¥∑’˺Ÿâ‡√’¬π®–‡√’¬π §◊ Õ °“√‡¢â “ ¡“√Ÿâ À√◊ Õ °“√‰¥â √— ∫ §«“¡√Ÿâ ·°à π ·∑â πÕ°®“°π’È π—°ÕÕ°·∫∫ µâÕß √â“ß·∫∫∑¥ Õ∫∑’·¬° Ë §ÿ≥≈—°…≥–·≈–§«“¡ —¡æ—π∏å∑’Ë ª√“°ØÕ¬Ÿà ÕÕ°®“°°“√‡√’¬π°“√ Õπ  ”À√—∫µ√«® Õ∫§«“¡√Ÿâ π—°«—µ∂ÿª√– ß§åπ‘¬¡ ¡Õß°“√„À⧫“¡√Ÿâ«à“ ∫ÿ§§≈¡’ ∑’ˉ¥â√—∫µ“¡«—µ∂ÿª√– ß§å¢Õß°“√‡√’¬π·∫∫√Õ∫√Ÿâ ∑’Ë¡’1 5 8/4/07, 3:37 PM Black
  4. 4. 6 JCT 2(1) 2007 ¢âÕµ°≈߇∫◊ÈÕßµâπ«à“ ∑ÿ°§π®–µâÕ߉¥â√—∫ “√ π‡∑» §«“¡§‘¥π—ÈπÊ ¥â«¬‡Àµÿº≈¥—ß°≈à“« ª√– ∫°“√≥å æ◊π∞“π‡À¡◊Õπ°—π ·≈–µâÕßπ”¡“„™â‰¥â„π¢≥–π’È (Duffy È ‡À≈à“π—ÈπµâÕ߉¥â√—∫°“√»÷°…“Õ¬à“ß∂’Ë∂â«π‡æ◊ËÕ∑’Ë®–∑” and Jonassen, 1992) §«“¡‡¢â“„®°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ∑’ˇ°‘¥¢÷Èπ ·≈–¡’§«“¡‡™◊ËÕ«à“ Õ“® √ÿ ª ‰¥â «à “ ·π«§‘ ¥ ¢ÕßObjectivism ª√– ∫°“√≥åæ√âÕ¡°—∫·π«§«“¡§‘¥ ·≈–§«“¡ —¡æ—π∏å ‡™◊ËÕ«à“ §«“¡√Ÿâ‡ªìπ ‘Ëß∑’˧ß∑’Ë (Stable) ‡æ√“– à«πµà“ß ¢Õß ‘Ëß∑’ˇ√’¬π„π‚√߇√’¬π·∫∫¥—È߇¥‘¡ ®–¡’§«“¡ ∑’Ë ”§—≠  “¡“√∂√—∫√Ÿâ‰¥â ·≈–‰¡à¡’°“√‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈ß ·µ°µà “ ß°— ∫ ª√– ∫°“√≥å ¢ Õß·µà ≈ –∫ÿ § §≈„π‚≈°  ¡¡µ‘ ∞ “π∑’Ë ¬÷ ¥ ≈— ° …≥–∑“ß°“¬¿“懪ì π  ”§— ≠ ∑’Ë·∑â®√‘ß (Duffy and Jonassen, 1992) ®“°·π«§‘¥¢Õß π—Ëπ§◊Õ ‚≈°π’ȇªìπ¢Õß®√‘ß ∂Ÿ° √â“ߢ÷È𠂧√ß √â“ß∑’Ë Constructivism ∑’Ë¡ÿà߇πâπ°“√ √â“ߧ«“¡À¡“¬¢Õß ∂Ÿ° √â“ߢ÷Èπ  “¡“√∂‡ªìπ·∫∫®”≈ÕߢÕߺŸâ‡√’¬π‰¥â ·µà≈–∫ÿ§§≈‡°’ˬ«°—∫‚≈°∑’Ë·∑â®√‘ß®“°ª√– ∫°“√≥å ‡ªÑ“À¡“¬¢Õß·π«§‘¥ §◊Õ ‘ß –∑âÕ𧫓¡®√‘ß·∑â ·≈– Ë ¡“°«à “ °“√√— ∫ √Ÿâ ‚ §√ß √â “ ߢÕß‚≈°∑’Ë ∂Ÿ °  √â “ ߢ÷È π ∑’Ë ‚§√ß √â“ߢÕߧ«“¡®√‘ß·∑â ‡ª√’ ¬ ∫‡ ¡◊ Õ π‡ªì π ·∫∫®”≈Õß„Àâ °— ∫ ºŸâ ‡ √’ ¬ πÀ√◊ Õ „π∑“ßµ√ߢ⠓ ¡ Constructivism ‡ πÕ  ‘ß∑’ –∑âÕ𧫓¡®√‘ß·∑â ·≈–‚§√ß √â“ߢÕߧ«“¡®√‘ß Ë Ë Epistemology À√◊Õ °“√°”‡π‘¥§«“¡√Ÿâ∑’ˇªìπ∑“߇≈◊Õ° ·∑â ¥—ßπ—Èπ Constructivism ®÷߇πâπ çSituatingé cognitive „Àâ·°à Objectivism ‚¥¬¡’§«“¡‡™◊ËÕ«à“¡’‚≈°∑’Ë·∑â®√‘ß∑’Ë experiences ∑’‡Ë √’¬°«à“§«“¡‡À¡“– ¡ °—∫ª√– ∫°“√≥å ‡√“ª√– ∫ §«“¡À¡“¬¢Õß‚≈° ∂Ÿ°°”À𥂥¬µ—«‡√“ ‡™‘ßæÿ∑∏‘ªí≠≠“ „π ¿“æ∫√‘∫∑®√‘ß ‡™àπ Cognitive ‡Õß ¡“°°«à“∑’Ë®–ª√“°Ø„π‚≈°¢Õ߇√“Õ¬à“ß¡’Õ‘ √– apprenticeship ´÷Ë߇ªìπ°≈¬ÿ∑∏å°“√‡√’¬π°“√ Õπ∑’Ë„Àâ ¥—ßπ—π®–¡’À≈“°À≈“¬«‘∏°“√„π°“√®—¥‚§√ß √â“ߢÕß È ’ §«“¡ π„®°—∫ª√– ∫°“√≥嵓¡ ¿“æ®√‘ß (Authentic ‚≈° ·≈–¡’§«“¡À¡“¬·≈–·π«§‘¥∑’ËÀ≈“°À≈“¬ experience) ∑’˙૬ √â“ß°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ∑’Ë¡’§«“¡À¡“¬  ”À√—∫‡Àµÿ°“√≥åÀ√◊Õ·π«§‘¥Àπ÷ËßÊ ‡æ√“–·µà≈– ¡“°°«à“°“√‡√’¬π°“√ Õπ·∫∫¥—߇¥‘¡ ∑’¡Õß«à“§«“¡√Ÿâ È Ë ∫ÿ§§≈‰¥â √â“ߧ«“¡À¡“¬¢Õß‚≈°·µ°µà“ß°—π ¥—ßπ—π È ‡ªìπ ‘ߧß∑’Ë ‡ªìπ ‘ß®√‘ß·∑â·πàπÕπ ®÷߇πâπ°“√∂à“¬∑Õ¥ Ë Ë ®÷߉¡à¡’§«“¡À¡“¬∑’Ë∂Ÿ°µâÕß∑’˵âÕß欓¬“¡§âπÀ“ ®¥®” ‚§√ß √â“ߧ«“¡√Ÿâ ∑’ˇªìπ‚¡‡¥≈·∫∫‡¥’¬«°—π æ◊Èπ∞“π‡™‘ßª√—™≠“¢Õß Constructivism ‡ªìπ °“√‡√’¬π°“√ Õπ ®÷߇ªìπ°“√∂à“¬∑Õ¥ ∑ƒ…Æ’ ·≈– æ◊π∞“π∑’¡¡“°àÕπ∑ƒ…Æ’°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿ¬§„À¡à ‰¥â¡§«“¡ È Ë ’ âÿ ’ À≈—°°“√ ¢âÕ‡∑Á®®√‘ß∑’Ë¡’Õ¬Ÿà„πµ”√“ ´÷ËßÕ“® àߺ≈∑’Ë  π„®„πªí®®ÿ∫—π∑’Ë¡ÿàß¡“ Ÿà Constructivism ¥—ß®–‡ÀÁπ ∑”„À⇰‘¥ Decontextualization of learning ∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“ ‰¥â«à“¡’°“√»÷°…“‡æ‘Ë¡¡“°¢÷Èπ ®“°∑’Ë°≈à“«¡“¢â“ßµâπ °“√‡√’ ¬ π√Ÿâ ∑’Ë ª √“»®“°∫√‘ ∫ ∑ Õ“®π”¡“´÷Ë ß °“√ · ¥ß„Àâ ‡ ÀÁ π «à “ °“√ √â “ ߧ«“¡À¡“¬(Meaning) ‰¡à “¡“√∂‡√’¬π√ŸÕ¬à“ß¡’§«“¡À¡“¬‰¥â ´÷ߧ«“¡À¡“¬ â Ë ‡°’ˬ«°—∫‚≈°‡ªìπ ‘Ëß ”§—≠ Meaning ®÷߇ª√’¬∫‡ ¡◊Õπ π—π µâÕß∂Ÿ° √â“ߢ÷π‚¥¬·µà≈–∫ÿ§§≈¥â«¬ª√– ∫°“√≥å È È °“√À¬—Ëß√“°≈߉ª ∑’Ë¡’°“√™’Èπ”‚¥¬ª√– ∫°“√≥å ¢Õßµπ‡Õß (ª√– ∫°“√≥åæ√âÕ¡°—∫§«“¡§‘¥ (Idea)  ‘ß·«¥≈âÕ¡∑’¡’ Ë Ë ®“°√“°∞“π‡™‘ ß ª√— ™ ≠“ Epistemology §«“¡§‘¥π—Èπ‡ªìπ à«πÀπ÷Ëß ®–°≈“¬¡“‡ªìπ à«πÀπ÷Ëß ∑’ˇ°’ˬ«°—∫§«“¡√Ÿâ∑’Ë¡’§«“¡ —¡æ—π∏åÕ¬à“ß„°≈♑¥°—∫ ¢Õߧ«“¡À¡“¬¢Õߧ«“¡§‘¥π—ÈπÊ ª√– ∫°“√≥å∑’Ë¡’ Instructional design ´÷Ë߇ªìπæ◊Èπ∞“𠔧—≠¢Õß “¢“ §«“¡§‘¥ΩíßÕ¬Ÿàπ—È𠇪ìπ ‘Ëß ”§—≠µàÕ°“√ √â“ߧ«“¡ ‡∑§‚π‚≈¬’°“√»÷°…“ ¥—ß· ¥ß°“√‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫‰¥â„π ‡¢â“„®¢Õß·µà≈–∫ÿ§§≈·≈–§«“¡ “¡“√∂„π°“√„™â µ“√“ß∑’Ë 11 6 8/4/07, 3:37 PM Black
  5. 5. ª√—™≠“·Ààߧ«“¡√Ÿâ(Epistemology): ®“°ª√—™≠“ Ÿà°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘ 7 µ“√“ß∑’Ë 1 · ¥ß°“√‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫¢Õß ª√—™≠“ Epistemology ·≈– Instructional design ª√—™≠“ Epistemology Instructional design Objectivism ∏√√¡™“µ‘¢Õߧ«“¡√Ÿâ æ◊Èπ∞“π∑ƒ…Æ’ §«“¡√Ÿâ‡ªìπ ‘Ëߧß∑’Ë ‡ªìπ ‘Ëß °“√ÕÕ°·∫∫°“√ Õ𠇪ì π Instructional design ∑’Ë®√‘ß·∑â ∑’ˇªìπÕ‘ √–®“° ∑’Õ“»—¬æ◊π∞“π¢Õß∑ƒ…Æ’ Behaviorism ·≈– Cognitive Ë È ®‘µ„® information processing ‡√“®–√Ÿâ‰¥âÕ¬à“߉√? °“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ ®–¡ÿ߇πâπ°“√√—∫ “√ π‡∑» à Behaviorism Cognitivism ∑’Ë ∂Ÿ ° ∂à “ ¬∑Õ¥¡“ ‡ªì π - ° “ √ ‡ ª ≈’Ë ¬ π · ª ≈ ß - ° “ √ ‡ ª ≈’Ë ¬ π · ª ≈ ß √Ÿª·∫∫®”≈ÕßÀ√◊Õ‚¡‡¥≈ 惵‘ ° √√¡∑’Ë ‡ °‘ ¥ ®“° ª√‘¡“≥¢Õߧ«“¡√Ÿâ∑’ˇ°‘¥ ·∫∫‡¥’¬«°—π  ‘Ë߇√â“ ®“°°“√ª√–¡«≈ “√-  π‡∑» √Ÿª·∫∫¢Õß°“√ Õπ ‡ªÑ“À¡“¬ °“√∂à“¬∑Õ¥ °“√ ◊ËÕ “√ ‡æ◊ËÕ°“√ ◊ËÕ “√ (Communication) ·≈–°“√∂à“¬‚¬ß (Transfer) °“√«‘‡§√“–Àå «‘‡§√“–Àå‡π◊ÈÕÀ“ - ‡æ◊Õ∑”„Àâ‡π◊ÕÀ“ßà“¬¢÷π ¡’°Æ√–‡∫’¬∫ À√◊Õ√–∫∫¢Õß Ë È È Õߧåª√–°Õ∫ ·≈–‡ª≈’¬π‡ªìπ °√–∫«π°“√ À√◊Õ «‘∏°“√ Ë ’ - √–∫ÿÕߧåª√–°Õ∫ ·≈–®”·π°µ“¡∏√√¡™“µ‘¢Õß«‘™“ ·≈–‡ªÑ“À¡“¬¢ÕߺŸâ‡√’¬π «‘‡§√“–À废â‡√’¬π ∫πæ◊Èπ∞“π Behaviorism - «‘‡§√“–À废â‡√’¬π‚¥¬π”¡“√«¡‡¢â“¥â«¬°—π·≈–‡ªìπ ¿“æ√«¡ - ‡ß◊ËÕπ‰¢µà“ßÊ «‘‡§√“–À凪ìπ§à“‡©≈’ˬ - «—¥§«“¡°â“«Àπ⓵“¡‡ªÑ“À¡“¬¢Õß°“√‡√’¬π‡ªìπ √“¬∫ÿ§§≈(„π∫“ß‚¡‡¥≈) - ∑”°“√∑¥ Õ∫°àÕπ‡√’¬π‡ªìπ√“¬∫ÿ§§≈ ∫πæ◊Èπ∞“π Cognitive information processing - °“√ª√–¡«≈º≈ “√ π‡∑»∑’Ë¡’ª√– ‘∑∏‘¿“æ1 7 8/4/07, 3:38 PM Black
  6. 6. 8 JCT 2(1) 2007 µ“√“ß∑’Ë 1 · ¥ß°“√‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫¢Õß ª√—™≠“ Epistemology ·≈– Instructional design (µàÕ) ª√—™≠“ Epistemology Instructional design Objectivism °“√°”À𥫗µ∂ÿª√– ß§å (µàÕ) - °”Àπ¥º≈≈—æ∏å°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ - ®”·π°§ÿ≥≈—°…≥–¢Õ߇π◊ÈÕÀ“ - ®”·π°§ÿ≥≈—°…≥–¢ÕߺŸâ‡√’¬π - ª√–¬ÿ°µå√–À«à“ß ‡π◊ÈÕÀ“ - °√–∫«πÕÕ°·∫∫°“√‡√’ ¬ π°“√ Õπ “¡“√∂ ª√–¬ÿ°µå√–À«à“ߢÕ∫¢à“¬‰¥â °“√ÕÕ°·∫∫ - ª√–¬ÿ°µå Instructional design process ®“°À≈—°°“√ ∑’ËÕ“»—¬æ◊Èπ∞“π®“°∑ƒ…Æ’®‘µ«‘∑¬“ ·≈–°“√«‘®—¬ ◊ËÕ - ÕÕ°·∫∫ ≈”¥—∫°“√‡√’¬π°“√ Õπ (Instructional sequence) ‡√’¬°«à“ Macro level ·≈– ÕÕ°·∫∫ “√ (Message design) ‡√’¬°«à“ Micro level - À≈—°°“√ÕÕ°·∫∫ “¡“√∂ª√–¬ÿ°µå‰ª„™â„πµà“ß ‡π◊ÈÕÀ“·≈–µà“ß∫√‘∫∑‰¥â - ≈”¥—∫¢—Èπ°“√ Õπ°”À𥵓¡µ√√°–„π¢Õ∫¢à“¬ ¢Õߧ«“¡√Ÿâπ—ÈπÊ ·≈–µ“¡≈”¥—∫¢Õß«—µ∂ÿª√– ß§å °“√ Õπ °“√ª√–‡¡‘πº≈ - «—µ∂ÿª√– ß§å∑«‰ªÀ√◊Õ«—µ∂ÿª√– ß§å°“√‡√’¬π°“√ Õπ —Ë - «— ¥ §«“¡°â “ «Àπâ “ ¢Õß°“√‡√’ ¬ π∑’Ë ∫ √√≈ÿ µ “¡ «—µ∂ÿª√– ß§å Constructivism ∏√√¡™“µ‘¢Õߧ«“¡√Ÿâ æ◊Èπ∞“π∑ƒ…Æ’ §«“¡√Ÿâ‡ªìπ ‘Ëß∑’ˉ¡à®√‘ß·∑â °“√ÕÕ°·∫∫°“√ Õ𠇪ìπ Instructional design ∑’Ë ‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈߉¥â Õ“»—¬æ◊Èπ∞“π¢Õß∑ƒ…Æ’ Constructivism ‡√“®–√Ÿâ‰¥âÕ¬à“߉√? °“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ - °“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ ‡ªìπ°√–∫«π°“√∑’˺Ÿâ‡√’¬π √â“ß ‘Ëß·∑𠧫“¡√Ÿâ¢÷Èπ¿“¬„π (Internal representation) ·≈– °“√ √â“ߧ«“¡À¡“¬®“°ª√– ∫°“√≥å1 8 8/4/07, 3:38 PM Black
  7. 7. ª√—™≠“·Ààߧ«“¡√Ÿâ(Epistemology): ®“°ª√—™≠“ Ÿà°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘ 9 µ“√“ß∑’Ë 1 · ¥ß°“√‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫¢Õß ª√—™≠“ Epistemology ·≈– Instructional design (µàÕ) ª√—™≠“ Epistemology Instructional design Constructivism - °“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ ‡ªìπ°√–∫«π°“√∑’ˇ°‘¥¢÷ÈπÕ¬à“ßµ◊Ëπµ—«„π (µàÕ) °“√ √â“ߧ«“¡À¡“¬·≈–æ—≤π“¢÷π¡“®“°ª√– ∫°“√≥å È ·≈–¬◊π¬—π«à“  ‘Ëß∑’ˇ√“√Ÿâ∑—ÈßÀ¡¥¡“®“°°“√µ’À√◊Õ·ª≈ §«“¡À¡“¬®“°ª√– ∫°“√≥凰’ˬ«°—∫‚≈°¢Õß¡πÿ…¬å §«“¡ßÕ°ß“¡ ¢Õß·π«§‘¥‡°‘¥®“°°“√·∫àߪíπ·π«§‘¥ ∑’ËÀ≈“°À≈“¬ „π¢≥–‡¥’¬«°—∫∑’ˇ°‘¥°“√‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈ß  √â“ß ‘Ëß·∑𧫓¡√Ÿâ¢÷Èπ¿“¬„π √Ÿª·∫∫¢Õß°“√ Õπ °“√«‘‡§√“–À废â‡√’¬π - √–∫ÿ∑—°…–¢ÕߺŸâ‡√’¬π - ‡πâπ°“√‰µ√àµ√Õß (Reflect) ‰¡à„™à °“√®¥®” (Memory) - ‡πâπ°√–∫«π°“√ √â“ߧ«“¡√Ÿâ (Knowledge construction process) - ‡πâπ°“√æ—≤π“°“√‰µ√àµ√Õ߇°’ˬ«°—∫§«“¡µ√–Àπ—° „π°√–∫«π°“√ √â“ߧ«“¡√Ÿâ - ‡πâ π °“√æ— ≤ π“„π°“√°”°— ∫ µ‘ ¥ µ“¡µπ‡Õß (Metacognition) „π°√–∫«π°“√ √â“ߧ«“¡√Ÿâ °“√°”À𥫗µ∂ÿª√– ß§å - ‡πâπ‡Õ°≈—°…≥å¢Õß·µà≈– “¢“«‘™“‡°’ˬ«°—∫°“√√Ÿâ (Knowing) - °“√ Õπ«‘∏’°“√§‘¥(How to think) - ‰¡à π‘ ¬ ¡°“√°”À𥫗 µ ∂ÿ ª √– ß§å ° “√‡√’ ¬ π√Ÿâ · ≈– °“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘ - 欓¬“¡§âπÀ“¿“√°‘®°“√‡√’¬π∑’Ë¡’«—µ∂ÿª√– ß§å ‡©æ“–∑’ˉ¥â√—∫°“√¬Õ¡√—∫«à“‡À¡“– ¡°—∫ºŸâ‡√’¬π·µà≈– ∫ÿ§§≈„π¿“√°‘®°“√·°âªí≠À“‡°’ˬ«°—∫‚≈° °“√ÕÕ°·∫∫À√◊Õ°“√ —߇§√“–Àå - °“√ÕÕ°·∫∫‡πâπ°√–∫«π°“√ √â“ߧ«“¡√Ÿâ - À≈—°°“√ÕÕ°·∫∫µâÕß∑”‡ªìπ§”∂“¡À√◊Õªí≠À“ - ‡πâπ°“√æ—≤π“ ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ (Learning environments) ∑’Ë à߇ √‘¡°“√ √â“ߧ«“¡‡¢â“„®®“° ¡ÿ¡¡Õß∑’ËÀ≈“°À≈“¬(Multiple perspective)1 9 8/4/07, 3:38 PM Black
  8. 8. 10 JCT 2(1) 2007 µ“√“ß∑’Ë 1 · ¥ß°“√‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫¢Õß ª√—™≠“ Epistemology ·≈– Instructional design (µàÕ) ª√—™≠“ Epistemology Instructional design Constructivism √Ÿª·∫∫¢Õß°“√ Õπ - Macro design À√◊Õ°“√ÕÕ°·∫∫ ≈”¥—∫°“√‡√’¬π (µàÕ) °“√ Õπ (Instructional sequence) ·≈– Micro design À√◊Õ°“√ÕÕ°·∫∫ “√ ‰¡à‡À¡“– ¡∑’®–π”¡“„™â„π°“√ Ë ÕÕ°·∫∫ - ‡πâπ‡√◊ËÕß°“√§«∫§ÿ¡À√◊Õ§«“¡„ à„®¢ÕߺŸâ‡√’¬π„π ∫√‘∫∑ ¿“æ®√‘ß∑’Ë·µ°µà“ß°—π - °“√®—¥°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ Õ“»—¬æ◊π∞“π∑ƒ…Æ’∑‡’Ë ªìπ‰ªµ“¡ È ¢âÕµ°≈߇∫◊Õßµâπ¢Õß Epistemology ¢ÕߧÕπ µ√—§µ‘« µå È ‘ ∑’Ë¡’§«“¡ Õ¥§≈âÕß°—∫∑ƒ…Æ’°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ ‡™àπ Situated cognition in the real world contexts(The task is not isolated, but is the part of a larger contexts, The real worldness of the contexts and The environmental contexts), Cognitive apprenticeship ·≈–Construction of multiple perspective °“√ª√–‡¡‘πº≈ - ‡æ◊Õ°“√ª√—∫ª√ÿߧ«“¡ “¡“√∂„π°“√𔧫“¡√Ÿ®“° Ë â ‡π◊ÈÕÀ“‰ª„™â„π ¿“æ®√‘ß - µ√«® Õ∫°√–∫«π°“√§‘¥ (Thinking process) - µ√«® Õ∫°≈¬ÿ∑∏å°“√·°âªí≠À“∑’Ë¡’ª√– ‘∑∏‘¿“æ ¢Õß Novice ·≈– Expert - √–¥—∫°“√ √â“ߧ«“¡√Ÿâ¢ÕߺŸâ‡√’¬π - §«“¡ “¡“√∂„π°“√Õ∏‘∫“¬·≈–„Àâ‡Àµÿº≈„π°“√ µ—¥ ‘π„®¢Õßµπ‡Õß ∑’𔉪 Ÿ°“√æ—≤π“ Metacognition Ë à Instructional design ·≈–°“√æ—≤π“ ®”‡ªì𠇙◊ËÕ∑’Ë´àÕπÕ¬Ÿà¿“¬„µâ°“√π”∑ƒ…Æ’ À≈—°°“√‡À≈à“π—Èπ µâÕßÕ“»—¬æ◊Èπ∞“π®“° ∑ƒ…Æ’°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ ·≈–À√◊Õ ‰ª„™â¢Õßπ—°ÕÕ°·∫∫·≈–æ—≤π“ ∑ƒ…Æ’ ‚¥¬ “°≈ æÿ ∑ ∏‘ ªí ≠ ≠“ (Cognition) ·≈–°“√ÕÕ°·∫∫∑’Ë ¡’ ¢Õß‚≈° ·≈â« ®– –∑âÕπ∂÷ß Epistemology À√◊Õ ª√– ‘∑∏‘¿“æ®–‡°‘¥¢÷π‰¥â ∂â“π—°ÕÕ°·∫∫·≈–æ—≤π“ È °“√°”‡π‘¥§«“¡√Ÿâ ∑’ˇªìπª√—™≠“∑’ˇ°’ˬ«°—∫§«“¡√Ÿâ ‰¥â¥”‡π‘π°“√ ‚¥¬µ√–Àπ—°∂÷߉¡à‡æ’¬ß·µà∑ƒ…Æ’∑‡’Ë ªìπ ∑ƒ…Æ’„¥Ê°Áµ“¡ ®–µâÕߪ√“°ØÕ¬Ÿà„π·π«§‘¥∑’ˇ√“ æ◊π∞“π∑’ ”§—≠‡∑à“π—π·µà®–µâÕß –∑âÕπ„Àâ‡ÀÁ𧫓¡ È Ë È  √â“ߧ«“¡À¡“¬„π°“√√Ÿâ¢Õßµπ‡Õß ´÷Ë߇ÀÁπ‰¥â«à“„π1 10 8/4/07, 3:39 PM Black
  9. 9. ª√—™≠“·Ààߧ«“¡√Ÿâ(Epistemology): ®“°ª√—™≠“ Ÿà°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘ 11 °“√𔧫“¡√Ÿâ„¥Ê ‰ª„™â ‡√“¡—°®–‰¡à‰¥âµ√–Àπ—°∂÷ß ∫√√≥“πÿ°√¡ √“°∞“π Epistemology „π∫∑§«“¡π’È ºŸ‡â ¢’¬π§‘¥«à“ ‡ªìπ Duffy,T.M. and Jonassen, D.H. (1992).  ‘ß®”‡ªìπ ∑’π°ÕÕ°·∫∫ µâÕßµ√–Àπ—°∂÷ß æ◊π∞“π√“° Ë Ë — È Constructivism: Implications for ¢Õߪ√—™≠“ ∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“ Epistemology ∑’˪√“°ØÕ¬Ÿà Instructional Technology. In T.M. Duffy, ¿“¬„µâ°“√ÕÕ°·∫∫°“√®—¥°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ ‡æ√“–∂â“ D.H.Jonassen, (ed), Constructivism and the π—°ÕÕ°·∫∫·≈–æ—≤π“ ‰¡àµ√–Àπ—°√Ÿâ«à“ æ◊Èπ∞“π ‘Ëß∑’Ë Technology of Instruction: A Conversation, ‡√“ÕÕ°·∫∫æ—≤π“ ¡’√“°∞“π¡“®“°§«“¡‡™◊Õ ª√—™≠“ Ë Lawrence Erlbaum: New Jersey. „¥·≈â « ∑à “ π®–‡™◊Ë Õ ¡—Ë π „π°“√µ— ¥  ‘ π „®«à “ ∑ƒ…Æ’ Harold H. (1968). Living Issues in Philosophy. °“√‡√’¬π√ŸÀ√◊Õ∑ƒ…Æ’ÕπÊ ∑’∑“π®–„™â¡§«“¡‡À¡“– ¡ â ◊Ë Ë à ’ New Delhi, Eurasia Publishing House Ltd.  Õ¥§≈âÕßÀ√◊Õ‰¡à? ∑à“π®–„Àâ‡Àµÿº≈«à“ ∑à“ππ” Patrick. G.T.W. (1961). Introduction to Philosophy. æ◊Èπ∞“π„¥¡“‡ªìπ‡°≥±å„π°“√µ—¥ ‘π„® London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd, Roderick M. Chisholm. (1966) Theory of Knowledge. The United States of America: Prentice-Hall. von Glesersfeld,E.(1988). The Reluctance to Change away of Thinking. Iris Journal of Psychology, 9.83-90.1 11 8/4/07, 3:39 PM Black

Views

Total views

847

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

4

Actions

Downloads

39

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

0

×