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This is the presentation of the Language Descriptions for the course of ESP.

Published in: Technology, Education
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  1. 1. Language Descriptions
  2. 2. <ul><li>Classical or Traditional Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>- Not all the developments in Linguistics have had pedagogic applications. </li></ul><ul><li>- We shall give a brief outline of the various ideas about language that have influenced ESP in some way. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Description of English and other languages </li></ul><ul><li> Greek Latin </li></ul><ul><li>Based on an analysis of the role played by each word in the sentence. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li> “ Teachers who wish to maintain a balanced view of linguistics should not overlook the fact that traditional grammar has many useful virtues. The traditional handbooks provided an array of terms and distinctions which most of us used in learning to talk about our own language, and which many people continue to find serviceable throughout their lives” </li></ul><ul><li>Allen and Widdowson </li></ul>
  5. 5. Structural Linguistics Was founded in 1930 th By Leonardo Bloomfield
  6. 6. <ul><li>Peculiarities: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The grammar of the language is described in terms of syntagmatic structures which carry the fundamental propositions( statement, interrogative, negative, imperative) and notions ( time, number, gender). By varying words within these structural frameworks, sentences with different meaning can be generated. </li></ul><ul><li>2. With the help of the structural linguistic the structural syllabus was created. In such syllabus , items are graded so that simpler and more immediately useable structures precede the more complex ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: ESP syllabus based on structural principals </li></ul><ul><li>1. Simple present active </li></ul><ul><li>2. Simple present passive </li></ul><ul><li>3. Simple present passive and active </li></ul><ul><li>4. -ing forms </li></ul><ul><li>5. Present Perfect; Present Continuous </li></ul><ul><li>6. Infinitives </li></ul><ul><li>7. Anomalous Finites </li></ul><ul><li>8. Past Perfect </li></ul>Structural Linguistics
  7. 7. <ul><li>Transformational Generative (TG) grammar </li></ul><ul><li>1. John is easy to please. </li></ul><ul><li>John is eager to please. </li></ul><ul><li>The City Bank has taken over Acme Holdings. </li></ul><ul><li>Acme Holdings has been taken over by the City Bank. </li></ul>
  8. 8. In the language there must be two levels of meaning: A deep level A surface level
  9. 9. <ul><li>Language can be looked at from the point of view : </li></ul><ul><li>Of form </li></ul><ul><li>Of function </li></ul><ul><li>Why does language exist? </li></ul><ul><li>People do things with it : </li></ul><ul><li>they give information </li></ul><ul><li>they promise </li></ul><ul><li>they threaten </li></ul><ul><li>they make excuses </li></ul><ul><li>they seek information </li></ul><ul><li>they identify </li></ul><ul><li>they classify </li></ul><ul><li>they report </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Communicative competence consists of : </li></ul><ul><li>A set of rules for formulating grammatically correct sentences </li></ul><ul><li>A knowledge of when to speak, when not, what to talk about, with whom, when where, in what manner </li></ul><ul><li>The ingredients of communication : </li></ul><ul><li>non-verbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>the medium and channel of communication </li></ul><ul><li>role relationships between participants </li></ul><ul><li>the topic and purpose of communication </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Text A Text B </li></ul>Now I have to change to the final size drill I require, which is three-quarters of an inch diameter, and this is called a morse-taper sleeve. A slower speed for a larger drill. Nice even feed should give a reasonable finish to the hole. Applying coolant periodically. This is mainly for lubrication rather than cooling. Almost to depth now. Right. Withdrawing the drill. That`s fine. Select required drill. Mount drill in tailstock. Use taper sleeves as necessary. Set speed and start machine spindle. Position tailstock to workpiece. Apply firm even pressure to tailstock hand wheel to feed drill into workpiece. Apply coolant frequently. Drill hole to depth. Withdraw drill. Stop machine.
  12. 12. The Type of ESP The Concept of Language Variation Register Analysis
  13. 13. Functions Notions Concerned with social behaviour and represent the intention of the speaker or writer. Reflect the way in which the other man thinks Functional/Notional Grammar
  14. 14. <ul><li>to establish some kind of equivalence in </li></ul><ul><li>the syllabuses for learning various languages. </li></ul><ul><li>difficult to divide up the learning tasks into units of equivalent value across the various languages on the basis of formal grammar. </li></ul>The Functional View of Language <ul><ul><ul><li>have an influence on language teaching in the 1970s </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The student of German The gender/case endings of articles, nouns and adjectives. The learner of English The spelling, the simple/continious tense distinction or the countable/uncountable distinction.
  16. 16. Discourse (Rhetorical) analysis <ul><li>Dialogues </li></ul><ul><li>example: “ It is raining ” </li></ul><ul><li>Can I go out to play? It’s raining. </li></ul><ul><li>Have you cut the grass yet? It’s raining. </li></ul><ul><li>I think I’ll go out for a walk. It’s raining. </li></ul><ul><li>profound effect </li></ul><ul><li>meaning is generated between sentences </li></ul><ul><li>context is important </li></ul><ul><li>language is viewed in terms of the sentence </li></ul>now before
  17. 17. Discourse Analysis <ul><li>2 key ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing contact </li></ul><ul><li>Finding out what the person wants </li></ul><ul><li>Giving information </li></ul><ul><li>Arguing the point </li></ul><ul><li>Taking down details in writing </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and thanks </li></ul>
  18. 18. Text-diagramming type of exercise Example: Generalizing and Exemplifying
  19. 19. properties … against the material properties Figure 8: Text-diagramming When suitable Materials are available… Complete the following table to summarize the paragraph
  20. 20. The approach establishes patterns, but does not account for how these patterns create meaning
  21. 21. <ul><li>3 lessons which must be borne in mind: </li></ul><ul><li>A) The various developments are not separate entities; </li></ul><ul><li>B) Describing a language for the purposes of linguistic analysis does not necessarily carry any implications for language learning; </li></ul><ul><li>C) Describing a language we must make a distinction between what a person does (performance) and what enables them to do (competence) </li></ul>