IBS SURVEYIBS SURVEY LINK BUDGET CALCULATIONLINK BUDGET CALCULATION IMPLEMENTATIONIMPLEMENTATION QUALITY CHECKLISTQUALITY CHECKLIST VENDOR HANDLING TIPSVENDOR HANDLING TIPS REPEATERREPEATER BASIC OF LOS SURVEYBASIC OF LOS SURVEY BASIC OF RF SURVEYBASIC OF RF SURVEYCONTENTSCONTENTS
What is IBS/DAS ?1.In-building Solution (IBS) / Distributed Antenna System (DAS)2.Small Cell Coverage within building premises3.Signal is restricted inside the building4.Antenna installed inside the building5.Low Transmit Power of Antenna6.Smaller Antenna size
What drives the need for IBS ?1. Demand of Continuous coverage2. Indoor Activities generating high traffic3. Poor indoor coverage of outdoor sites4. Offloading outdoor cells with high utilization5. Improvement of Network Performance.
IBS Project1.Site Survey (IBS and LOS)2.Design report preparation of the survey3.Implementation work4.Frequency planning and database preparation5.Walk test6.Optimization and site handover
IBS Planning Process Flow ChartSITE ACQUISITIONCustomer request1. With target buildings -> Preliminary site survey2. Without target buildings -> Area survey to locate possibletarget buildings-> Approval: customer acceptstarget buildings
PRELIMINARY SITE SURVEY/PRE- PLANNING1. Building Information.2. Surrounding Network Information.3. Draft Solution Design.4. Budgetary Cost Estimation.
SITE SURVEY1. Propagation Measurement.2. Final BTS & Antenna location.3. Final Cable routing.4. Photos of Antenna Location, BTS Location, Microwave Polelocation.
DETAIL DESIGN REPORT1. System Diagram (Trunking Diagram).2. Power Budget Calculation.3. Solution Description Template.4. TSSR (Technical Site Survey Report) for BTS & Microwavedetails.
TOOLS REQUIRED FOR IBS SURVEY1. GPS2. Digital Camera.3. Magnetic Compass.4. Binoculars.5. Measuring Tape.6. Net Monitor Phone.7. Floor Plan of that Particular Site
STEPS IN IBS SURVEY1. Study the building architecture, with the help of floor plans & guidance fromBuilding authorities2. Understand the requirements need in terms of Coverage, Capacity, futureSubscriber growth etc.3. Identify the duct for the cable routing & component location.4. Survey on each floor using net monitor and floor plan.5. Mark the present signal level and the antenna location to be installed in thefloor plan.6. Note down all the present serving cell information like CELL ID, BCCH, Rx.Level, etc.7. Identify the BTS location, antenna locations and mark on the floor plan.8. Also not down the type of ceiling, whether pop cutting is required or notand availability of cable tray.9. Identify if any future planning is required or not in case of underconstruction buildings.
LOS SURVEYTAKE LAT – LONG BY GPSASK FOR FAR END TO SURVEY CO ORDINATORDECIDE TOWER HEIGHT( e. g POLE,RTT, GBT )REQUIREMENT( ALSO CONSIDER CUSTOMER SPECIFICATION , NOT MENDATORY )CHECK POSSIBILITY OF CABLE ROUTING UPTO BTS LOCATIONIF PCM CABLE OR A-BTS IS REQUIRED FOR TX ,THEN MAKE NOTE THAT PCM CABLE LENGTHIS NOT EXCEEDING BY THAT OF GIVEN SPECIFICATION( UPTO 250 M).( DO NOT COMPROMISE WITH BTS LOCATION IT AFFECTS POWER CALCUTAION )MAKE TERRACE LAY OUT
INDOOR PROPOGATION Indoor channels are different from traditional mobile radio channels intwo different ways• The distances covered are much smaller• The variability of the environment is much greater for a muchsmaller range of Tx-Rx separation distances. The propagation inside a building is influenced by• Layout of the building• Construction materials Typical building type• Sports arena, residential home, factory,... Indoor propagation is dominated by the same mechanisms as outdoor• reflection, scattering, diffraction.
However, conditions are much more variable• Doors/windows open or not The mounting place of antenna• On the wall, ceiling, etc.• The level of floors In building path loss factors• Partition losses (same floor)• Partition losses between floors
PARTITION LOSSES There are two kind of partition at the same floor:• Hard partitions: the walls of the rooms• Soft partitions: moveable partitions that does not span to theceiling• The path loss depends on the type of the partitionsPARTITION LOSSES BETWEEN FLOORS The losses between floors of a building are determined by• External dimensions and materials of the building• Type of construction used to create floors• External surroundings• Number of windows• Presence of tinting on windows
ANTENNA SYSTEM USED IN IBSAntennas Distributed Via Coax Feeder NetworkThis is the most simplified method used in IBS. It has some advantage likelow cost, flexibility in theDesign when shaping the coverage area, robust and well proven techniqueLeaky CableThis type is mainly used in Train tunnels, where it is tough to install with Coaxfeeder network. It also has flexible design but it is costly
LINK BUDGET CALCULATIONIT IS BASICALLY FOR POWER THAT REQUIRED AT ANTENNA END.IT DEPENDS ON THE COMPONENTSTHAT HAS BEEN USED FROM BTS TO ANTENNA THAT IS ERP( EFFECTIVE RADIATED POWER ).LIST OF COMPONENTS WITH LOSSES ARE AS FOLLOWS::EIRP( Effective Isotropic Radiated Power )= ERP( Effective Radiated Power ) + Gain of that componentWe generally deal with EIRP ( Effective Isotropic Radiated Power ),which is defined below.1) SPLITTERS2) COUPLERS3) CABLES4) ANTENNAS5) COMBINER6) JUMPER CABLE
1) SPLITTERS::2 WAY2 WAY -3.25-3.253 WAY3 WAY -5.05-5.054 WAY4 WAY -6.25-6.25TYPE LOSS (dB)Generally 3 types of splitters are used in IBS which are as follows.
2) COUPLERS::7 dB7 dB-7-7 -1.5-1.510 dB10 dB-10-10 -0.5-0.515 dB15 dB-15-15 -0.3-0.3TYPE LOSS ATCOUPLE PORT (dB)LOSS ATTHROUGH PORT (dB)NOTE: Ideally there should be 0 dB loss at through port. But there is always some loss, which ismentioned in table.
2) COUPLERS ( Continue )::INPUTCOUPLED PORTTHROUGH PORT
3) CABLES::½ ‘’( LDF4-50 A)½ ‘’( LDF4-50 A)-0.11-0.117/8 ‘’( LDF5-50 A )7/8 ‘’( LDF5-50 A )-0.06-0.061-5/8’’ ( LDF7-50 A )1-5/8’’ ( LDF7-50 A )-0.03-0.03TYPE LOSS (dB per meter)
4) ANTENNAS::Generally 3 types of antenna are used in IBS, which are as follows.OMNI ANTENNAOMNI ANTENNA22PANEL ANTENNAPANEL ANTENNA77FLAT PATCH OMNIFLAT PATCH OMNIANTENNAANTENNA 55TYPE Gain (dBi )
FLAT PATCH OMNI ANTENNA ( Vendor : Kaweri )4) ANTENNAS ( Continue )::12 cm12 cm
5) COMBINER::A combiner is the device that enables several transmitters to transmitter from the same antenna.HYBRID COMBINER( 2 I/P,1HYBRID COMBINER( 2 I/P,1O/P )O/P ) 3 dB3 dBTYPE LOSSANTENNATX 1TX 2e. g TRX
6) LINK BUDGET CALCULATION :: Example with Trunking Diagram:
NOTE:BTS POWER IS MENTIONED AS 37 CONSIDERING 3dB COMBINER LOSS.
6) DIFFERENT CONNECTOR USED IN IMPLEMENTATION:( 1 ) ½ N MALE CONNECTOR( L4PNM-RC )To connect female port of other component like our antennas and splitter.Connect with ½ cableConnect with antenna portOr splitter port.
( 2 ) ½ N FEMALE CONNECTOR( L4PNF-RC )Connect with ½ cableConnect with male port like7/8 to ½ inch connectorOr Kaveri combinerTo connect male port of other component like 7/8 to ½ connector.
( 3 ) 7/8 to ½ inch CONNECTOR( L5PNM-RC )Connect with 7/8 cable( LDF 5-50A )Connect with female port likeOur antannas and splitterTo connect female port of 7/8 cable at one side and female port of ½ cable or splitter
To connect female port of 7/8 cable at one side and BTS port or jumper cable( 4 ) DIN Male for LDF5-50 A 7/8 inch Cable( L5PDM-RPC )Connect with 7/8 cable( LDF 5-50A )Connect with female port ofjumper cable or directly toPort of BTS which isGenerally at the top of Ultra BTS
( 5 ) EXTERNAL COMBINER(AVANTEL)Female PortFemale PortFemale Port
( 7 ) EXTERNAL JUMPER CABLEAT BTS ENDAT COMBIER ENDTHIS PORT HAS SIZE SAME AS 7/8 CABLE
7) BTS Types:Generally 3 types of BTSAvailable.1) Ultra BTSCabinet Max. power Demand:1.8KVVAC / 1.5KVADCNominal Voltage:230AC/-48VDCConfiguration: 4+4+4Power: 43 dBm
2) METRO BTS85cm35cm25cmConfiguration: 2+2Power: 40 dBm
SECTOR’S JUMPER CABLEMW CABLE FOR CONNECTIVITY
3) ULTRA MINI BTSIt looks same as Ultra BTS.Configuration: 2+2Power: 43 dBm
DETAILED DESIGN REPORT1. Building Information: Co-ordinates, No. of Floors, Basements, Lobbies.2. BTS Information: BTS Type, BTS O/P power, TRX Configuration,Sectorization.3. TSSR Form – Transmission & RF details if planned with outdoor sectorsalso)4. Trunking Diagram - Schematic Presentation of Antenna to BTS connectionvia different components like, splitters, combiners & couplers.5. Link Budget Calculations – EIRP calculation at all antenna ports,considering all the losses.6. Planned Antenna Location with coverage area.7. Bill of Quantity - Material Requirement for the Implementation of DAS.
REPEATER :Generally used where capacity required is low.It amplifies and converts weak signal into stronger signal by adding some gain to it.There are 2 types of repeaters.1) BAND SELECTIVE:It amplifies and boost frequency of particular BAND2) FREQUENCY SELECTIVE:It amplifies and boost particular frequencies only (Generally 2 / 3 frequency.
GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION ISSUE IN IBS OPEN CONNECTIONAntenna, splitter, coupler port is open COUPLERCouple port/through port is reversedInput port/through port is reversed LABELINGAll the splitters and couplers should be labeled for easy identification ANTENNA PLACEMENT OR ORIENTATIONS IS NOT AS PER PLANShift in antennas if any due to route / customer problem. THERE IS NO PROPER SADDLING, TYING OF CABLESNo Saddling/tying done on site, typical requirement is as followsi.e., every 1mtr or 1.5mtr cable is to be tied REQUIREMENT OF EXTRA MATERIALClamps FOR Antennas/cable
VENDOR HANDLING1. Handover site to vendor with all details like work permission, materialstoragespace, proper cable routing.2. Generate MRF for delivery of material to this site.3. Ask vendor for daily update.4. Must visit site 2-3 day in week.5. Ask all details after completion of full site.6. Get the material details from the vendor7. Get the BOM (Bill of Material) from the vendor and generate cam Formforthe site after reconciling the material
IMPLIMENTATION AUDITVisit site daily if possible otherwise 2-3 day in weekCheck installation is as par plan or changeDecide any changes in antenna location (if require according toaesthetic,permission, cable routing etc..)
IBS IMPLEMENTATION QUALITY STANDARDS.1. No Extra Cable is left rolled near the BTS Equipment.2. Feeder Cable and components have to be independently & properlyclamped(saddling) to the wall or laid over the cable tray .3. Combiner is clamped and the various cables to and from thecombiner aresecured properly on the Cable tray or Wall mount.4. Feeder Installation for all the sectors should have appropriatebending radiusfor both 1/2” & 7/8”.5. Connector have to be weather proofed6. Feeders & components should be anchored at fixed intervals bysaddling/cable tie7. Aesthetic rectification should be completed with cleanliness