―Poetry is not a turning loose of emotion, but an escape from emotion; it is not the expression of personality, but an escape from personality. But, of course, only those who have personality and emotions know what it means to want to escape from these things.‖ - T. S. Eliot
came from the Greek word poein, meaning to make. began from ancient songs, prayers, and rituals didn’t start out as literature as it is known today.
Rhyme – refers to the rhythmic pattern produced by the repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables. (iamb, trochee, anapest, dactyl, spondee) Meter – refers to the number of syllables per line (monometer: one foot, dimeter: two feet, trimeter: three feet, tetrameter: four feet, pentameter: five feet, hexameter: six feet, heptameter: seven feet.)
Figures of Speech – refers to the figurative language used. (simile, metaphor, personification, etc.) Stanzas – refers to the number of lines in a poem. DEFAMILIARIZATION - making poetry colorful, expressive, vivid, dramatic, musical, a nd grandiose - violating rules of grammar and sentence arrangement. - to make yourself unfamiliar to the conventions of writing.
from the word lyre, a harplike instrument Greeks used to accompany their poems. is now commonly referred to as the words to a song. uses limited or absent narration. more on description or expression. does not tell stories directly unlike novels and short stories
a poem with death as main theme. ( John Milton & John Keats) mourning for someone who died. used as love poetry by Ovid.
Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard by Thomas GrayThe curfew tolls the knell of parting day,The lowing herd winds slowly oer the lea,The ploughman homeward plods his weary way,And leaves the world to darkness and to me.
literally means inscription in Greek. a short, funny poem of few lines. may be written either in verse or prose
Herelies my wife: here lether lie! Now shes at rest –and so am I.— John Dryden
means nuptial song in Greek. written in praise of Hymen, Greek god of marriage. Features wedding celebration as main theme.
A Slice of Wedding Cake by Robert GravesWhy have such scores of lovely, gifted girlsMarried impossible men?Simple self-sacrifice may be ruled out,And missionary endeavour, nine times out often.
a traditional Japanese poem consisting of 3 lines in a 5-7-5 pattern. influenced by Zen Buddhism. captures a specific moment in nature. encourages meditation on the nature of things, attainment of enlightenment. has 3 parts: 1st - an image, 2nd – disturbance, 3rd – closure/realization
On this night of May, Heaven sings and rejoices, It is my birthday. As my tears roll by, Despite the carols at night, Alone at Christmas.
a humorous, sometimes nonsensical poem of 5 lines rhyming aabba. 1st, 2nd, and 5th lines – have 8 to 10 syllables; others – varying number of syllables. deals with everyday affairs.
There was a Young Lady whose chin, Resembled the point of a pin; So she had it made sharp, And purchased a harp, And played several tunes with her chin.
means song in Greek. a poetry of praise or tribute written in dignified tone, idealize objects, ideas, or qualities.
"Ode to the West Wind“ By Percy Bysshe ShelleyScatter, as from an unextinguishd hearthAshes and sparks, my words amongmankind!Be through my lips to unawakend earthThe trumpet of a prophecy! O Wind,If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?
from the Latin word pastoralis, linked to shepherding and animal breeding. features shepherds and countryside as a setting. covers Idylls and Eclogues
The Passionate Shepherd To His Love By Christopher Marlowe COME live with me and be my Love, And we will all the pleasures prove That hills and valleys, dale and field, And all the craggy mountains yield.
from the Italian word sonetto meaning ―little song‖. a poem of 14 lines classified as Petrarchan/Italian or Elizabethan. Petrarchan – rhymes abba abba cde cde Elizabethan – rhymes abab cdcd efef gg
Petrarchan/Italian On His Blindness by John Milton When I consider how my light is spent (a) Ere half my days, in this dark world and wide, (b) And that one talent which is death to hide, (b) Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent (a) To serve therewith my Maker, and present (a) My true account, lest he returning chide; (b) "Doth God exact day-labor, light denied?" (b) I fondly ask; but Patience to prevent (a) That murmur, soon replies, "God doth not need (c) Either mans work or his own gifts; who best (d) Bear his mild yoke, they serve him best. His state (e) Is Kingly. Thousands at his bidding speed (c) And post oer land and ocean without rest; (d) They also serve who only stand and wait." (e)
Elizabethan Sonnet 116 by William Shakespeare Let me not to the marriage of true minds (a) Admit impediments, love is not love (b) Which alters when it alteration finds, (a) Or bends with the remover to remove. (b) O no, it is an ever fixèd mark (c) That looks on tempests and is never shaken; (d) It is the star to every wandring bark, (c) Whose worths unknown although his height be taken. (d) Loves not times fool, though rosy lips and cheeks (e) Within his bending sickles compass come, (f) Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, (e) But bears it out even to the edge of doom: (f) If this be error and upon me proved, (g) I never writ, nor no man ever loved. (g)
arranges the words in it to represent the image it speaks of. form and content merge
from a French word that came from an Italian word villanella derived from the Latin word villano meaning farmhand. popularized by Francois Villon, a French poet and thief. originally a dance appeared as poetry during the 16th century. has 6 stanzas: 5 stanzas of tercets, and the last stanza a quatrain.
Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night by Dylan ThomasDo not go gentle into that good night,Old age should burn and rave at close of day;Rage, rage against the dying of the light.Though wise men at their end know dark is right,Because their words had forked no lightning theyDo not go gentle into that good night,Good men, the last wave by, crying how brightTheir frail deeds might have danced in a green bay,Rage, rage against the dying of the light.Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way,Do not go gentle into that good night,Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sightBlind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,Rage, rage against the dying of the light.And you, my father, there on the sad height,Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray.Do not go gentle into that good night,Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
Ballad Epic Lay Medieval Romance Awit and Korido
is a simple, short, originally sung, and intended for the lower classes of the Middle Ages. has 2 types: Folk – stories orally passed from one generation to another. Literary – imitates the form and structure of the folk, but lost the simplicity of folk.
The Second Coming William Butler Yeats Turning and turning in the widening gyre The falcon cannot hear the falconer; Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold; Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world, The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere The ceremony of innocence is drowned; The best lack all conviction, while the worst Are full of passionate intensity.
is a long, narrative poem of heroism and grandeur. consists myth, epics that portray the adventures of gods, princes, kings, knights, and other people of high stature. captures the ideals of a nation, culture, or religion. is classified into two: Original – came from an age when a nation was conquering and expanding. Literary – imitates the original.
Iliad Odyssey Paradise Lost The Divine Comedy Ramayana Mahabharata Beowulf Biag ni Lam-Ang Ibalon Tuwaang Indarapatra and Sulayman
came from a Celtic word meaning song. a Medieval story of about 1,000 lines in rhyming couplets of 8-10 syllables per line. has 3 components: a folklore theme, a mysterious fairy-tale atmosphere, and the elements of romance, love, and knighthood.
The Lay of the Last Minstrel by Sir Walter ScottThe way was long, the wind was cold, The Minstrel was infirm and old; His witherd cheek, and tresses gray, Seemd to have known a better day; The harp, his sole remaining joy, Was carried by an orphan boy.
depicts the fictitious, supernatural, and idealized adventures of famous kings and/or knights. displays the ideals of knighthood (bravery, courage, strength, and loyalty)
Matter of Greece - legends about Troy, Thebes, Aeneas, and Alexander the Great. Matter of France - adventures of Charlemagne Matter of Britain - adventures of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table
were developed through the influences of Medieval Romances and Spanish Ballads. Awit – originally sung in slow tempo, divided into stanzas of 4 lines with 12 syllables each. Korido - from the Spanish word ocuridos, meaning events. - has supernatural elements like magical birds, enchanted beings. - has 8 syllables per line.
Florante at Laura – Awit Ibong Adarna - Korido
originated in Greek religious rituals or festivals wherein they honor their gods. featured works of Aeschylus, Euripides, and Sophocles. displays a different literary experience from reading.
Wayang Kulit – the screen on which the shadows are cast.
a Spanish theater imported to the Philippines during the colonial period. originally depicts contemporary Spanish life, but later portrayed Philippine society. blends social commentary, humor, music, and romance.
a Medieval drama that uses personifications as characters. emerged in England and France during the late 14th Century. the conflict between good and evil, pilgrimage of life, and eternal destinations are used as the main theme.
Liberality and Prodigality Hickscorner Everyman The Seven Deadly Sins The Castle of Perseverance