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B2B: EDI to E-Commerce


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B2B: EDI to E-Commerce

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Business-to-Business Strategies: From Electronic Data Interchange to Electronic Commerce
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>In this lecture we will look at: </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies that businesses use to improve purchasing, logistics, and other support activities </li></ul><ul><li>How businesses are moving electronic data interchange operations to the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain management and how businesses are using the Internet and Web technologies to improve it </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic marketplaces and portals that make purchase-sale negotiations easier and more efficient </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives
  4. 4. Purchasing, Logistics, and Support Activities <ul><li>Electronic commerce possesses the potential for cost reduction and business process improvement in purchasing, logistics, and support activities. </li></ul><ul><li>An emerging characteristic of purchasing, logistics, and support activities is that they need to be flexible. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Purchasing Activities <ul><li>Purchasing activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting specific products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placing orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolving any issues that arise after receiving the ordered goods and services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procurement includes all purchasing activities, plus the monitoring of all elements of purchase transactions. </li></ul><ul><li>By using a Web site to process orders, the vendors can save the cost of printing and shipping catalogs and the cost of handling telephone orders. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Purchasing Activities <ul><li>Procurement includes all purchasing activities, plus the monitoring of all elements of purchase transactions. </li></ul><ul><li>By using a Web site to process orders, the vendors in this market can save the cost of printing and shipping catalogs and the cost of handling telephone orders. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Purchasing Activities
  8. 8. Purchasing Activities <ul><li>Products that companies buy on a recurring basis are called maintenance, repair, and operating (MRO) supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>Two of the largest MRO suppliers in the world are McMaster-Carr and W.W. Grainger. </li></ul><ul><li>Office Depot and Staples are also examples in this area. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Purchasing Activities <ul><li>Businesses make a distinction between direct and indirect materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct materials are those materials that become part of the finished product. </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect materials are all other materials that the company purchases. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Logistic Activities <ul><li>The classic objective of logistics is to provide the right goods in the right quantities in the right place at the right time. </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses have been increasing their use of information technology to achieve this objective. </li></ul><ul><li>FedEx and UPS have freight tracking Web pages available to their customers. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Support Activities <ul><li>Online Benefits is a firm that duplicates its clients’ human resource functions on a secure Web site that is accessible to clients’ employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Support activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance and administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology development </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Training and Knowledge Management <ul><li>One common activity that underlies multiple primary activities is training. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management is another support activity that intentionally collects, classifies, and disseminates information about a company, its products, and its processes. </li></ul><ul><li>BroadVision has installed K-Net, or Knowledge Network, that organizes all the information sources that its employees use regularly in their jobs. </li></ul>
  13. 13. E-Government <ul><li>Although governments do not typically sell products or services to customers, they do perform many functions for their stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>Governments also perform business-like activities; for example, they employ people, buy supplies from vendors, and distribute benefit payments of many kinds. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of electronic commerce by governments and government agencies to perform these function is often called e-government. </li></ul>
  14. 14. E-Government <ul><li>The U.S. government’s Financial Management Service (FMS) opened its Web site, </li></ul><ul><li>FMS is responsible for receiving the government’s tax, license, and other fee revenue. </li></ul><ul><li>FMS is responsible for paying out Social Security benefits, veterans benefits, tax refunds, and other disbursements. </li></ul><ul><li>State governments are also creating their own Web sites for conducting business and interacting with their stakeholders. </li></ul>
  15. 15. E-Government
  16. 16. Network Model of Economic Organization <ul><li>The trend in purchasing, logistics, and support activities is a shift away from hierarchical structures toward network structures. </li></ul><ul><li>The Web is enabling this shift from hierarchical forms of economic organization to network forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly specialized firms can now exist and trade services very efficiently on the Web. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Network Model of Economic Organization <ul><li>The roots of Web technology for B2B transactions lie in electronic data interchange (EDI). </li></ul><ul><li>These emerging networks of firms are more flexible and can respond to changes in the economic environment much more quickly than hierarchically structured businesses ever could. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) <ul><li>EDI is a computer-to-computer transfer of business information between two businesses that uses a standard format. </li></ul><ul><li>The two businesses that are exchanging information are called trading partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Firms that exchange data in specific standard formats are said to be EDI-compatible. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) <ul><li>The business information exchanged is usually transaction data; however, it can include other information related to transactions, such as price quotes and order-status inquiries. </li></ul><ul><li>Transaction data in B2B transactions includes the information usually on paper invoices, purchase orders, requests for quotations, bills of lading, and receiving reports. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Early Business Information Interchange Efforts <ul><li>In the 1950s, information flows between businesses continued to be printed on paper. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1960s, businesses had begun exchanging transaction information on punched cards or magnetic tape. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1968, a number of freight and shipping companies formed the Transportation Data Coordinating Committee (TDCC) to create the TDCC standard format. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Emergence of Broader EDI Standards <ul><li>The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has been the coordinating body for standards in the U.S. since 1918. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1979, ANSI chartered a new committee to develop uniform EDI standards. This committee is called the Accredited Standards Committee X12 (ASC X12). </li></ul><ul><li>In 1987, the United Nations published its first standards under the title “EDI for Administration, Commerce, and Transport (EDIFACT or UN/EDIFACT)”. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Value-Added Networks <ul><li>EDI reduces paper flow and streamlines the interchange of information among departments within a company and between companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Trading partners can implement the EDI network and EDI translation processes in several ways using either direct connection or indirect connection. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Direct Connection Between Trading Partners <ul><li>Direct connection EDI requires each business in the network to operate its own on-site EDI translator computer. </li></ul><ul><li>These EDI translator computers are then connected directly to each other using modems and dial-up phone lines or dedicated leased lines. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Direct Connection Between Trading Partners
  25. 25. Indirect Connection Between Trading Partners <ul><li>Instead of connecting directly to each of its trading partners, a company might decide to use the services of a value-added network. </li></ul><ul><li>A value-added network (VAN) is a company that provides the communications equipment, software, and skills needed to receive, store, and forward electronic messages that contain EDI transaction sets. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Indirect Connection Between Trading Partners
  27. 27. VAN <ul><li>Companies that provide VAN services include General Electric Information Services, GPAS, Harbinger Corp., IBM Global Services, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost is an issue to VAN. Most VANs require an enrollment fee, a monthly maintenance fee, and a transaction fee. </li></ul>
  28. 28. EDI on the Internet <ul><li>Trading partners who had been using EDI began to view the Internet as a potential replacement for the expensive leased lines. </li></ul><ul><li>The major roadblock to conducting EDI over the Internet was security. </li></ul><ul><li>As the TCP/IP was enhanced and SHTTP protocol was developed, businesses worried less about security issues. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Open Architecture of the Internet <ul><li>A number of new firms, such as Commerce One and IPNet, have begun providing EDI services on the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>EDI on the Internet is also called “open EDI” because the Internet is an open architecture network. </li></ul><ul><li>New tools, such as XML, are helping trading partners be even more flexible in exchanging detailed information. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Financial EDI <ul><li>The EDI transaction sets that provide instructions to a trading partner’s bank are called financial EDI (FEDI). </li></ul><ul><li>All banks have the ability to perform electronic funds transfers (EFTs). </li></ul><ul><li>Most EFTs are handled through the Automated Clearing House (ACH). </li></ul><ul><li>Security and reliability are issues of FEDI. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Hybrid EDI Solutions <ul><li>Some firms are offering hybrid EDI solutions that use the Internet for part of the transaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Bottomline Technologies’ payBase package is an example of hybrid EDI. </li></ul><ul><li>Other hybrid solutions include EDI-HTML translation services. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Supply Chain Management <ul><li>The part of an industry value chain that precedes a particular strategic business unit is often called a supply chain. </li></ul><ul><li>A company’s supply chain for a particular product or service includes all the activities undertaken by every predecessor in the value chain to design, produce, promote, market, deliver, and support each individual component. </li></ul><ul><li>The purchasing department has traditionally been charged with buying all these components at the lowest price possible. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Value Creation in the Supply Chain <ul><li>The process of taking an active role in working with suppliers to improve products and processes is called supply chain management (SCM). </li></ul><ul><li>SCM was originally developed as a way to reduce costs. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Value Creation in the Supply Chain <ul><li>Today, SCM is used to add value in the form of benefits to the ultimate consumer at the end of the supply chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain members can reduce costs and increase the value of products or services to the ultimate customer. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Internet Technologies in the Supply Chain <ul><li>Clear communications and quick responses to those communications are a key element of successful SCM. </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies of the Internet and the Web can be very effective communication enhancers. </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 5-11 lists the advantages of using Internet and Web technologies in SCM. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Internet Technologies in the Supply Chain
  37. 37. Increasing Efficiency in the Supply Chain <ul><li>Many companies are using Internet and Web technologies to manage supply chains in ways that yield increasing efficiency throughout the chain. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1997, production and scheduling errors cost Boeing over $1.5 billion. </li></ul><ul><li>Using EDI and Internet links, Boeing is working with suppliers so that they can provide the right part at the right time. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Just in Time Delivery”. Minimise stock inventories. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Technology in the Supply Chain <ul><li>Dell Computer has also used technology-enabled SCM to give customers exactly what they want. </li></ul><ul><li>Dell has been able to dramatically reduce the amount of inventory it must hold. </li></ul><ul><li>Dell has also shared this information with members of its supply chain. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Using Technology to Create an Ultimate Consumer Orientation <ul><li>One of the main goals of supply chain management is to help each company in the chain focus on meeting the needs of the consumer who is at the end of the supply chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Since Internet technologies are tools that improve communications at a very low cost, they are ideal aids for enhancing the creation of a highly coordinated and effective supply chain. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Building and Maintaining Trust in the Supply Chain <ul><li>The major issue that most companies must deal with in forming supply chain alliances is developing trust. </li></ul><ul><li>Continual communication and information sharing are key elements in building trust. </li></ul><ul><li>Vendors are finding that the Web gives them an opportunity to stay in contact with their customers more easily and less expensively. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT … Is there a down side? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Electronic Marketplaces and Portals <ul><li>As the Web emerged in the mid-1990s, many business researchers and consultants believed that it would provide an opportunity for companies to establish information hubs for each major industry. </li></ul><ul><li>These industry hubs would offer news, research reports, analyses of trends, and in-depth reports on companies in the industry. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to information, these hubs would offer marketplaces and auctions. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Electronic Marketplaces and Portals <ul><li>Because these hubs would offer a doorway to the Internet for industry members and would be vertically integrated, these planned enterprises were called vertical portals or vortals. </li></ul><ul><li>As with many electronic commerce predictions, the prediction that vertical portals would change business forever did not turn out to be exactly correct. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Industry Marketplaces <ul><li>The first companies to launch industry hubs that followed the vertical portal model created trading exchanges that were focused on a particular industry. </li></ul><ul><li>These vertical portals became known by various names including industry marketplaces, independent exchanges, or public marketplaces. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Industry Marketplaces <ul><li>Ventro opened its first industry marketplace, Chemdex, in 1997 to trade bulk chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Ventro also opened Promedix for specialty medical supplies, Amphire Solutions for food service, MarketMile for general business products and services, and a number of others. </li></ul><ul><li>The home page of, which competed directly with Ventro in the bulk chemicals market, appears in Figure 5-12. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Industry Marketplaces
  46. 46. Industry Marketplaces <ul><li>The number of new entrants into these businesses grew rapidly during the next two years. </li></ul><ul><li>By mid-2000, there were more than 2200 independent exchanges in a wide variety of industries. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, there were 200 exchanges operating in the metals industry alone. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Private Stores and Customer Portals <ul><li>As established companies in various industries watched new businesses open marketplaces, they became concerned that these independent operators would take control of transactions away from them in supply chains. </li></ul><ul><li>Large companies that sell to many relatively small customers can exert great power in negotiating price, quality, and delivery terms with those customers. </li></ul><ul><li>These sellers feared that industry marketplaces would dilute that power. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Private Stores and Customer Portals <ul><li>Many of these large companies had already invested heavily in Web sites that they believed would better meet the needs of their major customers than any industry marketplace. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, Cisco and Dell offer private stores for each of their major customers within their selling Web sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Other companies, such as Grainger and Milacron, provide additional services for customers on their sites. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Private Company Marketplaces <ul><li>Large companies that purchase from vendors that are relatively small can exert great power over those vendors in purchasing negotiations. </li></ul><ul><li>These companies can invest in procurement software. </li></ul><ul><li>Companies that implement e-procurement software usually require their suppliers to bid for their business. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Private Company Marketplaces <ul><li>When industry marketplaces opened for business, these large companies were reluctant to abandon their investments in e-procurement software. </li></ul><ul><li>These companies use their power in the supply chain to force suppliers to deal with them on their own terms rather than negotiate with suppliers in an industry marketplace. </li></ul><ul><li>As marketplace software became more reliable, many of these companies developed private company marketplaces. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Industry Consortia-Sponsored Marketplaces <ul><li>Some companies had relatively strong negotiating positions in their industry supply chain, but did not have enough power to force suppliers to deal with them through a private company marketplace. </li></ul><ul><li>These companies began to form consortia to sponsor marketplaces. </li></ul><ul><li>An industry consortia-sponsored marketplace is a marketplace formed by several large buyers in a particular industry. Such as automotive components . </li></ul>
  52. 52. But is it all good news?
  53. 53. Marketplaces
  54. 54. Summary <ul><li>In this lecture we have looked at: </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies that businesses use to improve purchasing, logistics, and other support activities </li></ul><ul><li>How businesses are moving electronic data interchange operations to the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain management and how businesses are using the Internet and Web technologies to improve it </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic marketplaces and portals that make purchase-sale negotiations easier and more efficient </li></ul>