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Module 3 Systems archetypes

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Systems archetypes

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Module 3 Systems archetypes

  1. 1. SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES: Generic Systems Structures Professor Ockie Bosch Dr Nam Nguyen
  2. 2. Systems Archetypes (SAs)  Generic systems models representing a wide range of situations;  High-level map of dynamic processes;  ‘Reveal an incredibly elegant simplicity underlying the complexity of management issues …’ (Senge, 2006, p.93);  Systems archetypes will always suggest areas of high and low leverage change (Senge, 2006). © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  3. 3. “Shifting the Burden”: Structure (adapted from Senge, 2006; Maani and Cavana, 2007) S Side Effect Symptomatic ‘Solution’/Quick Fix Problem Symptom S Fundamental Solution O O R B1 O S B2 © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  4. 4. “Shifting the Burden”: Summary  A short-term ‘solution’ is used to correct a problem, with immediate positive results;  Fundamental long-term corrective measures are used less and less;  Management principle: Focus on the fundamental solution. If symptomatic solution is imperative, use it to gain time while working towards the fundamental solution. © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen (adapted from Senge, 2006)
  5. 5. “Shifting the Burden”: Example (Parent) Buying lollies B1 (Children) Crying for lollies S O B2 ‘Educating’ the S children O Delay Asking for lollies every time R S O © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  6. 6. “Fixes that Fail”: Structure (adapted from Senge, 2006; Maani and Cavana, 2007) Problem Fix B R Unintended Consequence S O S S © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  7. 7. “Fixes that Fail”: Summary (adapted from Continuous Improvement Associates, 2003; Senge, 2006)  An action (a ‘fix’), effective in the short-term, has unforseen long-term consequences which may require even more use of the same ‘fix’;  Typically a result of addressing the symptoms of problems, rather than the root causes;  Management principle: Look for root causes that are responsible for the symptoms. When addressing symptoms, look for ways to reduce/mitigate negative impacts. Take action by relieving immediate pain, but continue working towards finding long-term solutions that will address the root causes of the problem. © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  8. 8. “Fixes that Fail”: Example Pest (cane beetle) S Fix B (cane toad) O R “Feral species” S S © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  9. 9. “Tragedy of the Commons”: Structure (adapted from Senge, 2006; Maani and Cavana, 2007) R1 S A’s Activity Net Gain for A R2 S S B’s Activity Net Gain for B S S Resource Limit S S O Total Activity Gain per Individual Activity B1 B2 S O © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  10. 10. “Tragedy of the Commons”: Summary  Individuals use a commonly available but limited resource solely on the basis of individual needs;  The resource is either significantly depleted or entirely exhausted;  Management principle: Manage the ‘commons’ either through educating everyone and creating forms of self-regulation and peer pressure, or through an official regulating mechanism (ideally to be designed by participants). © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen (adapted from Senge, 2006)
  11. 11. “Tragedy of the Commons”: Example graduates Source: Ong, 2013 Source: Yen, 2013 © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  12. 12. “Limits to Success/Growth”: Structure (adapted from Senge, 2006; Maani and Cavana, 2007) Constraints Limiting Action Efforts R Performance B S S S S © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen O
  13. 13. “Limits to Growth”: Summary  A process feeds on itself to produce a period of accelerated growth or expansion; then  The growth begins to slow and eventually comes to a halt;  Management principle: Do not push on the reinforcing (growth) process, remove (or weaken) the sources of limitations/constraints. © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen (adapted from Senge, 2006)
  14. 14. “Limits to Growth”: Example Source: Thompson, 2013 S © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  15. 15. Archetypes in the Systems Model of CBBR Nguyen, Bosch et al. (2011). Creating ‘Learning Laboratories’ for SD in Biospheres - A Systems Thinking Approach. SR & BS, 28 (1), pp 51-62. © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  16. 16. Tourism development: ‘Limits to Growth’ S O R B Tourism revenue Number of tourists Constraints Attraction of Cat Ba island S S O Nguyen and Bosch (2013). A Systems Thinking Approach to identify Leverage Points for Sustainability... SR & BS, 30 (2), pp 104-115. © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  17. 17. Tourism development: ‘Fixes that Fail’ Number of tourists Staying and catering problems Nguyen and Bosch (2013). A Systems Thinking Approach to identify Leverage Points for Sustainability... SR & BS, 30 (2), pp 104-115. Hotels and restaurants Pollution S S O S S B R © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  18. 18. Carrying capacities: ‘Tragedy of S Revenue per each industry B B Nguyen and Bosch (2013). A Systems Thinking Approach to identify Leverage Points for Sustainability... SR & BS, 30 (2), pp 104-115. Investment in tourism Tourism revenue Total investment activities Investment in agriculture Agriculture revenue Carrying capacities S S S S S S O S S R R © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen the Commons’
  19. 19. International aid: ‘Shifting the Burden’ International $ Problems in Cat Ba Long-term solutions Dependance on international assistance S Nguyen and Bosch (2013). A Systems Thinking Approach to identify Leverage Points for Sustainability... SR & BS, 30 (2), pp 104-115. S O S O O B B R © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen
  20. 20. Class exercises of Systems Archetypes  Study the other SAs (reading provided in class);  Work in groups and present two examples of SAs (either related to the group project or generic). © Professor Ockie Bosch and Dr Nam Nguyen

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