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QR Codes seminar

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Seminar on qr codes

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QR Codes seminar

  1. 1. A SEMINAR REPORT ON “QR CODES” Submitted by UMESH CH. MANDAL Regd. No. 12010339 7 th Semester, B.Tech. (CSE) For the year 2016 Under the esteemed guidance of Dr. Suvasini Panigrahi DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENG INEERING VEER SURENDRA SAI UNIVERSITY OF TECH NOLOG Y BURLA, ODISHA - 768018
  2. 2. DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENG INEERING VEER SURENDRA SAI UNIVERSITY OF TECH NOLOG Y BURLA, ODISHA CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the seminar entitled “CAN Bus Protocol” presented by UMESH CHANDRA MANDAL bearing registration number 12010339 of 7th Semester B.Tech. (Computer Science & Engineering) in Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla has been successfully delivered during the year 2016. This is in partial fulfilment of requirement of Bachelor degree in Computer Science & Engineering in Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla. I wish him successin all his future endeavours. Dr. Suvasini Panigrahi Seminar in-charge
  3. 3. Acknowledgement I deem it a great pleasure and opportunity to dedicate a few lines to some persons who enabled me to complete this seminar. I am really indebted to Dr. Suvasini Panigrahi of Computer Science & Engineering for her valuable suggestions, motivations and guidance right from scratch to the completion of the seminar. Her contributions were indeed instrumental in achieving the final result. I would also like to thank my friends especially Biswadev and Sumanta for their support throughout. Lastbut not the least, I want to thank all the members of the Department of Computer Science & Engineering for their help in various ways for the completion of this seminar. UMESH CH. MANDAL REGDNO. 12010339 7TH SEMESTER B.TECH. (CSE)
  4. 4. Abstract QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional barcode) first designed for the automotive industry in Japan. A barcode is a machine-readable optical label that contains information about the item to which it is attached. A QR code uses four standardized encoding modes (numeric, alphanumeric, byte/binary, and kanji) to efficiently store data; extensions may also be used.[1] The QR Code system became popular outside the automotive industry due to its fast readability and greater storage capacity compared to standard UPC barcodes. Applications include product tracking, item identification, time tracking, document management, and general marketing.[2] A QR code consists of black modules (square dots) arranged in a square grid on a white background, which can be read by an imaging device (such as a camera, scanner, etc.) and processed using Reed–Solomon error correction until the image can be appropriately interpreted. The required data are then extracted from patterns that are present in both horizontal and vertical components of the image
  5. 5. Contents Abstract................................................................................................................................. 4 1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 6 1.1 History…………….. ...................................................................................................... 6 1.2 Standards……. ............................................................................................................ 6 2. Uses.………………........................................................................................................... 7 2.1 Mobile operating Systems…......................................................................................... 7 2.2 URLs............................................................................................................................ 7 2.3 Code Payments............................................................................................................ 7 2.4 Website login…........................................................................................................... 7 2.5 Encryption.....................................................................................................................7 3. Design.............................................................................................................................. 8 3.1 Storage ……................................................................................................................. 8 3.2 Error Correction .......................................................................................................... 9 3.3 Encoding……................................................................................................................9 4. Variants…………............................................................................................................. 10 5. Advantages .......................................................................................................…………....11 6. Disadvantages ................................................................................................................. 11 7. Make your own qr code…….…………………………………………………………………….11 8. QR codes in the present….………………………………………………………………………12 9.Conclusion......................................................................................................................... 13 10. References ..................................................................................................................... 14
  6. 6. Introduction History The QR code system was invented in 1994 by Denso Wave. Its purpose was to track vehicles during manufacture; it was designed to allow high-speed component scanning. Although initially used for tracking parts in vehicle manufacturing, QR codes now are used in a much broader context, including both commercial tracking applications and convenience-oriented applications aimed at mobile-phone users (termed mobile tagging). QR codes may be used to display text to the user, to add a vCard contact to the user's device, to open a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), or to compose an e-mail or text message. Users can generate and print their own QR codes for others to scan and use by visiting one of several paid and free QR code generating sites or apps. The technology has since become one of the most-used types of two-dimensional barcode. Standards There are several standards that cover the encoding of data as QR codes:  October 1997 – AIM (Association for Automatic Identification and Mobility)  January 1999 – JIS X 0510  June 2000 – ISO/IEC 18004:2000 Information technology – Automatic identification and data capture techniques – Bar code symbology – QR code (now withdrawn) Defines QR code models 1 and 2 symbols.  1 September 2006 – ISO/IEC 18004:2006 Information technology – Automatic identification and data capture techniques – QR code 2005 bar code symbology specification Defines QR code 2005 symbols, an extension of QR code model 2. Does not specify how to read QR code model 1 symbols, or require this for compliance.
  7. 7. Uses Mobile operating systems QR codes can be used on various mobile device operating systems. These devices support URL redirection, which allows QR codes to send metadata to existing applications on the device. Many paid or free apps are available with the ability to scan the codes and hard-link to an external URL. URLs URLs aided marketing conversion rates even in the pre-smartphone era, but during those years faced several limitations: ad viewers usually had to type the URL and often did not have a web browser in front of them when they first viewed the ad. The chances were high that they would forget to visit the site later, not bother to type a URL, or forget what URL to type. Semantic URLs decreased these risks but did not eliminate them. Some of these disadvantages to URL conversion rates are fading away now that smartphones are putting web access and voice recognition in constant reach. Code payments QR codes can be used to store bank account information or credit card information, or they can be specifically designed to work with particular payment provider applications. There are several trial applications of QR code payments across the world. QR codes are commonly used in the field of cryptographic currencies, particularly those based off and including Bitcoin Payment addresses, cryptographic keys and transaction information are often shared between digital wallets in this way. Website login QR codes can be used to log in into websites: a QR Code is shown on the login page on a computer screen, and when a registered user scans it with a verified smartphone, they will automatically be logged in on the computer. Authentication is performed by the smartphone which contacts the server. Google tested such a login method in January 2012. Encryption Encrypted QR codes, which are not very common, have a few implementations. An Android app, for example, manages encryption and decryption of QR codes using the DES algorithm (56 bits). The Japanese immigration system uses encrypted QR codes when issuing visa in passports as shown in the figure below.
  8. 8. Design Unlike the older, one-dimensional barcodes that were designed to be mechanically scanned by a narrow beam of light, a QR code is detected by a 2-dimensional digital image sensor and then digitally analyzed by a programmed processor. The processor locates the three distinctive squares at the corners of the QR code image, using a smaller square (or multiple squares) near the fourth corner to normalize the image for size, orientation, and angle of viewing. The small dots throughout the QR code are then converted to binary numbers and validated with an error-correcting algorithm. Storage The amount of data that can be stored in the QR code symbol depends on the datatype (mode, or input character set), version (1, …,40, indicating the overall dimensions of the symbol), and error correction level. The maximum storage capacities occur for 40-L symbols (version 40, error correction level L) Here are some sample QR code symbols: Version 3(29X29 modules) Version 2(25X25 modules) Maximum character storage capacity (40-L) character refers to individual values of the input mode/datatype Input mode max. characters bits/char possible characters, default encoding Numeric only 7,089 3⅓ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Alphanumeric 4,296 5½ 0–9, A–Z (upper-case only), space, $, %, *, +, -, ., /, : Binary/byte 2,953 8 ISO 8859-1 Kanji/kana 1,817 13 Shift JIS X 0208
  9. 9. Error Correction Codewords are 8 bits long and use the Reed–Solomon error correction algorithm with four error correction levels. The higher the error correction level, the less storage capacity. The following table lists the approximate error correction capability at each of the four levels: Level L (Low) 7% of codewords can be restored. Level M (Medium) 15% of codewords can be restored. Level Q (Quartile) 25% of codewords can be restored. Level H (High) 30% of codewords can be restored. Damaged but still decodable QR code Encoding The format information records two things: the error correction level and the mask pattern used for the symbol. Masking is used to break up patterns in the data area that might confuse a scanner, such as large blank areas or misleading features that look like the locator marks. The mask patterns are defined on a grid that is repeated as necessary to cover the whole symbol. Modules corresponding to the dark areas of the mask are inverted. The format information is protected from errors with a BCH code, and two complete copies are included in each QR symbol. The message dataset is placed from right to left in a zigzag pattern, as shown below. In larger symbols, this is complicated by the presence of the alignment patterns and the use of multiple interleaved error-correction blocks. Meaning of format Information
  10. 10. Variants Micro QR code is a smaller version of the QR code standard for applications where symbol size is limited. There are 4 different versions (sizes) of Micro QR codes: the smallest is 11×11 modules; the largest can hold 35 numeric characters. IQR code is an alternative to existing QR codes developed by Denso Wave. IQR codes can be created in square or rectangular formations; this is intended for situations where a rectangular barcode would otherwise be more appropriate, such as cylindrical objects. IQR codes can fit the same amount of information in 30% less space. There are 61 versions of square IQR codes, and 15 versions of rectangular codes. For squares, the minimum size is 9x9 modules; rectangles have a minimum of 19x5 modules. IQR codes add error correction level S, which allows for 50% error correction. IQR Codes have not yet been given an ISO specification, and only proprietary Denso Wave products can create or read IQR codes. Model 1 QR code is an older version of the specification. It is visually similar to the widely seen model 2 codes, but lacks alignment patterns.  Micro QR code example  Micro QR code functional regions  Model 1 QR code example  Model 1 QR code functional regions
  11. 11. Advantages of QR code The main advantage of a QR code is its versatility. QR codes can be used for anything and everything. They are also beneficial for both customers and businesses. For example, a business saves money and advertising costs by distributing a QR code to their website or URL. A customer can scan this QR code and this allows them to store the information for future reference. For example ecommerce and mobile commerce are both used for QR codes. QR codes acts as the link and it also exposes customers to other forms of advertising the business or service of the QR code has done. This maximizes exposure and can potentially generate revenue. Twisting of the two lines reduces the magnetic field considerably. Therefore, in practice twisted pair conductors are generally used as the physical transmission medium. Disadvantages of QR code One disadvantage of QR codes and perhaps the biggest problem is the lack of familiarity of the QR code among people. Although QR codes are popping up everywhere from on plant specimen labels to library catalogues, there is a large demographic in society that still don’t know what QR codes represent. These proses a problem as companies and business are using the QR code to advertise information that a potential customer might be interested in, but if the customer doesn’t know how to find the information, then they might not buy the product or service and this can lose business thousands of dollars. One way to counteract this disadvantage is product knowledge. Not only should businesses be using QR codes for it’s obvious benefits and advantages but they should also be directing customers on where and how to get the information. Another major disadvantage of a QR code is the codes dependability on a mobile device or smartphone. The whole concept of a QR code and its benefits are strictly based on its ability to be scanned by a mobile device. If a consumer does not have a mobile device or smartphone, then the QR code is not beneficial to them and they lose out. Make your own QR code Several Web sites will convert a standard URL into a Quick Response (QR) code. Once converted, the image can be attached to an e-mail signature, uploaded as a Facebook profile photo, printed out or posted elsewhere online. Some QR-conversion sites can also encode maps, text, phone numbers or RSS feeds. These sites include Kaywa (qrcode.kaywa.com), Qurify (qurify.com/en) and Delivr (delivr.com/qr-code-generator). The Google URL Shortener (goo.gl) will also create a QR code file from a shortened link — just click Details to see the image
  12. 12. QR Codes in the Present (QR codes) have also expanded beyond the automobile industry in recent years due to the high-speed comprehension and ability to store large capacities of information in various forms of data. (QR codes) have become so popular that they can even be read by certain cellular phones with the use of QR reader code applications that can be downloaded on types of “smart phones“. Currently, (QR codes) can be placed on just about object, even t- shirts. With the use of smart phones, all a person has to do is take a picture of the code and instantly information that is linked with the (QR code) will appear on the cellular phone.
  13. 13. Conclusion In the decades since the introduction of QR codes,it has increased rapidly.From the year 1994, many codes have been developed but qr code still remains functional. It is still better than barcodes which are used less than the qr codes and with its pros it tends to get better.But still qr codes are not an efficient way to send information as it can be decoded with any smart phones with qr code app reader and sending malicious data. Consumers are interested in interacting with advertising that bears a QR code – thus, the promise of additional benefits in the form of deals, coupons, videos, sweepstakes, social media interactions, etc. QR codes can help an ad break through the clutter by increasing the chance it will be remembered: great news for advertisers who have already integrated a QR code strategy into a traditional advertising campaign or are looking to insert one in a future campaign.
  14. 14. References 1. h t t p s : / / e n . w i k i p e d i a . o r g / w i k i / Q R _ c o d e 2. Slideshare: https://slideshare.net 3. "QR Droid" Google. 19 August 2011.

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