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pests of groundnut

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various pests of groundnut and their damage and management

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pests of groundnut

  1. 1. WELCOME
  2. 2. Submitted By.: VAKALIYA MUSTUFA M.Sc.(Agri.)Ento. BACA, AAU, Anand Submitted To.: Dr. C.C. PATEL Research Scientist BACA, AAU, Anand PEST OF GROUNDNUT
  3. 3. Major pests 1. Aphids 2. Leaf hopper 3. Thrips 4. Red hairy caterpillar 5. Leaf miner 6. Tobacco caterpillar 7. Gram pod borer 8. Pod borer 9. White grub 10. Termites
  4. 4. Minor pests 1. Bud borer 2. Pod bug
  5. 5. INTRODUTION Oilseeds occupy a prominent place among the principal commercial crops grown in India. The important oilseeds cultivated in India are Brassica sp, groundnut, sunflower, safflower, castor, sesame and linseed. These crops are damaged by number of pests, of which mustard aphid, mustard sawfly and the painted bug are the most serious. The aphid is the most serious pest on brassica oilseeds throughout India.
  6. 6. On groundnut crop, the white grub has recently assumed serious proportions in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. The leaf miner and the red hairy caterpillar are the serious in central and southern India. The groundnut aphid is a menace throughout the groundnut growing areas. Its incidence during different years varies with rainfall. Intermittent rains have a depressing effect on the aphid population.
  7. 7. 1. Aphids Aphis craccivora (Aphididae: Hemiptera)  Distribution and status: India, Africa, Argentina, Chile, U.S.A. Europe and Australia.  Host Plants: Groundnut, beans, safflower, lablab, Niger, peas, pulses and some weeds.
  8. 8. Marks of Identification  They are small-sized insects (2 mm long), pear shaped, green, greenish brown or greenish black in colour.  The nymphs are dark brown and turns to shiny dark adults  Adults are mostly wingless but few winged forms also seen.  It has 12-14 generations per year. 50-100 aphids/plant
  9. 9. Life Cycle  The pest breeds parthenogenetically and They grow very fast and are full-fed in 7-10 days.  A Female Aphid Lives for 9 to 25 Days And Can Produce From 25 to 125 Young during its life.  There may be up to 20 generations in the years. By november winged forms have devloped and eggs are laid before winter sets in.
  10. 10. Damage symptoms  Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from the leaflets and tender shoots mostly up to two months after germination.  It results in wilting of tender shoots during hot weather. Leaves mottled with chlorotic or dark green spots and plant growth becomes stunted.  Sometimes honey dew deposited on the leaves and shoots could be seen which attract the ants.
  11. 11. IPM STRATEGIES Cultural Control  Timely sowing of the crop.  Varieties which are densely hairy and with stiff leaves interfere Pest population. Mechanical Control  Hand picking and destruction of various insect stages and the affected plant parts.
  12. 12. Biological Control  Apply NSKE 5% (neem seed kernel extract) to control sucking pests.  Augment the release of Cheilonenes sexmaculata @ 1250/ha.  Conserve bio agents like flower bugs (anthocorids), lady bird beetles (coccinellids), praying mantis, hover flies (syrphids), green lace wing (chrysopids), long horned grass hoppers and spiders. Chemical Control  Apply safe chemical insecticides at recommended doses only if the insect population crosses the ETL.  Young crop may be applied with monocrotophos 36SL 10 ml in 10 lit. of water or Dimethoate 30 EC @ 10 ml in 10 lit. of water. .
  13. 13. 2. Leaf hopper Empoasca kerri (Cicadellidae: Hemiptera) Host Plants Brinjal, Sesamum, Cotton, Castor, Pulses,Vegetables etc.
  14. 14. Identification And Life History  Elongate, active wedge shaped green insects found on the under surface of leaves.  The eggs are inserted in to the leaf tissue close to the midrib or into the petiole.  The egg hatch in a week and nymphs into adult in 10 days.  The infestation is high during August and September and February and March.
  15. 15. Damage symptoms  Both adults and nymphs suck sap  from young leaves mostly from the lower surface.  The first symptom of attack is a whitening of the veins. Chlorotic (yellow) patches then appear, especially at the tips of leaflets, probably caused by a reaction between the jassids salivary secretion and plant sap Under severe infestation, the leaf tips become necrotic in a typical V shape giving the crop a scorched appearance known as 'hopper burn‘.
  16. 16. IPM STRATEGIES Cultural Control  Timely sowing of the crop and field sanitation.  Grow tolerant varieties And Crop rotation with non-host crop.  Intercropping with pearl millet, Avoid groundnut-castor inter crop, it increases the infestation.  Irrigate once to avoid prolonged mid-season drought to prevent pre-harvest. Mechanical Control  Collect and destroy the affected parts of the plant
  17. 17. Biological Control  Conserve bio agents like praying mantis, long horned grass hoppers, dragon flies ,spiders, green muscardine fungus. Chemical Control  Apply safe chemical insecticides at recommended doses only if the insect population crosses the ETL.  Spray dimethoate 30EC @ 10 ml in 10 lit. of water or monocrotophos 36SL @ 10 ml in 10 liter water.  Imidachloprid 17.8 SL 3 ml in 10 lit. of water
  18. 18. 3. Thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thripidae: Thysanoptera) Host Plants  Chilli, cotton,Castor,Pulses,citrus,onion,garlic,  Pineapple etc.
  19. 19. Identification And Life History  Nymphs and adults dark colored with fringed wings. Female thrips lay 40-50 eggs inside the tissues of leaves and shoot. Egg period 5 days, nymphal period 7-10 days and adult period is 25-30 days. There are several overlapping generations.
  20. 20. Damage symptoms  Nymphs and adults suck sap from the surface of the leaflets.  This results in white patches on the upper and necrotic patches on the lower surface of the leaves.  It consists of distortions of the young leaflets and patchy areas of necrotic tissue that puncture and split as the leaflets grow.  Injury is normally seen in seedlings.
  21. 21. IPM STRATEGIES Cultural Control  Grow tolerant varieties  Sanitation Mechanical Control  Uproot and destroy severely infected plants.
  22. 22. Biological Control  Conserve bio agents like flower bugs (anthocorids), lady bird beetles (coccinellids), praying mantis, green lace wing (chrysopids), long horned grass hoppers, dragon flies and spiders. Chemical Control  Spray Monocrotophos 36SL 10 ml in 10 lit. of water or Dimethoate 30 EC 10 ml in 10 lit. of water or Methyl demeton 25 EC 15 ml in 10 lit. of water.  Spray per acre monocrotophos 320 ml mixed with neem oil 1lit and 1kg soap powder mixed in 200lit of water twice at 10days interval.
  23. 23. 4.Red hairy caterpillar Amsacta albistriga (Arctiidae: Lepidoptera) Distribution and status Oriental in distribution including India. It is a serious pest under rainfed conditions on pulses in Rajasthan and groundnut in southern part of India. Amsacata albistriga is predominant in South India while A. moorie dominates northern parts of the country. Host range  Maize, sorghum, green gram, sesame, pearl millet, finger millet, groundnut, sun hemp, castor, cotton.
  24. 24. Identification And Life History  Adults are medium sized moths. In A. albistriga forewings are white with brownish streaks all over and yellowish streaks along the anterior margin and hind wings white with black markings. A yellow band is found on the head.  In A. markings are red in white wings. On receipt of heavy rains, about a month after sowing in kharif season, white moths with black markings on the hind wings emerge out from the soil in the evening hours.
  25. 25.  It lays about 600-700 eggs on the under surface of the leaves. Egg period is 2-3 days. Tiny greenish caterpillar feeds on the leaves gregariously.  A full grown larva measures 5 cm in length, reddish brown hairs all over the body arising on warts. The larval period is 40-50 days. With the receipt of showers, the grown up larva pupates in earthen cells at a depth of 10-20 cm.  They pupate mostly along the field bunds and in moist shady areas under the trees in the field and undergo pupal diapause till the next year.
  26. 26. Damage symptoms  The larvae feed on the leaves gregariously by scraping the under surface of tender leaflets leaving the upper epidermal layer intact in early stages.  Later they feed voraciously on the leaves and main stem of plants.  They march from field to field gregariously.  Severely affected field looks as though they are grazed by cattle. Sometimes it results in the total loss of pods.  They also feed on sorghum, cotton, finger millet, castor, pulses and cowpea, etc.
  27. 27. IPM SRATEGIES Cultural Control  Deep summer ploughing  After the kharif crop, the field should be ploughed to expose the pupae to predatory birds.  Early sowing is done to escape insect pest damage.  Inter crop one row of castor for every 5 or 6 rows of groundnut.  Crop rotation with sorghum/pearl millet or maize should be followed.  Irrigate once to avoid prolonged mid-season drought to prevent pre-harvest infestation.
  28. 28. Mechanical Control  Install of 1 or 2 light traps/ha or bonfire in endemic areas.  Erection of light traps soon after the monsoon for 20-45 days and collecting and killing of adult moths are found very effective.  Collection and destruction of egg masses in the fields around light trap areas.  Install 10-12 bird perches/ha.
  29. 29. Biological Control  Spray A-NPV (2X 10^5 PIB/I) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).  Release of Bracon hebetor @ 5000/ha. Two times at 7-10 days interval.  Conserve dominant predators like Coccinella sp. and Menochilus sexmaculata and parasitoids like Chelonus spp.  Conserve the bio control population of spiders, long horned grasshoppers, praying mantis, robar fly, ants, green lace wing, damsel flies/dragon flies, flower bugs, shield bugs, lady bird beetles, ground beetle, predatory cricket, earwig, braconids, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscular fungus.  Use 5% neem seed kernel extract on need basis.  Inter cropping with pigeon pea, mung bean and soybean provides increase in population of spiders.  Population of coccinellids is higher on groundnut with maize, mung bean and soybean and Chrysoperla spp. is higher with maize and soybean intercrops.
  30. 30. Chemical Control  Apply safe chemical insecticides at recommended doses only if the insect population crosses the ETL.  Dusting of Methyl parathion 2% @ 25 to 30 kg/ha or Fanvalerate 0.4% @15-20 Kg/ha.  Spray Quinalphos 25 EC @ 15 ml in 10 lit. of water or Nuvan (76%) 4 l/ha to control full grown insect pests.  Organize mass ground spraying in endemic areas if necessary in the case of outbreak of the pest.  For grown up caterpillars - spray profenophos 10-12 ml in 10 lit. of water (or) dichlorvos 7-10 ml in 10 lit. of water (or) chlorpyriphos 20 ml in 10 liters of water.
  31. 31. 5. Leaf miner Aproaeroma modicella (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera) Distribution and status  India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Burma and South Africa. Host range  Groundnut, soybean and red gram.
  32. 32. Identification And Life History  Adult is dark brown with a white spot on the coastal margin of each forewing. The small hind wings are covered by fringe of minute hair.  Adults are found briskly whirling around the plants in field and lay shiny transparent eggs singly on the under surface of leaflets.  A female moth lays 150-200 eggs that hatch in 2-3 days. The larvae are pale brown. Fully grown larva measures 6-8 mm The larval period is 4-17 days.
  33. 33.  They pupate in white silken cocoons within webbed leaflets and the pupae are reddish brown. The pupal period is 5-7 days.  Adult longevity is 5-6 days. Life cycle is completed in 20-25 days. They cause severe damage from September to November to the rainfed crop and during March & April to irrigated crop.
  34. 34. Damage symptoms  It prefers rainfed crop and bunch varieties. Young newly hatched green caterpillar mines into the leaflets and feed on green tissues resulting in brownish dried up patches.  Later instars caterpillars fold the leaves together and feed on the green tissues by remaining inside.  Severely infested crop presents a burnt up appearance. Caterpillars (or) pupae can be seen inside the mines and folded leaflets.  It also attacks red gram and soybean.
  35. 35. IPM STRATEGIES Cultural Control  planting of cowpea or soybean as trap crop.  Crop rotation with non-leguminous crop is advised in case of severe recurring problem.  Crop rotation of groundnut with soybean and other leguminous crops should be avoided.  Use resistant/tolerant varieties. Mechanical Control  Collect and destroy egg masses and early instars larvae.  Install pheromone trap @ 5/ha for mass trapping.
  36. 36. Biological Control  Release Trichogramma Chilonis @ 50000/ha twice (7-10 days interval)  Conserve the natural bio control population of spiders, long horned grasshoppers, praying mantis, robar fly, ants, green lace wing, damsel flies/dragon flies, flower bugs, shield bugs, lady bird beetles, ground beetle, predatory cricket, earwig, braconids, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscular fungus.  Mulching with rice straw causes reduction in leaf miner incidence and increase in percentage parasitism.  Intercropping groundnut with Pennisetum glaucum enhanced the parasitoid Goniozus spp. on leaf miner.  Spray neem based formulation @ 5%.
  37. 37. Chemical Control  Apply safe chemical insecticides at recommended doses only if the insect population crosses the ETL.  Effective control could be achieved if insecticide is applied at 45 and 70 days after planting.  Carbaryl 50WP 0.2 per cent spray was found to be most economical for controlling this pest; or Spray Quinalphos 25 EC 2ml or Methyl-o-demeton 25 EC 1.6ml or Dimethoate 30 EC 2ml /lit of water.
  38. 38. 6.Tobacco caterpillar Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) Distribution and status  India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Pacific Islands, China,Pakistan,Korea and Japan. Host range  Groundnut, citrus, soybean, cotton, tobacco, castor, pulses, millets, safflower, banana, cabbage, tomato, sweet, potato, bhendi, chilies, etc.
  39. 39. Identification And Life History  Adult moth is stout with wavy white markings on the brown forewings and white hind wings with a brown patch along its margin.  Eggs are laid in groups and covered with hairs on the leaves. The egg period is 4-5 days.  Larva is stout, cylindrical, pale brownish with dark markings. The body may have row of dark spots or transverse and longitudinal grey and yellow bands. When fully grown, measures about 35-40 mm in length.  The larval period is 14-21 days.  It pupates in earthen cells in soil for 15 days. Life cycle is completed 30-40 days.  ETL: 1-2 egg masses per meter crop row of 7-12 plants or pheromone trap catches exceed 100 moths per night, averaged over a week.
  40. 40. Damage symptoms  Neonate, green caterpillars feed on the leaves voraciously and present an appearance to the field as if grazed by cattle. Since this pest is nocturnal in habit larvae hide under the plants, cracks and crevices of soil and debris during the day time. Faecal pellets are seen on the leaves and on the ground which is the indicator of the pest incidence.
  41. 41. IPM STRATEGIES Cultural Control  Deep summer ploughing.  Early sowing to escape insect pest damage.  Irrigate once to avoid prolonged mid-season drought  Planting castor or sunflower plants as trap crop for egg laying and destroying eggs or 1st stage larvae help in reducing the incidence.  The sunflower act as bird perches as well. Mechanical Control  Install light trap.  Two hand or mechanical weeding at 15-20 days after sowing.  Use pheromone traps (5/ha) to monitor moth population.  Install 10-12 bird perches per ha.  Collection of egg masses/early instars larvae from trap crops.
  42. 42. Biological Control  Conserve the natural bio control population of spiders, long horned grasshoppers, praying mantis, robar fly, ants, greenlace wing, damsel flies/dragon flies, flower bugs, shield bugs, lady bird beetles, ground beetle, predatory cricket, earwig, braconids, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscular fungus.  Release of Telenomus remus @ 50000/ha. 4 times (7-10 days interval) based on pheromone trap catching.  Use SNPV @ 250 LE (6X 10^9/LE)/ha or B.t. @1 kg/ha, when large number of egg masses and early instars larvae are noticed.  Release Trichogramma chilonis @ 50000/ha. 2 times (7-10 days interval) based on pheromone trap observation.  Release of Bracon hebetor @ 5000/ha. Two times at 7-10 days interval.  Spray insect pathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi @10^13 spores/ha for controlling early instars.  Release larval parasitoid Apanteles africanus @ 5000/ha.  Use 5% neem seed kernel extract on need basis.
  43. 43. Chemical Control  Apply insecticides only if the insect population crosses the ETL.  Apply Methyl parathion 2% dust @ 20 kg/ha or spraying of monocrotophos 36 SL or Quinalphos 25 EC @ 15 ml or Profenophos 50 EC @12-15 ml or Trizophos40EC@15ml in10 lit of water.  Poison bait with monocrotophos 36 SL or Carbaryl, rice bran, jiggery and water can be used to control the grown up larvae.
  44. 44. 7.Gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) Distribution and status: World wide Host range Cotton, sorghum, lablab, soybean, pea, safflower, chilies, groundnut, tobacco, okra, maize, tomato.
  45. 45. Identification And Life History  Adult is brown colored moth with ‘V’ shaped speck on forewings and dull black border on the hind wing.  Eggs are laid singly on host plant. The egg period is 5-7 days. Larva is greenish with dark brown to grey lines. Color varies with kind of host plant.  The larval period is 14-20 days. It pupates in soil and pupal stage lasts for 10 days. Cannibalism is common among larvae.
  46. 46. Damage symptoms  Small or large irregular feeding holes on the leaves. Presence of pale green or rose or brown or chocolate colored caterpillars with dorsal and lateral Stripes and hairs on the body. • Caterpillars also damage the fruiting bodies by entering into them.
  47. 47. IPM STRATEGIES Cultural Control  Deep summer ploughing  Intercrop one row of red gram for every 5 or 6 rows Mechanical Control  Install light trap.  Use pheromone traps (5/ha) to monitor moth population.  Install 10-12 bird perches per ha.  Collection of egg masses/early instars larvae from trap crops.
  48. 48. Biological Control  Use Trichogramma chilonis @ 1 lakh/ha or Chrysoperla carnea @ 50000/ha at 40 and 50 days after sowing of groundnut can effectively check the pest.  Apply H-NPV @ 250 LE/ha or B.t (Bacillus thuringiensis) 1 kg/ha or 5% NSKE for monitoring eggs and early instars larvae.  Conserve the natural bio control population of spiders, long horned grasshoppers, praying mantis, robar fly, ants, green lace wing, damsel flies/dragon flies, flower bugs, shield bugs, lady bird beetles, ground beetle, predatory cricket, earwig, braconids, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscular fungus.
  49. 49. Chemical Control  Apply safe chemical insecticides at recommended doses only if the insect population crosses the ETL.  Quinalphos 2ml or Chlorpyriphos 3 ml /lit of water  Rynoxypyr 20EC 3 ml in 10 lit. of water
  50. 50. 8.Pod borer (Ear wig) Anisolabis stalli (Forficulidae: Dermaptera) Damage symptoms  Young pods showing bore holes plugged with excreta, sand particles or discolored pulp. Bored pods are devoid of kernels.
  51. 51. Identification And Life History  Adult is dark brown to black with forceps like caudal cerci and white leg joints. It lays eggs in clusters of 20-100 in soil and sometimes inside damaged pods and hatch in about a week.  The five nymphal instars resemble the adults which can live as long as 250 days. Their unique forked abdominal tip can easily be recognized as letter ‘Y”.
  52. 52. Management  Apply Malathion 5D or Quinalphos 4D or Carbaryl 10 D at 25 kg/ha prior to sowing in areas where the ear wig is endemic.  Repeat the soil application of any one of the above dust formulation on 40th day of sowing and incorporate in the soil during earthling up.
  53. 53. 9.White grub: Holotrichia consanguinea (Melalonthidae: Coleoptera) Distribution: Throught The World Host Plants cotton ,bajra ,sorghum, potato,pulses,etc.
  54. 54. Identification And Life History  The dark brown adult beetles renter the soil to hide and lay eggs.  Female lays 20 - 80 white, roundish eggs in clusters. Egg period 9 - 11 days.  Grubs are white and translucent. Pupates in soil and remain as pupae until the following year. The adult beetles emerge with the first monsoon showers.
  55. 55. Damage symptoms  Growth of plant is retarded, Plants wilt or die.  Roots partially or fully eaten off by white and fleshy grubs.  The grubs feed on plants roots causing yellowing ,some plants wilt or die ,such plants can easily pulled out.  In case of attack by adult beetles ,the affected plants are defoliated.
  56. 56. IPM STRATEGIES Cultural Control  Deep ploughing in summer.  Always use well decomposed organic manure it attracts the adult beetles.  Partial or complete lopping of host plants and retaining of a few most preferred host trees in the area for congregation of white grub adults.  Crop rotation with sorghum/pearl millet or maize.  Early sowing to avoid damage due to insect pest.  Collection and destruction of white grub adults from host trees around the field.
  57. 57. Biological Control  Conserve braconids, dragon flies, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscardine fungus. Chemical Control  Apply safe chemical insecticides at recommended doses only if the insect population crosses the ETL.  Spray should be undertaken as a community approach and should be repeated after every rainfall till the middle of July.  Spraying the trees close to the field with Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2 ml/lit of water soon after first monsoon showers for 3-4 days in the late evening hours kills the adult beetles and reduces root grub infestation.  Seed treatment with chlorpyriphos 20 EC (6.5 to 12.5 ml/kg seed) is found effective.  In case of severe infestation apply 10% phorate @ 10 kg/ha.
  58. 58. 10. Termites Odontotermes sp. (Termitidae: Isoptera) Host Plants  Polyphagous pest Distribution: Tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world Marks of identification:  These are social insects, live in termataria, in distinct castes, workers, solder, king and queen.  Workers' are small (4 mm) and have a soft, white body and a brown head.
  59. 59. Life History:  The queen produces thousands of eggs over the lifetime.  After mating, the new queen starts laying eggs in about a week.  Eggs are laid in a crevice by digging a hole in the soil or by excavating a tunnel in wood.  Once the nuptial chamber is constructed the king and queen will mate.  Initially, the queen lays only a few eggs which are looked after by her and the king.  The eggs are normally laid singly.  Incubation takes from 24 to 90 days.  There are normally seven nymphal instars (stages) in established colonies but the number varies depending on temperature, age of colony, size of colony and relative humidity. The nymphs may grow into soldiers or workers.
  60. 60. Nature of damage:  The termite is endemic in red and sandy soils.  All termites eat cellulose (e.g. from dead plant fibre) and many termites cultivate a fungus within the nest, which is a source of food (especially proteins) for the queen, king and the young.  Wilting of plants in patches  Termites penetrate and hollow out the tap root and stem thus kill the plant.  Bore holes into pods and damage the seed.  It removes the soft corky tissue between the veins of pods causing scarification, weaken the shells, make them liable to entry and growth of Aspergillus flavus that produces aflatoxins.
  61. 61. IPM STRATEGIES Cultural Control  Digging the termitaria and destruction of the queen is most important in termite management.  Use well rotten organic manure.  Harvest the groundnuts as soon as they are matured, early removal of the produce from the field will reduce the chances of termite damage to pods.  Clean cultivation  Irrigate the crop frequently  Thorough ploughing and frequent interculturing.
  62. 62. Mechanical Control  Avoid physical loss of the crop during harvesting.  Destruction of debris, termite nests and queen Chemical Control  Apply safe chemical insecticides at recommended doses only if the insect population crosses the ETL.  Apply chlorpyriphos 20 EC or Lindane 1.3% to control termites.  Or apply dust of chlorpyriphos @ 30-40 kg/ha in soil before sowing.  Seed dressing with insecticides such as 6.5ml of chlorpyriphos /kg of seed may reduce termite damage.
  63. 63. 11. Bud borer Anarsia ephippias (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera) Identification And Life History  The adult moth is buff colored, active and hovers around plant canopy during sun rise.  The larva is chocolate brown to dark brown and 10-15 mm long.
  64. 64. Damage symptoms  The larva bores into the terminal buds and shoots. The tender leaflets emerging from central spindle shows shot-hole symptoms initially.  In severe infestation emerging leaflets have only the midribs or several oblong feeding holes.  The larva also bores into the apex of the stem.  The infestation causes 20-35% shoot damages and yield reduction up to the 5%.
  65. 65. Management  Conserve the hymenopteran parasitoids Bracon sp., and Brachymeria sp. in the groundnut ecosystem to control the pest.  Spray neem oil 3% or leaf extract 5%  Spray Profenophos 50 EC@ 15 ml or indoxacarb 12-15 ml or spinosad 45 SC@3 ml per 10 lit. of water.
  66. 66. 12. Pod bug Elasmolomus sordidus (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera) Identification And Life History  The adult is dark brown, approximately 10 mm long and 2 mm wide. In the field, the females lay their eggs singly in the soil or on groundnut haulms.  But in storage eggs are laid loosely among the groundnuts. A female bug may lay up to 105 eggs. The egg period is 4-5 days.  The first instar nymphs have a bright red abdomen, later instar become progressively darker.  Both nymphs and adults feed on kernels by piercing the pods with their rostrum.  The nymphal period is 23-29 days. Since it is nocturnal in habit, it hides under weeds, cracks and crevices in soil and debris during day time.
  67. 67. Damage symptoms  It is a serious pest at pod maturity stage, pod harvesting stage and harvested produce in the threshing floor.  Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from the pod in the field and produce at threshing floor.  Freshly harvested pods have shriveled kernels.
  68. 68. Management  Set up light traps to attract and kill the bugs.  Keep the crop refuse in the field along irrigation channel to attract the bugs which can be killed by dusting.  Dust the groundnut stored in the gunny bugs with Malathion 4D.
  69. 69. THANK YOU

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