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Dr. O.P. Chaudhary
( Prof. of entomology)
VAIBHAV (K2012A53BIV)
*Losses of stored food grain by diff. agencies in
India is 9.33%.
*In other developing countries losses may extent up
to 3...
A) Preventive measures:
B) Curative measures:
A) Preventive measures:
1. Hygiene and sanitation:
*Many factors responsible...
There are diff. sanitation measures which can be
adopted:
a) Threshing floor should be clean, free from insect
infestation...
2. Proper stacking:
*Stack bags properly on dunnage (wood/plastic) 0.5
metre away from wall and floor in the lines keeping...
3. Disinfestation of storage containers, structures
and stores:
*Clean and disinfest empty used gunny bags by
dipping in b...
*There are diff. curative measures :-
1. Ecological
2. Mechanical
3. Physical
4. Cultural
5. Botanicals
6. Chemical
7. Bio...
1. Ecological measures:
Safety of stored grain from pest depends upon:-
a) Storage temp.
b) Grain moisture content
c) Avai...
b) Grain moisture content:
* 10% moisture content escapes grains from insects.
* 12-16% moisture content increase seed det...
2. Mechanical measures:
These are diff. practicable mechanical measures:-
a) Screening:
* Screening or sieving out reduces...
b) Grain protection devices:
* TNAU Insect Probe Trap
* TNAU Pitfall Trap
* Indicator Devices
* UV Light Trap for Grain St...
b) Controlled atmosphere:
*CA can be achieved by-
*Adding gaseous or solid CO2 (9-10%)
*Adding N2 gas
*Removing O2 gas(2-4...
d) Solar energy:-
Since Ancient time in India
* 1st practised in Australia by exposing grains for at least 3 times
at temp...
4. Cultural control measures:-
a) Splitting of pulses:
Store pulses after splitting because some insects like pulse
beetle...
5. Botanical control measures:-
*Plants having toxicity against insect pests- Neem, Karanj,
Undi, Castor, Lemon grass, mus...
6. Chemical control measures:-
*Most popular and most effective.
*Malathion 50 EC spray over bags in ratio 1:100 @ 3 l/100...
7. Biological control measures: (Parasites)
Anisopteromalus calandrae
Pteromalus cerealellae
Trichogramma cacoeciae
Acarop...
Parasites Attacking stage Insect pest
Anisopteromalus
calandrae
Larva R. dominica,
Callosobrunchus spp., S.
oryzae.
Antroc...
8. Engineering control measures:
*Air-tight storage- food grains kept in air tight sealed
structure remains insect free be...
Preventive and curative
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Preventive and curative

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Preventive and curative CONTROM OF STORAGE PESTS

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Preventive and curative

  1. 1. Dr. O.P. Chaudhary ( Prof. of entomology) VAIBHAV (K2012A53BIV)
  2. 2. *Losses of stored food grain by diff. agencies in India is 9.33%. *In other developing countries losses may extent up to 30 to 50%. *The agencies that responsible for losses are:- 1) Rodents 2) Insects 3) Mites 4) Micro organisms 5) Moisture etc.
  3. 3. A) Preventive measures: B) Curative measures: A) Preventive measures: 1. Hygiene and sanitation: *Many factors responsible for food grain losses in storage can be minimised by maintaining hygiene and sanitation. *Before storing ensure that food grain must be dry(8-10 %) , clean , cool , wholesome , free from obnoxious odour. *Storage structure should neat and clean and air tight.
  4. 4. There are diff. sanitation measures which can be adopted: a) Threshing floor should be clean, free from insect infestation, away from vicinity of village. b) Harvesting machines, threshing machines and means of transport should be cleaned before use. c) Cleaning of storage structures, receptacles and godowns by:- *Removing dirt, rubbish, webbing etc. *Closing of cracks, crevics, holes, walls etc. *Closing of rat burrow with broken glass pieces and mud. *White washing the storage structure. d) Bags used for storage should be treated with insecticide or
  5. 5. 2. Proper stacking: *Stack bags properly on dunnage (wood/plastic) 0.5 metre away from wall and floor in the lines keeping 0.5 metre between two lines and 0.2 metre open space towards the roof. *Don’t stack more than 10 bags vertically.
  6. 6. 3. Disinfestation of storage containers, structures and stores: *Clean and disinfest empty used gunny bags by dipping in boiled water and drying under sun. *Treat gunny bags by dipping in cypermethrin 0.01% or fenvalerate 0.01% or malathion 0.1% for 10 minutes and dry. *Treat walls and surfaces by malathion(50 EC) or fenitrothion(50EC) using any of insecticide in one litre of water . *Fumigate with aluminium phosphide @ 21-30 gram.
  7. 7. *There are diff. curative measures :- 1. Ecological 2. Mechanical 3. Physical 4. Cultural 5. Botanicals 6. Chemical 7. Biological 8. Engineering 9. Other methods
  8. 8. 1. Ecological measures: Safety of stored grain from pest depends upon:- a) Storage temp. b) Grain moisture content c) Available of oxygen a) Storage temperature:- * Temp.range 25-35°C increase insects development. * Temp. above 40°C and blow 15°C retards reproduction and development of insects. * Temp. above 45°c and below 10°c kills the insects.
  9. 9. b) Grain moisture content: * 10% moisture content escapes grains from insects. * 12-16% moisture content increase seed deterioration. c) Availability of oxygen: * Reduction in oxygen level stops multiplication of insects. * Oxygen can be reduced by adding CO2 and N2.
  10. 10. 2. Mechanical measures: These are diff. practicable mechanical measures:- a) Screening: * Screening or sieving out reduces insects attack by removing broken and cracked grains. * Screenings should be destroyed immediately. * Bags used for carrying screenings should not used again unless disinfested.
  11. 11. b) Grain protection devices: * TNAU Insect Probe Trap * TNAU Pitfall Trap * Indicator Devices * UV Light Trap for Grain Storage Godown. 3. Physical control measures: a) Heat treatment: Most of insects die at 55-60 C within 10-20 minutes. It can be achieved by infra red heaters.
  12. 12. b) Controlled atmosphere: *CA can be achieved by- *Adding gaseous or solid CO2 (9-10%) *Adding N2 gas *Removing O2 gas(2-4%) *Allowing metabolic processes which remove O2 or add CO2. c) Mixing of inert dust: Some inert dusts desiccate cuticle of insects. Efficacy depends upon:- *Particle size- finer particles, higher insecticidal efficacy. *Particle shape and form- hard crystalline and angular substance are effective. *Humidity- efficacy of dust decreases at 70% or more RH.
  13. 13. d) Solar energy:- Since Ancient time in India * 1st practised in Australia by exposing grains for at least 3 times at temp.60-66° C in 1922. * Mookherjee et al.(1968) observed elimination of C. maculatus in moong, pea and gram by solar heat at temp.45-55° C. *Dortbudak (1975) reported exposing container of lentil and black gram infested with C. chinensis to sunshine for 4 hours(9:00- 13:00) inhibit the rate of pest multiplication and reduce grain loss. *Heating at 45° C completely prevents the hatching of one day old larvae in Rhizopertha dominica.
  14. 14. 4. Cultural control measures:- a) Splitting of pulses: Store pulses after splitting because some insects like pulse beetle C. chinensis prefer whole grains not broken. b) Parboiling of paddy: Parboiled rice is least susceptible to insect attack as compared to raw rice because of hard glutenized outer layer.
  15. 15. 5. Botanical control measures:- *Plants having toxicity against insect pests- Neem, Karanj, Undi, Castor, Lemon grass, mustard, coconut, sesame, groundnut, Aak, Datura etc. *Jacob and Sheila(1990)- Neem oil @ 1ml/100 g seeds caused 100% mortality of adult beetles of C. chinensis. *Castor oil @ 1ml/100 g in seeds of cowpea inhibits the oviposition(26.6 eggs/female) as against 79.4 eggs/female in untreated seeds. *Castor oil @ 1ml/100 g seeds decrease egg viability.
  16. 16. 6. Chemical control measures:- *Most popular and most effective. *Malathion 50 EC spray over bags in ratio 1:100 @ 3 l/100 m². *Deltamethrin 2.5 WP @ 3 mg a.i./m². *Fumigation with ethylene dichloride and carban tetrachloride @ 1 l for 20 quintals of grains or 30 l/ 100 m³ of space with exposure period of 4 days. *Aluminium phosphide @ one tablet(3 g) per metric tonnes or 25 tablets/100m³ of space with exposure period of 7 days.
  17. 17. 7. Biological control measures: (Parasites) Anisopteromalus calandrae Pteromalus cerealellae Trichogramma cacoeciae Acarophenax sp. ( Predator)
  18. 18. Parasites Attacking stage Insect pest Anisopteromalus calandrae Larva R. dominica, Callosobrunchus spp., S. oryzae. Antrocephalus mahensis Larva Corcyra cephalonica Pteromalus cerealellae Larva Sitotroga cerealella Trichogramma cacoeciae Eggs S. cerealella, C. cephalonica Predators Attacking stage Insect pest Acarophenax sp. Eggs Dermestes sp. Cheyletus sp. Egg & young larva R. dominica Pyemotes ventricosus Eggs Trogoderma granarium, Tribolium castaneum
  19. 19. 8. Engineering control measures: *Air-tight storage- food grains kept in air tight sealed structure remains insect free because grains and insects respires and release CO2. *Hermetic storage-underground storage of paddy in Eastern India.

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